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Feline spine

Irene Espadas, Thomas W Maddox, Felipe de Vicente
Objectives The objective of this study was to define safe corridors for the optimal placement of bicortical implants in the feline cervical spine (C2-T1) using CT. Methods CT images of feline cervical spines (n = 16) were reviewed retrospectively. Multiplanar reconstructions were used to define the optimal safe corridors. Safe corridors were defined by their angle of insertion, width and length. The insertion point within the vertebral body was also described. Vertebral measurements were compared between vertebrae using multilevel linear regression, and left and right measurements within vertebrae were compared with the paired samples Wilcoxon signed-rank test...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery
Mark E Peterson
CASE SUMMARY: Primary goitrous hypothyroidism was diagnosed in a 12-month-old cat examined because of small stature, mental dullness, severe lethargy, generalized weakness and gait abnormalities. Radiographs of the long bones and spine revealed delayed epiphyseal ossification and epiphyseal dysgenesis. Diagnosis of primary hypothyroidism was confirmed by low serum concentrations of total and free thyroxine (T4) with high thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) concentrations. Thyroid scintigraphy revealed severe enlargement of both thyroid lobes, as evidenced by a seven-fold increase in calculated thyroid volume above the reference interval...
July 2015: JFMS Open Reports
T Pitakarnnop, K Buddhachat, T Euppayo, W Kriangwanich, K Nganvongpanit
This study demonstrates sexual dimorphism of feline bones, based on a morphometric analysis of 38 dried feline skulls and pelvic bones (20 males, 18 females). A total of 44 parameters (skull = 12, mandible = 10, pelvis = 22) were measured using a digital vernier calliper. In morphological observation of these bones, there were three hallmarks indicating a remarkable difference between sexes: the coronoid process of the mandible (accuracy rate = 88.2%); and the os coxae - caudal ventral iliac spine (accuracy rate = 94...
June 2017: Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia
P Przyborowska, Z Adamiak, P Holak, Y Zhalniarovich
The intention of the comparison of both low and high field was to examine which anatomical brain structures of cats were visible on low field images, as in clinical veterinary practice, 3 Tesla (T) magnets were of limited availability. The research was performed on 20 European short-haired male and female cats, aged 1-3 years, with body weight of 2-4 kg. 0.25 T magnetic resonance images of neurocranium were acquired in all using T2-weighted fast spin echo sequences with repetition time (TR) of 4010 ms and echo time (TE) of 90 ms in dorsal and transverse plane, and T2-weighted fast spine echo sequences with TR of 4290 ms and TE of 120 ms in sagittal plane...
April 2017: Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia
Maurizio Longo, Silvia Clotilde Modina, Andrea Bellotti, Mauro Di Giancamillo
BACKGROUND: New clinical oriented approaches are supported by the integration of advanced imaging techniques, e.g. computed tomography and magnetic resonance, with gross anatomy imaging. The interscapular region of the cat is a typical site of a highly invasive infiltrative pathology, i.e. Feline Injection-Site Sarcoma. Even if chemotherapy and radiotherapy have been considered as pre-surgical therapies, extensive surgery is still the recommended treatment. Evidence suggested that the relationships between muscles, infiltrative mass and adjacent musculoskeletal structures could change according to the forelimb positions: a fact to be duly considered while planning the surgical approach...
2015: BMC Veterinary Research
Drazen Vnuk, Hrvoje Capak, Valentina Gusak, Drazen Maticic, Maja Popovic, Nika Brkljaca Bottegaro
OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to compare the prevalence of different types of injuries caused by various types of projectiles among urban, suburban and rural cats of different ages in order to predict the type of injury sustained. METHODS: For the period 1 January 2012 to 30 April 2014, the medical records of cats with metal projectile injuries (PIs) were searched from the archive of the university's small animal diagnostic imaging centre. Age, sex, owner address, admission during a weekend or on a working day, month of admission, projectile position (head and neck; thoracic region; abdominal region, including lumbosacral spine; forelimbs; and hindlimbs, including tail), number of projectiles, presence of a wound and fracture related to the projectile, and the type of projectile were recorded for each cat...
