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Megan E Feeney, Molly Thompson, Anthony T Gerlach, Amy Rushing, David C Evans, Daniel S Eiferman, Claire V Murphy
BACKGROUND: Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI) accounts for as many as 25% of episodes of antibiotic-associated diarrhea and is the most common cause of healthcare-associated diarrhea. Rectal vancomycin irrigation is a therapy option; however, evidence is limited for its value post-colectomy. The objective of this study was to describe outcomes of patients who underwent total colectomy for fulminant C. difficile colitis and received rectal vancomycin post-operatively. METHODS: This was a single-center retrospective chart review of adult patients who underwent total colectomy for fulminant CDI...
March 22, 2019: Surgical Infections
Lan Mo, Zhen Zeng, Yun Li, Dan Li, Chang-Yu Yan, Sui Xiao, Ya-Hui Huang
Chinese dark teas (CDTs) are a special type of tea traditionally consumed by ethnic minorities around the border regions of China. Dark tea produced by the Yao population of Guangxi could help prevent diarrhea following the heavy consumption of food. However, the underlying mechanisms behind this effect are not clear. This study aimed to investigate the function and underlying mechanisms of dark tea by examining the effects of different doses of dark tea on diarrhea in mice caused by Folium Sennae. It was found that dark tea could significantly improve the rate of loose stools and diarrhea index, and had an inhibitory effect on intestine peristalsis in high- and moderate-dose groups...
March 22, 2019: Food & Function
Giacomo De Benedetti, Agostino S Vaiano
Purpose: To compare the efficacy and safety profile of oral azithromycin with that of doxycycline over 9 months in patients experiencing failure with conservative and topical treatment for Meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD), to assess recurrence of MGD, and to determine the number of treatments required. Methods: This is a randomized controlled trial with a cross-over design at a tertiary care center. In all, 115 consecutive patients underwent a complete ophthalmological examination before being randomly assigned to oral treatment with doxycline (4 g for 30 days) or azithromycin (1...
April 2019: Indian Journal of Ophthalmology
Vanessa Adriana Scheeffer, Claudia Pires Ricachinevsky, Alessandra Thaís Freitas, Francis Salamon, Flavia Feijó Nunes Rodrigues, Tamires Goldani Brondani, Andrea Tomasi Sutil, Cristina Helena Targa Ferreira, Ursula da Silveira Matte, Themis Reverbel da Silveira
BACKGROUND: Undernutrition is a common problem among children with congenital heart disease (CHD) and may lead to poorer surgical outcomes. A higher intake of energy during the postoperative period of CHD surgery seems to be associated with better outcomes. This study aimed to investigate the effect of the use of energy-enriched formula (EE-formula) compared with normocaloric formula during 30 days after CHD surgery. METHODS: A randomized controlled trial with patients undergoing heart surgery in a tertiary hospital in southern Brazil from March 2017 to December 2017 was performed...
March 22, 2019: JPEN. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
Roel Lemmens, Thierry Devreker, Bruno Hauser, Elisabeth Degreef, Annieta Goossens, Yvan Vandenplas
A clinical suspicion of intestinal spirochetosis is required when patients have long lasting complaints of abdominal pain, diarrhea, rectal bleeding, weight loss, and nausea. An endoscopy with biopsies needs to be performed to confirm the diagnosis of intestinal spirochetosis. The diagnosis of intestinal spirochetosis is based on histological appearance. Intestinal spirochetosis can also be associated with other intestinal infections and juvenile polyps (JPs). JPs seem to be more frequent in patients with intestinal spirochetosis than in patients without intestinal spirochetosis...
March 2019: Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology & Nutrition
Shokoufeh Ahmadipour, Azam Mohsenzadeh, Hosein Alimadadi, Mehdi Salehnia, Arash Fallahi
Purpose: The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of probiotics and zinc supplements on the mean duration and frequency of acute diarrhea in children aged 6 months to 2 years. Methods: In this clinical trial of infants aged between 6 months and 2 years, eligible patients were divided into 3 groups: Zinc Receiving Group (ZRG), Probiotic Receiving Group (PRG), and a control group receiving supportive care alone. The frequency of diarrhea was evaluated in the test groups during the first 24 hours and 48-72 hours, along with the duration of hospitalization and diarrhea persistence for 3-7 days...
March 2019: Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology & Nutrition
Mohammad Alomari, Hunter Bratton, Ahmad Musmar, Laith A Al Momani, Mark Young
The P2Y12 inhibitor, ticagrelor, has been shown to prevent thrombotic events and hence, improve morbidity and mortality in patients with acute coronary syndrome following coronary artery stent placement. Despite many clinical benefits, ticagrelor has been associated with several adverse effects, including dyspnea, easy bruising, and gastrointestinal bleeding. We report the case of a 67-year-old patient with an acute coronary artery syndrome requiring percutaneous coronary artery intervention with stenting who developed ticagrelor-induced diarrhea...
