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Founder virus

Sonu Kumar, Anita Sarkar, Pavel Pugach, Rogier W Sanders, John P Moore, Andrew B Ward, Ian A Wilson
The N-terminal fusion peptide (FP) of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 envelope glycoprotein (Env) gp41 subunit plays a critical role in cell entry. However, capturing the structural flexibility in the unbound FP is challenging in the native Env trimer. Here, FP conformational isomerism is observed in two crystal structures of a soluble clade B transmitted/founder virus B41 SOSIP.664 Env with broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) PGT124 and 35O22 to aid in crystallization and that are not specific for binding to the FP...
February 15, 2019: Nature Communications
Jingyou Yu, Chen Liang, Shan-Lu Liu
LY6E is a GPI-anchored, interferon-inducible protein that has been shown to modulate viral infection in a cell type-dependent manner. Our recent work showed that LY6E promotes HIV-1 infection in some high CD4-expressing cells, including human peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMCs) and SupT1 cell line. In this work, we provide evidence that LY6E inhibits HIV-1 entry and spread in low CD4-expressing Jurkat cells and human monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs) through a downregulation of the viral receptor CD4...
January 23, 2019: Journal of Virology
Nathalie Grandvaux, Craig McCormick
The 2nd Symposium of the Canadian Society for Virology (CSV2018) was held in June 2018 in Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada, as a featured event marking the 200th anniversary of Dalhousie University. CSV2018 attracted 175 attendees from across Canada and around the world, more than double the number that attended the first CSV symposium two years earlier. CSV2018 provided a forum to discuss a wide range of topics in virology including human, veterinary, plant, and microbial pathogens. Invited keynote speakers included David Kelvin (Dalhousie University and Shantou University Medical College) who provided a historical perspective on influenza on the 100th anniversary of the 1918 pandemic; Sylvain Moineau (Université Laval) who described CRISPR-Cas systems and anti-CRISPR proteins in warfare between bacteriophages and their host microbes; and Kate O'Brien (then from Johns Hopkins University, now relocated to the World Health Organization where she is Director of Immunization, Vaccines and Biologicals), who discussed the underlying viral etiology for pneumonia in the developing world, and the evidence for respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) as a primary cause...
January 18, 2019: Viruses
Inna Gordiienko, Larysa Shlapatska, Larysa Kovalevska, Svetlana P Sidorenko
SLAMF1/CD150 receptor is a founder of signaling lymphocyte activation molecule (SLAM) family of cell-surface receptors. It is widely expressed on cells within hematopoietic system. In hematologic malignancies CD150 cell surface expression is restricted to cutaneous T-cell lymphomas, few types of B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, near half of cases of chronic lymphocytic leukemia, Hodgkin's lymphoma, and multiple myeloma. Differential expression among various types of hematological malignancies allows considering CD150 as diagnostical and potential prognostic marker...
October 25, 2018: Clinical Immunology: the Official Journal of the Clinical Immunology Society
Hui Li, Muhammad N Zahid, Shuyi Wang, George M Shaw
Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection exists as a complex mixture of genetically distinct viruses, commonly referred to as a "quasispecies." Quasispecies complexity can vary substantially during the course of natural infection as a consequence of viral population "bottlenecking." This occurs at the time of transmission from one individual to the next and during the course of chronic infection of an individual when adaptive immune responses eliminate certain viruses but allow others to escape and expand...
2019: Methods in Molecular Biology
Eve Todesco, Marc Wirden, Ruxandra Calin, Anne Simon, Sophie Sayon, Francis Barin, Christine Katlama, Vincent Calvez, Anne-Geneviève Marcelin, Stéphane Hué
OBJECTIVES: Molecular epidemiology is applied to various aspects of HIV transmission analyses. With ultra-deep sequencing (UDS), in-depth characterisation of transmission episodes involving minority variants are permitted. We explored HIV-1 epidemiological linkage and evaluated characteristics of transmission dynamics and transmitted drug resistance (TDR) detection through the added value of UDS. DESIGN: HIV pol gene fragments were sequenced by UDS and Sanger sequencing (SS) on samples of 70 HIV-1 infected, treatment-naïve recently diagnosed men having sex with men (MSM)...