August 2016: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery
K Bossens, S Bhatti, I Van Soens, I Gielen, L Van Ham
A nine-year-old intact female domestic shorthair cat was evaluated for paraparesis, ataxia and severe spinal hyperaesthesia. Neurological examination indicated a T3-L3 spinal cord segment lesion. Computed tomography of the thoracolumbar and lumbosacral vertebral column was performed. This showed contiguous smooth new bone formation ventral and lateral to the vertebrae extending from the cranial thoracic area to the lumbosacral junction and appearing similar to canine diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis...
January 2016: Journal of Small Animal Practice
Laura J Hammond, Silke Hecht
The T2*-weighted gradient recalled echo sequence is a sensitive means to detect blood degradation products. While not a routine sequence in magnetic resonance imaging of the spine in small animals, it can provide additional valuable information in select cases. The goal of this retrospective, cross-sectional study was to describe findings when acquiring this sequence during magnetic resonance imaging examination of the spine in small animals. The University of Tennessee's veterinary radiology database was searched for dogs and cats that underwent magnetic resonance imaging for suspect spinal disease in which a T2*-weighted gradient recalled echo sequence was acquired and susceptibility artifact was identified...
July 2015: Veterinary Radiology & Ultrasound
Tiffany L Edgecombe, Greg N Kawchuk, Cynthia R Long, Joel G Pickar
BACKGROUND CONTEXT: Like other factors that can influence treatment efficacy (eg, dosage, frequency, time of day), the site of treatment application is known to affect various physical interventions such as topical anesthetics and cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Like these examples, spinal manipulative therapy (SMT) is a physical intervention that may exhibit maximal benefit when directed to a specific site. Whereas numerous studies of SMT efficacy have produced mixed results, few studies have taken into account the site of SMT application...
June 1, 2015: Spine Journal: Official Journal of the North American Spine Society
F Crop, T Lacornerie, H Szymczak, A Felin, C Bailleux, X Mirabel, E Lartigau
The purpose of this study is to obtain a better operational knowledge of Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy (SBRT) treatments with CyberKnife(r). An analysis of both In-room Times (IRT) and technical interventions of 5 years of treatments was performed, during which more than 1600 patients were treated for various indications, including liver (21%), lung (29%), intracranial (13%), head and neck (11%) and prostate (7%). Technical interventions were recorded along with the time of the failure, time to the intervention, and the complexity and duration of the repair...
February 2014: Technology in Cancer Research & Treatment
Massimo Vignoli, Rossella Terragni, Federica Rossi, Lukas Frühauf, Barbara Bacci, Lorenzo Ressel, Ombretta Capitani, Laura Marconato
Muscular metastatic neoplasia has been reported to be rare in domestic animals, however previous studies were based primarily on necropsy findings. The purpose of this retrospective study was to describe whole body computed tomography (CT) characteristics of confirmed muscular metastases in a cohort of dogs and cats presented for oncology evaluation. Medical records of 1201 oncology patients were reviewed. Included animals underwent pre and postcontrast whole body CT, and CT-guided tru-cut biopsy or fine needle aspiration of one or more metastatic lesions...
May 2013: Veterinary Radiology & Ultrasound
Michèle Vaillant, Tiffany Edgecombe, Cynthia R Long, Joel G Pickar, Gregory N Kawchuk
The aim of this study was to determine the effect of spinal manipulative therapy (SMT) force magnitude and force duration on the spinal stiffness of a feline preparation. A mechanical device performed simulated SMTs at the L6 spinous process in 22 anesthetised felines. Animals were divided into four groups. Two groups (no preload, preload) received SMT having maximal displacements of 1.0 mm, 2.0 mm and 3.0 mm of total displacement (displacement control). In two other groups (preload, no preload), SMTs were applied with maximal loads of 25%, 55% and 85% body weight (force control)...
December 2012: Manual Therapy
Moshe Solomonow, Bing He Zhou, Yun Lu, Karen B King
PURPOSE: Repetitive Lumbar Injury (RLI) is common in individuals engaged in long term performance of repetitive occupational/sports activities with the spine. The triggering source of the disorder, tissues involved in the failure and biomechanical, neuromuscular, and biological processes active in the initiation and development of the disorder, are not known. The purpose is, therefore, to test, using in-vivo feline model and healthy human subjects, the hypothesis that RLI due to prolonged exposure to repetitive lumbar flexion-extension is triggered by an acute inflammation in the viscoelastic tissues and is characterized by lingering residual creep, pronounced changes in neuromuscular control and transient changes in lumbar stability...