January 12, 2019: Curēus
Mojgan Faraji-Goodarzi
Appendicitis is a worm-like appendage whose base is located on the posterior side of the inner cecum. Acute appendicitis is uncommon in children younger than 5 years old. The patient was a 1.5-year-old boy who was admitted to the hospital with a primary complaint of fever, diarrhea, and vomiting. A pathological report of acute puffiness appendicitis with peri appendicitis was confirmed. After two weeks of treatment, the patient was discharged with an good general condition.
March 2019: Clinical Case Reports
Mercy Mandere Osiemo, George Morara Ogendi, Charles M'Erimba
Background: Accessibility to potable water is a fundamental right for dignity and well-being. Despite this observation, more than 1.1 billion people lack access to safe drinking water. This is particularly true in the Sub-Saharan Africa and South East Asia regions. Objective: The main aim of this study was to assess microbial quality of drinking water and prevalence of water-related diseases in Marigat town, Baringo County, Kenya. Methods: Samples of drinking water were collected from water sources (boreholes, rivers, and wells) and at the point of use (households) and analyzed for Escherichia coli and total coliform (TC) bacteria using the most probable number method...
2019: Environmental Health Insights
Sun Jingjing, Zhang Yanshu, Liu Yu, Shi Qindong, Wang Xue, Zhang Lei, He Yingli, Guo Litao
OBJECTIVE: To analyze factors related to antibiotic-associated diarrhea (AAD) in patients in the intensive care unit (ICU) receiving antifungals with the aim of informing rational antibiotic use. METHODS: Sex, age, medical history, use of proton pump inhibitors, administration of parenteral nutrition, albumin level, occurrence of AAD, type of antibiotics, duration of ICU admission, and prognosis were retrospectively analyzed. The associations of age, sex, medical history, and other factors with AAD were associated by logistic regression...
March 21, 2019: Journal of International Medical Research
Asawin Wanitchang, Janya Saenboonrueng, Challika Kaewborisuth, Kanjana Srisutthisamphan, Anan Jongkaewwattana
While porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) infects and replicates in enterocytes lining villi of neonatal piglets with high efficiency, naturally isolated variants typically grow poorly in established cell lines, unless adapted by multiple passages. Cells infected with most cell-adapted PEDVs usually displayed large syncytia, a process triggered by the spike protein (S). To identify amino acids responsible for S-mediated syncytium formation, we constructed and characterized chimeric S proteins of the cell-adapted variant, YN144, in which the receptor binding domain (RBD) and S1/S2 cleavage site were replaced with those of a poorly culturable field isolate (G2)...
March 20, 2019: Viruses
Ana M Puga, Sara Lopez-Oliva, Carmen Trives, Teresa Partearroyo, Gregorio Varela-Moreiras
Despite being the most essential nutrient, water is commonly forgotten in the fields of pharmacy and nutrition. Hydration status is determined by water balance (the difference between water input and output). Hypohydration or negative water balance is affected by numerous factors, either internal (i.e., a lack of thirst sensation) or external (e.g., polypharmacy or chronic consumption of certain drugs). However, to date, research on the interaction between hydration status and drugs/excipients has been scarce...
March 20, 2019: Nutrients
Anna Tortora, Domenico La Sala, Mario Vitale
Reduced intestinal absorption of levothyroxine (LT4) is the most common cause of failure to achieve an adequate therapeutic target in hypothyroid patients under replacement therapy. We present the case of a 63-year-old woman with autoimmune hypothyroidism previously well-replaced with tablet LT4 who became unexpectedly no more euthyroid. At presentation, the patient reported the onset of acute gastrointestinal symptoms characterized by nausea, loss of appetite, flatulence, abdominal cramps and diarrhea, associated with increase of thyrotropin levels (TSH: 11 mIU/mL)...
March 21, 2019: Endocrinology, Diabetes & Metabolism Case Reports
Joseph C Parambeth, Sara D Lawhon, Joanne Mansell, Jing Wu, Sabrina D Clark, Deanna Sutton, Connie Gibas, Nathan P Wiederhold, Alexandra N Myers, Mark C Johnson, Gwendolyn J Levine, Samantha Schlemmer, Catherine Ruoff, Anitha Isaiah, Kate E Creevy
A 2-year-old female spayed Boxer dog was presented for a 1-month history of progressive hemorrhagic diarrhea with tenesmus and weight loss despite trial courses of antibiotics and diet change. Abdominal ultrasound revealed severe, focal thickening, and loss of normal architecture of the colonic wall with abdominal lymphadenomegaly. Dry-mount fecal cytology, performed on several consecutive days, consistently revealed numerous, round, 16-20 μm structures with basophilic, granular content, and a thin cell wall...