December 21, 2018: AIDS
Subhra Mandal, Guobin Kang, Pavan Kumar Prathipati, You Zhou, Wenjin Fan, Qingsheng Li, Christopher J Destache
Daily oral antiretroviral (ARV) drugs for pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) has proven efficacy for diverse groups of high-risk individuals. However, daily dosing regimen has augmented non-adherence. These experiments comparatively investigated the long-acting (LA) PrEP potency of subcutaneous (SubQ) administrated tenofovir alafenamide (TAF) and emtricitabine (FTC) loaded nanoparticles (NPs) to solution in humanized (hu) mice. TAF + FTC NPs and TAF + FTC solution (each drug at 200 mg/kg) were administered to hu-CD34-NSG mice (n = 3/time point) for plasma and tissue pharmacokinetic parameter estimation using LC-MS/MS...
December 18, 2018: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
Linling He, Sonu Kumar, Joel D Allen, Deli Huang, Xiaohe Lin, Colin J Mann, Karen L Saye-Francisco, Jeffrey Copps, Anita Sarkar, Gabrielle S Blizard, Gabriel Ozorowski, Devin Sok, Max Crispin, Andrew B Ward, David Nemazee, Dennis R Burton, Ian A Wilson, Jiang Zhu
Overcoming envelope metastability is crucial to trimer-based HIV-1 vaccine design. Here, we present a coherent vaccine strategy by minimizing metastability. For 10 strains across five clades, we demonstrate that the gp41 ectodomain (gp41ECTO ) is the main source of envelope metastability by replacing wild-type gp41ECTO with BG505 gp41ECTO of the uncleaved prefusion-optimized (UFO) design. These gp41ECTO -swapped trimers can be produced in CHO cells with high yield and high purity. The crystal structure of a gp41ECTO -swapped trimer elucidates how a neutralization-resistant tier 3 virus evades antibody recognition of the V2 apex...
November 2018: Science Advances
Yangtao Ji, Xiaoxu Han, Wen Tian, Yang Gao, Su Jin, Linqi Zhang, Hong Shang
To date, inducing the production of broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs) against HIV-1 in humans has been unsuccessful. Several studies have explored the coevolution of HIV-1 and neutralizing antibodies (nAbs), but little is known about what affects the lack of bnAbs after long-term infection. A better understanding of the coevolution of the virus and nAbs in cases involving no bnAb production will help in the design of an effective HIV-1 vaccine. An individual with acute CRF01_AE HIV-1 infection who lacked bnAbs at just over 2 years post-infection (p...
November 29, 2018: Vaccine
Doreen Muth, Victor Max Corman, Hanna Roth, Tabea Binger, Ronald Dijkman, Lina Theresa Gottula, Florian Gloza-Rausch, Andrea Balboni, Mara Battilani, Danijela Rihtarič, Ivan Toplak, Ramón Seage Ameneiros, Alexander Pfeifer, Volker Thiel, Jan Felix Drexler, Marcel Alexander Müller, Christian Drosten
A 29 nucleotide deletion in open reading frame 8 (ORF8) is the most obvious genetic change in severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) during its emergence in humans. In spite of intense study, it remains unclear whether the deletion actually reflects adaptation to humans. Here we engineered full, partially deleted (-29 nt), and fully deleted ORF8 into a SARS-CoV infectious cDNA clone, strain Frankfurt-1. Replication of the resulting viruses was compared in primate cell cultures as well as Rhinolophus bat cells made permissive for SARS-CoV replication by lentiviral transduction of the human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 receptor...
October 11, 2018: Scientific Reports
Audra A Hargett, Qing Wei, Barbora Knoppova, Stacy Hall, Zhi-Qiang Huang, Amol Prakash, Todd J Green, Zina Moldoveanu, Milan Raska, Jan Novak, Matthew B Renfrow
The HIV-1 envelope (Env) glycans shield the surface of Env from the immune system and form integral interactions important for a functional Env. To understand how individual N-glycosylation sites (NGS) coordinate to form a dynamic shield and evade the immune system through mutations, we tracked 20 NGS in Env from HIV transmitted/founder (T/F) and immune-escape variants and their mutants involving the N262 glycan. NGS were profiled in a site-specific manner using a high-resolution mass spectrometry (MS)-based workflow...
