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Toys autism

Monique M Germone, Robin L Gabriels, Noémie A Guérin, Zhaoxing Pan, Tiffany Banks, Marguerite E O'Haire
There is preliminary research suggesting that animal-assisted activities can improve social interactions of children with autism spectrum disorder. This pilot study sought to investigate the benefits of animal-assisted activities with dogs and psychiatrically hospitalized youth with autism spectrum disorder. Participants were recruited from a specialized inpatient psychiatric hospital unit for youth with autism spectrum disorder and other developmental disabilities. Utilizing a crossover design, participants served as their own control by engaging in two 10-min conditions: an experimental dog and handler interaction (animal-assisted activities) and a novel toy and handler control (control)...
February 28, 2019: Autism: the International Journal of Research and Practice
Valerio Sperati, Beste Özcan, Laura Romano, Simone Scaffaro, Tania Moretta, Giada Turturo, Maria Nicoletta Aliberti, Vincenzo Guidetti, Gianluca Baldassarre
This work presents the results of the first experimentation of + me -the first prototype of Transitional Wearable Companion -run on 15 typically developed (TD) children with ages between 8 and 34 months. + me is an interactive device that looks like a teddy bear that can be worn around the neck, has touch sensors, can emit appealing lights and sounds, and has input-output contingencies that can be regulated with a tablet via Bluetooth. The participants were engaged in social play activities involving both the device and an adult experimenter...
2019: Frontiers in Psychology
Rianne Haartsen, Emily J H Jones, Elena V Orekhova, Tony Charman, Mark H Johnson
We conducted a replication study of our prior report that increased alpha EEG connectivity at 14-months associates with later autism spectrum disorder (ASD) diagnosis, and dimensional variation in restricted interests/repetitive behaviours. 143 infants at high and low familial risk for ASD watched dynamic videos of spinning toys and women singing nursery rhymes while high-density EEG was recorded. Alpha functional connectivity (7-8 Hz) was calculated using the debiased weighted phase lag index. The final sample with clean data included low-risk infants (N = 20), and high-risk infants who at 36 months showed either typical development (N = 47), atypical development (N = 21), or met criteria for ASD (N = 13)...
February 4, 2019: Translational Psychiatry
Sandra R Gomes, Sharon A Reeve, Kevin J Brothers, Kenneth F Reeve, Tina M Sidener
The current study evaluated whether multiple-exemplar training, auditory scripts, and script-fading procedures could establish a generalized repertoire of initiating bids for joint attention in four young children with autism. Stimuli drawn from each of three experimenter-defined categories were used during teaching to program for generalization of initiations of bids for joint attention from trained stimuli to novel stimuli. A fourth category was reserved for assessment of across-category generalization of bids for joint attention...
January 7, 2019: Behavior Modification
Sudha M Srinivasan, Anjana N Bhat
Our study compared means-end exploration in infants at risk (AR) for autism and typically developing (TD) infants using a nested box paradigm. Sixteen AR and 16 TD infants were observed at 9, 12, and 15 months with follow-up at 18 and 24 months. We collected video data on three tasks involving retrieval of a small toy by opening (a) an opaque box, (b) a transparent box, and (c) two nested boxes. Dependent variables included hand bias, time to completion, bilateral hand use, problem-solving strategies used, and tester assistance required...
December 3, 2018: Developmental Psychobiology
Susan B Campbell, Jessie B Northrup, Amy B Tavares
Children with autism spectrum disorder often demonstrate difficulties with self-regulation, although studies of this construct in young children with autism spectrum disorder are limited. In this study, developmental changes were examined using a measure of self-regulation appropriate for young children, resistance to temptation. At 22, 28, and 34 months, toddlers with an older sibling with autism spectrum disorder (high risk) and toddlers with typically developing older siblings (low risk) were presented with an appealing toy and instructed not to touch it...