March 21, 2019: Veterinary Clinical Pathology
Stephen J Savarino, Robin McKenzie, David R Tribble, Chad K Porter, Aisling O'Dowd, Stephanie A Sincock, Steven T Poole, Barbara DeNearing, Colleen M Woods, Hye Kim, Shannon L Grahek, Carl Brinkley, Joseph H Crabb, A Louis Bourgeois
BACKGROUND: Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) commonly cause diarrhea in children living in developing countries and in travelers' to those regions. ETEC are characterized by colonization factors (CFs) that mediate intestinal adherence. We assessed if bovine colostral IgG (bIgG) antibodies against one CF, CS17, or antibodies against CsbD, the minor tip subunit of CS17, would protect subjects against diarrhea following challenge with a CS17-expressing ETEC strain. METHODS: Adult subjects were randomized (1:1:1) to receive oral bIgG against CS17, CsbD or placebo...
March 21, 2019: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Kensuke Nakamura, Ryota Inokuchi, Kazutaka Fukushima, Hiromu Naraba, Yuji Takahashi, Tomohiro Sonoo, Hideki Hashimoto, Kent Doi, Naoto Morimura
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Pectin-containing liquid enteral nutrition (PCLEN) contains pectin, which becomes solid in the stomach and therefore mitigates vomiting and diarrhea. Its efficacy for use in critical care medicine was evaluated. METHODS AND STUDY DESIGN: We used liquid enteral nutrition (LEN) (traditional LEN (TLEN)) as the primary LEN at the emergency and critical care center. We adopted PCLEN as the primary LEN from 2014. During 2012-2016, 954 patients admitted to intensive care units and emergency wards were given PCLEN or TLEN...
2019: Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Margret I Moré
BACKGROUND: Saccharomyces boulardii CNCM I-745 is a probiotic medicinal yeast used in the prevention and treatment of diarrhea. It has numerous effects, i. a. immunological and antitoxin effects, it binds pathogens and has a beneficial effect on the intestinal microbiota. In addition, pronounced trophic effects were detected. METHOD: The focus of this review is on the effects of S. boulardii CNCM I-745 on digestive enzymes located in the brush border membrane. An important role in this context is attributed to polyamines which are synthesized and secreted by S...
March 2019: MMW Fortschritte der Medizin
Mine Koruyucu, Sevda Özel, Elif Bahar Tuna
Background/purpose: Molar-Incisor-Hypomineralisation (MIH) is the term used to depict a condition in which one or more of the permanent molar teeth and usually no less than one incisor tooth is hypomineralised and the prevalence rates vary from 2.4 to 40.2%. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and the risk factors of MIH in children in Istanbul, Turkey. Materials and methods: A total of 1511 (760 M, 751 F), 8- to 11-year-old children were examined who had their first permanent molar and incisors evaluated using the EAPD criteria for MIH...
December 2018: Journal of Dental Sciences
Shijing Zhang, Yuping Wang, Haizhen Wu, Na Li, Jianlin Jiang, Yaqiong Guo, Yaoyu Feng, Lihua Xiao
Cryptosporidium parvum is an intracellular protozoan that can cause severe diarrhea in humans and various mammals. Results of a comparative genomic analysis indicated that genes encoding two C. parvum -specific insulinase-like proteases (INS19 and INS20), cgd6_5510 and cgd6_5520 , are lost in many Cryptosporidium species. In this study, we provided evidence indicating that cgd6_5510 and cgd6_5520 are fragments of a full gene ( cgd6_5520-5510 ) encoding one insulinase-like protease (INS20-19) that is similar in structure to classic insulinases...
2019: Frontiers in Microbiology
Ziqing Ye, Ying Huang, Cuifang Zheng, Yuhuan Wang, Junping Lu, Huijun Wang, Bingbing Wu, Xiaochuan Wang, Rong Zhang, Jin Wang
PURPOSE: Genetic sequencing for children with congenital diarrhea and enteropathy (CODE) has important implications for the diagnosis, prognosis, and implementation of precision medicine. METHODS: We performed exome sequencing or targeted panel sequencing on 137 children with CODE. Endoscopic, imaging, histological, and immunological assessments were also applied. Patients were divided into three subgroups: watery, fatty, and bloody diarrhea. RESULTS: The median age of onset among patients was 28...
March 21, 2019: Genetics in Medicine: Official Journal of the American College of Medical Genetics
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