October 10, 2018: Journal of Virology
Yaxelis Mendoza, Claudia García-Morales, Gonzalo Bello, Daniela Garrido-Rodríguez, Daniela Tapia-Trejo, Juan Miguel Pascale, Amalia Carolina Girón-Callejas, Ricardo Mendizábal-Burastero, Ingrid Yessenia Escobar-Urias, Blanca Leticia García-González, Jessenia Sabrina Navas-Castillo, María Cristina Quintana-Galindo, Rodolfo Pinzón-Meza, Carlos Rodolfo Mejía-Villatoro, Santiago Avila-Ríos, Gustavo Reyes-Terán
Different explanations exist on how HIV-1 subtype B spread in Central America, but the role of Guatemala, the Central American country with the highest number of people living with the virus, in this scenario is unknown. We investigated the evolutionary history and spatiotemporal dynamics of HIV-1 subtype B in Guatemala. A total of 1,047 HIV-1 subtype B pol sequences, from newly diagnosed ART-naïve, HIV-infected Guatemalan subjects enrolled between 2011 and 2013 were combined with published subtype B sequences from other Central American countries (n = 2,101) and with reference sequences representative of the BPANDEMIC and BCAR lineages from the United States (n = 465), France (n = 344) and the Caribbean (n = 238)...
2018: PloS One
Jonathon E Himes, Ria Goswami, Riley J Mangan, Amit Kumar, Thomas L Jeffries, Joshua A Eudailey, Holly Heimsath, Quang N Nguyen, Justin Pollara, Celia LaBranche, Meng Chen, Nathan A Vandergrift, James W Peacock, Faith Schiro, Cecily Midkiff, Guido Ferrari, David C Montefiori, Xavier Alvarez Hernandez, Pyone Pyone Aye, Sallie R Permar
Breast milk HIV-1 transmission is currently the predominant contributor to pediatric HIV infections. Yet, only ~10% of breastfeeding infants born to untreated HIV-infected mothers become infected. This study assessed the protective capacity of natural HIV envelope-specific antibodies isolated from the milk of HIV-infected women in an infant rhesus monkey (RM), tier 2 SHIV oral challenge model. To mimic placental and milk maternal antibody transfer, infant RMs were i.v. infused and orally treated at the time of challenge with a single weakly neutralizing milk monoclonal antibody (mAb), a tri-mAb cocktail with weakly neutralizing and ADCC functionalities, or an anti-influenza control mAb...
August 16, 2018: Mucosal Immunology
Jingyou Yu, Shan-Lu Liu
Interferon inducible transmembrane proteins (IFITMs) are one of several IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs) that restrict entry of enveloped viruses, including flaviviruses, filoviruses and retroviruses. It has been recently reported that in U87 glioblastoma cells IFITM proteins inhibit HIV-1 entry in a co-receptor-dependent manner, that is, IFITM1 is more inhibitory on CCR5 tropic HIV-1 whereas IFITM2/3 confers a greater suppression of CXCR4 counterparts. However, how entry of HIV-1 with distinct co-receptor usage is modulated by different IFITM orthologs in physiologically relevant CD4⁺ T cells and monocytes/macrophages has not been investigated in detail...