August 30, 2018: Autism: the International Journal of Research and Practice
Sabrina Horvath, Elizabeth McDermott, Kathleen Reilly, Sudha Arunachalam
Purpose: Our goal was to investigate whether preschool children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) can begin to learn new word meanings by attending to the linguistic contexts in which they occur, even in the absence of visual or social context. We focused on verbs because of their importance for subsequent language development. Method: Thirty-two children with ASD, ages 2;1-4;5 (years;months), participated in a verb-learning task. In a between-subjects design, they were randomly assigned to hear novel verbs in either transitive or intransitive syntactic frames while watching an unrelated silent animation or playing quietly with a toy...
August 14, 2018: Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools
Perrine Heymann, Jessie B Northrup, Kelsey L West, Meaghan V Parladé, Nina B Leezenbaum, Jana M Iverson
BACKGROUND: Research indicates that social communicative behaviours develop atypically during the second year in Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). This study evaluated whether these behaviours also differed in the extent to which they were coordinated across modalities. AIMS: To measure joint attention behaviours (e.g., gaze shifts, gestures), vocalisations and their coordination among a cohort of infants with an older sibling with ASD (heightened risk-HR). METHODS & PROCEDURES: This prospective longitudinal study examined 50 HR infants at 14, 18 and 24 months...
September 2018: International Journal of Language & Communication Disorders
Eleonora Cavarocchi, Ilde Pieroni, Antonio Serio, Lucio Velluto, Biancamaria Guarnieri, Sandro Sorbi
The use of sedation before a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan is a common practice to overcome motion artifacts and anxiety in children. However, this technique has its drawbacks. We retrospectively compared the number of children undergoing a brain MRI scan with or without sedation before and after the introduction of an educational training protocol using a toy scanner (the Philips Kitten Scanner) and we investigated the effectiveness of this training in relation to children's age and gender. We considered 1461 children between 4 years and 14 years...
July 26, 2018: Journal of Child Health Care: for Professionals Working with Children in the Hospital and Community
Adel C Najdowski, Megan St Clair, Jesse A Fullen, Amelia Child, Angela Persicke, Jonathan Tarbox
We observed three children with autism spectrum disorder during structured play dates in which play partners displayed interest or disinterest in the toys with which they were playing. We then taught subjects to identify play partners' preferences and to make appropriate toy offers using a multiple-exemplar training package consisting of rules, midplay preference questions, prompting, and praise with observed generalization across untrained partners.
July 13, 2018: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
Jessica Muesbeck, Brittany M St John, Shannon Kant, Karla K Ausderau
Mealtime is an important family routine commonly affected for families with children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Limited research is available regarding strategies families incorporate to support mealtime engagement. The purpose of this study was to explore the frequency and characterize the purpose of Props used during mealtimes with children with ASD. A total of 12 families with a child(ren), N = 14, aged 2 to 7 years, with ASD and mealtime challenges or eating difficulties participated in video-recorded mealtimes in their home...
October 2018: OTJR: Occupation, Participation and Health
Lotte van Esch, Steven Vanmarcke, Eva Ceulemans, Karla Van Leeuwen, Ilse Noens
A number of studies have concluded that parents of children with ASD experience high levels of parenting stress. However, little is known about their parenting behaviors. Especially few studies investigated parenting in adolescence, although this period is associated with additional challenges for both adolescents and their parents. In the present study, a multi-method approach was used, combining data from a self-report questionnaire and observation of mother-child interactions during different semi-structured (e...
July 2018: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
Quan Wang, Daniel J Campbell, Suzanne L Macari, Katarzyna Chawarska, Frederick Shic
Background: Multiple eye-tracking studies have highlighted the "atypical" nature of social attention in autism. However, it is unclear how "atypical" or "typical" should be quantified. Methods: We developed a method for identifying moments when members of a group looked at similar places (High-Cohesion Time Frames; HCTFs). We defined typicality as the proximity of gaze points to typically developing (TD) gaze points during TD HCTFs...