April 2012: Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies
H C Kranenburg, B P Meij, E M L van Hofwegen, G Voorhout, L I Slingerland, P Picavet, H A W Hazewinkel
OBJECTIVES: The primary objective was to determine the prevalence, spinal distribution, and association with the signalment of cats suffering from different grades of feline spondylosis deformans (spondylosis). The secondary objective was to document behavioural changes associated with spondylosis by owner observation. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was performed to determine the prevalence of feline spondylosis (group 1). A prospective study was performed to determine the association between radiographic abnormalities of the lumbosacral region (L3-S1) and owner perceived behavioural changes based on a completed questionnaire (group 2)...
2012: Veterinary and Comparative Orthopaedics and Traumatology: V.C.O.T
Paul Mahoney
PRACTICAL RELEVANCE: Despite the increasing availability of ultrasonography, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), radiography remains the primary imaging modality for the assessment of feline musculoskeletal disease in practice. In many respects, having a more feline-focused approach to radiography will reward the clinician with better quality images and, hence, a greater likelihood of a correct diagnosis. CLINICAL CHALLENGES: Correct interpretation of radiographic films requires familiarity with some of the unique aspects of normal feline skeletal anatomy...
January 2012: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery
M Solomonow
Cumulative lumbar disorder is common in individuals engaged in long term performance of repetitive and static occupational/sports activities with the spine. The triggering source and of the disorder, the tissues involved in the failure and the biomechanical, neuromuscular, and biological processes active in the initiation and development of the disorder are not known. The hypothesis is forwarded that static and repetitive (cyclic) lumbar flexion-extension and the associated repeated stretch of the various viscoelastic tissues (ligaments, fascia, facet capsule, discs, etc...
April 2012: Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology
Rodrigo Gutierrez-Quintana, Samantha Lindley, Martin Sullivan, Jacques Penderis, Annette Wessmann
Spinal pain is an important clinical presentation in feline patients, but the underlying causes can often be difficult to elucidate. Dorsal spinous process impingement syndrome ('kissing spine' or in human patients 'Baastrup syndrome') is a significant cause of spinal pain in equine and human patients and radiographically is characterised by a close approximation of adjacent spinous processes with reactive bone sclerosis affecting these spinous processes. In this report we describe the first reported case of dorsal spinous process impingement syndrome in a cat causing spinal pain, and successful surgical management of the syndrome...
August 2011: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery
Robin Fisher, Marea Boylan
This investigation was designed to survey and characterize the development of a key link between chemically mediated neurotransmission and neuronal cytoarchitecture in mammalian basal ganglia. Peroxidase immunohistochemical and Golgi impregnation/gold toning methods were combined to doubly label the tachykinin neuromodulator signature and somatodendritic structure of neostriatal neurons in late fetal, postnatal and adult cats. The results supported 3 conclusions of considerable significance. (1) Colocalization of immunohistochemical and Golgi impregnation/gold toning labels is a feasible, rational and productive means to identify and determine the somatodendritic morphogenesis of tachykinin neurons...
2011: Developmental Neuroscience
Moshe Solomonow
Spine stability of the behaving human in health or disorder is a complex, multi-factorial and time variable index. The major components of stability are the properties of the external load, passive viscoelastic tissues (ligaments, discs, facet capsules and dorso-lumbar fascia) combined with the properties of the active tissues (muscles and their sensory-motor control, co-activation and associated intra-abdominal pressure) as well as the pro-inflammatory status of the tissues. Each of the many components' contribution is time variable with dependence on the dose-duration of the work stimulus and the associated rest...
March 2011: Clinical Biomechanics
Vijay K Goel, Scott C Molitor
COMMENTARY ON: Pinski SE, King KB, Davidson BS, et al. High-frequency loading of lumbar ligaments increases proinflammatory cytokines expression in a feline model of repetitive musculoskeletal disorder. Spine J 2010:10:1078-85 (in this issue).
December 2010: Spine Journal: Official Journal of the North American Spine Society
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