August 7, 2018: Viruses
César Trifone, Jimena Salido, María Julia Ruiz, Lin Leng, María Florencia Quiroga, Horacio Salomón, Richard Bucala, Yanina Ghiglione, Gabriela Turk
Understanding the mechanisms of human immunodeficiency virus type I (HIV-1) pathogenesis would facilitate the identification of new therapeutic targets to control the infection in face of current antiretroviral therapy limitations. CD74 membrane expression is upregulated in HIV-1-infected cells and the magnitude of its modulation correlates with immune hyperactivation in HIV-infected individuals. In addition, plasma level of the CD74 activating ligand macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is increased in infected subjects...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Jordan Ari Schwartz, Hongliang Zhang, Zachary Ende, Martin J Deymier, Terry Lee, Joel Singer, Tony Mazzulli, Eric Hunter, Mario A Ostrowski
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection often arises from a single transmitted/founder (TF) viral variant among a large pool of viruses in the quasispecies in the transmitting partner. TF variants are typically nondominant in blood and genital secretions, indicating that they have unique traits. The plasmacytoid dendritic cell (pDC) is the primary alpha interferon (IFN-α)-producing cell in response to viral infections and is rapidly recruited to the female genital tract upon exposure to HIV-1...
October 1, 2018: Journal of Virology
Vineet Joag, Aida Sivro, Nonhlanhla Yende-Zuma, Hajra Imam, Natasha Samsunder, Quarraisha Abdool Karim, Salim Abdool Karim, Lyle McKinnon, Rupert Kaul
BACKGROUND: A blood-based assay that could quantify HIV susceptibility would be very valuable for HIV prevention research. Previously, we developed and validated an ex vivo, flow-based, HIV entry assay to assess genital HIV susceptibility in endocervical CD4+ T cells. METHODS: Here we assessed whether this tool could be used to predict HIV risk using blood-derived CD4+ T cells in a rigorously-blinded, nested case-control study using blood samples collected from high-risk, HIV-uninfected South African women enrolled in the CAPRISA 004 clinical trial...
2018: PloS One
Egidio Brocca-Cofano, Cuiling Xu, Katherine S Wetzel, Mackenzie L Cottrell, Benjamin B Policicchio, Kevin D Raehtz, Dongzhu Ma, Tammy Dunsmore, George S Haret-Richter, Karam Musaitif, Brandon F Keele, Angela D Kashuba, Ronald G Collman, Ivona Pandrea, Cristian Apetrei
Current approaches do not eliminate all human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) maternal-to-infant transmissions (MTIT); new prevention paradigms might help avert new infections. We administered maraviroc (MVC) to rhesus macaques (RMs) to block CCR5-mediated entry, followed by repeated oral exposure of a CCR5-dependent clone of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) mac251 (SIVmac766). MVC significantly blocked the CCR5 coreceptor in peripheral blood mononuclear cells and tissue cells. All control animals and 60% of MVC-treated infant RMs became infected by the 6th challenge, with no significant difference between the number of exposures ( P = 0...
September 1, 2018: Journal of Virology
Dan Xiang, Zhiqing Pu, Tingting Luo, Fucheng Guo, Xiaobing Li, Xuejuan Shen, David M Irwin, Robert W Murphy, Ming Liao, Yongyi Shen
Since its emergence in March 2013, novel avian influenza A H7N9 virus has triggered five epidemics of human infections in China. This raises concerns about the pandemic threat of this quickly evolving H7N9 subtype for humans. In this study, we evaluated all available genomes for H7N9 and H9N2 influenza A viruses. Our assessment discovered that H7N9 of the 1st wave had the lowest nucleotide diversity, which then experienced substantial and rapid population expansion from a small founder population. From the 2nd wave, their nucleotide diversity increased quickly, indicating that H7N9 viruses had acquired larger populations and mutations after their initial emergence in 2013...
September 2018: Journal of Infection
Thorsten Krause, Stefanie Grote-Wessels, Felix Balzer, Peter Boknik, Ulrich Gergs, Uwe Kirchhefer, Igor B Buchwalow, Frank U Müller, Wilhelm Schmitz, Joachim Neumann
About half of the cardiac serine/threonine phosphatase activity is due to the activity of protein phosphatase type 1 (PP1). The activity of PP1 can be inhibited by an endogenous protein for which the expression inhibitor-2 (I-2) has been coined. We have previously described a transgenic mouse overexpressing a truncated form of I-2. Here, we have described and initially characterized several founders that overexpress the non-truncated (i.e., full length) I-2 in the mouse heart (TG) and compared them with non-transgenic littermates (WT)...
August 2018: Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archives of Pharmacology
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