2018: Molecular Autism
Ashley P Liggett, Regina Nastri, Christopher A Podlesnik
Resurgence and reinstatement are laboratory models of relapse following treatments for problem behavior that arrange alternative sources of reinforcement, such as differential reinforcement of alternative behavior and noncontingent reinforcement. Resurgence models the elimination or reduction of reinforcers during treatment and reinstatement models the re-presentation of reinforcers previously maintaining problem behavior. The present study examined individual and combined effects of resurgence and reinstatement in a translational model of treatment relapse with three children diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder...
March 2018: Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior
Kristen Bottema-Beutel, Blair Lloyd, Linda Watson, Paul Yoder
This study examined sequential associations between pairs of caregiver talk and caregiver-child joint engagement categories. Sequential associations quantify the extent to which one event (such as a particular type of caregiver talk) follows another event (such as a particular type of joint engagement) in a pre-specified time window, while controlling for the chance occurrence of the sequence. Although unable to support strong conclusions about causality, the requirement of sequential analysis that key events occur within a close temporal sequence rules out alternative explanation for associations that summary-level correlations cannot...
May 2018: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
Calum Hartley, Sophie Fisher
Ownership has a unique and privileged influence on human psychology. Typically developing (TD) children judge their objects to be more desirable and valuable than similar objects belonging to others. This 'ownership effect' is due to processing one's property in relation to 'the self'. Here we explore whether children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) - a population with impaired self-understanding - prefer and over-value property due to ownership. In Experiment 1, we discovered that children with ASD did not favour a randomly endowed toy and frequently traded for a different object...
March 2018: Cognition
Karine Silva, Mariely Lima, André Santos-Magalhães, Carla Fafiães, Liliana de Sousa
OBJECTIVES: Prompted by the need to find effective ways to enhance compliance in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and building on the increasing interest in dog-assisted interventions for this population, this study provides an exploratory test on whether dogs may assist children with severe ASD in complying with challenging demands while also decreasing behavioral and cardiovascular distress. DESIGN: A within-subject design was used. Depending on condition, participants were allowed to engage with a particular stimulus-their preferred toy, a live dog, or a robotic dog-before being exposed to a demanding task in which they had to wait for permission to eat a desired food item ("prohibition task")...
March 2018: Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine: Research on Paradigm, Practice, and Policy
A Kaale, L Smith, A Nordahl-Hansen, M W Fagerland, C Kasari
BACKGROUND: More knowledge about the interaction between young children with autism spectrum disorder and their parents is one way to improve intervention. This study aims to investigate the behaviours of mothers and children with autism spectrum disorder during joint engagement, with a focus on pacing or rate (i.e., incidences per minute) of their behaviours when being in this state. METHOD: Video recordings of 10 min of free-play between 58 children (2-4 years) diagnosed with childhood autism and their mothers were used to examine rate of mothers' and children's behaviours (i...
March 2018: Child: Care, Health and Development
Angelina Vernetti, Atsushi Senju, Tony Charman, Mark H Johnson, Teodora Gliga
Several accounts have been proposed to explain difficulties with social interaction in autism spectrum disorder (ASD), amongst which atypical social orienting, decreased social motivation or difficulties with understanding the regularities driving social interaction. This study uses gaze-contingent eye-tracking to tease apart these accounts by measuring reward related behaviours in response to different social videos. Toddlers at high or low familial risk for ASD took part in this study at age 2 and were categorised at age 3 as low risk controls (LR), high-risk with no ASD diagnosis (HR-no ASD), or with a diagnosis of ASD (HR-ASD)...
January 2018: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
Kristin-Lee Fossum, Loriann Williams, Nancy Garon, Susan E Bryson, Isabel M Smith
Behavioral characteristics of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) who respond positively to Pivotal Response Treatment (PRT) have been described previously, based on single-subject design research. The present study examined several such characteristics, as well as positive affect, as predictors of expressive language (EL) gains in a representative sample of preschoolers with ASD (n = 57) enrolled in a PRT-based community early intervention program. Children's cognitive ability, positive affect, and levels of appropriate toy contact measured at the start of intervention each contributed significantly to the prediction of EL outcomes...
January 2018: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
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