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Plant insect virus mirna

Muhammad Arif, Saif Ul Islam, Muhammad Adnan, Muhammad Anwar, Habib Ali, Zujian Wu
Noncoding RNAs play essential functions during epigenetic regulation of gene expression and development in numerous organisms. Three type of small noncoding RNAs found in eukaryotes, which are small interfering RNAs (siRNAs), microRNAs (miRNAs) and piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs). Small RNAs (sRNAs) originated from infecting viruses are known as virus-derived small interfering RNAs (vsiRNAs), are responsible for RNA silencing in plants. However, Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) is mainly dependent on RNA silencing (RNAi)...
September 19, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
Ben Berkhout
RNA interference (RNAi) was discovered in plants where it functions as the main antiviral pathway and this antiviral role was subsequently extended to invertebrates. But it remained hotly debated whether RNAi fulfils a similar role in mammals that already have a potent innate immune system based on interferon and an elaborate adaptive immune system. On the one hand, mammalian cells do encode most of the RNAi machinery, but this could be used exclusively to control cellular gene expression via micro RNAs (miRNAs)...
July 14, 2018: Current Opinion in Virology
Verna Monsanto-Hearne, Karyn N Johnson
Viruses vectored by insects cause severe medical and agricultural burdens. The process of virus infection of insects regulates and is regulated by a complex interplay of biomolecules including the small, non-coding microRNAs (miRNAs). Considered an anomaly upon its discovery only around 25 years ago, miRNAs as a class have challenged the molecular central dogma which essentially typifies RNAs as just intermediaries in the flow of information from DNA to protein. miRNAs are now known to be common modulators or fine-tuners of gene expression...
July 3, 2018: Viruses
Gazal Wamiq, Jawaid A Khan
In silico identified Gossypium hirsutum ghr-miR166b shows multi-compatible targets in mitochondrial ATP synthase of Bemisia tabaci. Its overexpression in planta has the potential to act as a biopesticide in reducing B. tabaci population, and consequently the spread of whitefly-transmitted plant viruses. Whiteflies (B. tabaci) are hemipterous insects that act as a vector to transmit plant viruses causing enormous losses to the plants. In the present study, G. hirsutum-encoded miRNAs targeting expressed sequence tags (ESTs) of B...
May 2018: Planta
Yong Huang, Xiu Ying Ma, You Bing Yang, Hong Tao Ren, Xi Hong Sun, Li Rui Wang
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small single-stranded, endogenous 21-22 nt non-coding RNAs that regulate their target mRNA levels by causing either inactivation or degradation of the mRNAs. In recent years, miRNA genes have been identified from mammals, insects, worms, plants, and viruses. In this research, bioinformatics approaches were used to predict potential miRNAs and their targets in Nile tilapia from the expressed sequence tag (EST) and genomic survey sequence (GSS) database, respectively, based on the conservation of miRNAs in many animal species...
2016: Zeitschrift Für Naturforschung. C, A Journal of Biosciences
Fei Zhu, Zhi Wang, Bao-Zhen Sun
Till date numerous microRNAs (miRNAs) have been discovered from various organisms, including mammals, plants, insects, nematodes and viruses. They are known to have antiviral functions in crustaceans such as shrimp Marsupenaeus japonicas. However, little is known about the role of miRNAs against bacterial infection in this shrimp caused by Vibrio alginolyticus. We performed small RNA sequencing to characterize the differentially expressed microRNAs in V. alginolyticus challenged shrimp, in comparison to that in control uninfected shrimp, at 24 h and 48 h...
February 2016: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
Sin-Fen Hu, Yu-Hsin Huang, Chan-Pin Lin, Li-Yu Daisy Liu, Syuan-Fei Hong, Chiao-Yin Yang, Hsiao-Feng Lo, Ting-Yu Tseng, Wei-Yao Chen, Shih-Shun Lin
PHYL1 and SAP54 are orthologs of pathogenic effectors of Aster yellow witches'-broom (AYWB) phytoplasma and Peanut witches'-broom (PnWB) phytoplasma, respectively. These effectors cause virescence and phyllody symptoms (hereafter leafy flower) in phytoplasma-infected plants. T0 lines of transgenic Arabidopsis expressing the PHYL1 or SAP54 genes (PHYL1 or SAP54 plants) show a leafy flower phenotype and result in seedless, suggesting that PHYL1 and SAP54 interfere with reproduction stage that restrict gain-of-function studies in the next generation of transgenic plants...
2015: PloS One
Ayushi Kamthan, Abira Chaudhuri, Mohan Kamthan, Asis Datta
The phenomenon of RNA interference (RNAi) which involves sequence-specific gene regulation by small non-coding RNAs, i.e., small interfering RNA (siRNA) and microRNA (miRNA) has emerged as one of most powerful approaches for crop improvement. RNAi based on siRNA is one of the widely used tools of reverse genetics which aid in revealing gene functions in many species. This technology has been extensively applied to alter the gene expression in plants with an aim to achieve desirable traits. RNAi has been used for enhancing the crop yield and productivity by manipulating the gene involved in biomass, grain yield and enhanced shelf life of fruits and vegetables...
2015: Frontiers in Plant Science
Corinne Besnard-Guérin, Caroline Jacquier, Josette Pidoux, Safia Deddouche, Christophe Antoniewski, Christophe Antoniewsk
Small RNAs are potent regulators of gene expression. They also act in defense pathways against invading nucleic acids such as transposable elements or viruses. To counteract these defenses, viruses have evolved viral suppressors of RNA silencing (VSRs). Plant viruses encoded VSRs interfere with siRNAs or miRNAs by targeting common mediators of these two pathways. In contrast, VSRs identified in insect viruses to date only interfere with the siRNA pathway whose effector Argonaute protein is Argonaute-2 (Ago-2)...
2015: PloS One
Kai-Yao Huang, Tzong-Yi Lee, Yu-Chuan Teng, Tzu-Hao Chang
BACKGROUND: microRNAs (miRNAs) play a vital role in development, oncogenesis, and apoptosis by binding to mRNAs to regulate the posttranscriptional level of coding genes in mammals, plants, and insects. Recent studies have demonstrated that the expression of viral miRNAs is associated with the ability of the virus to infect a host. Identifying potential viral miRNAs from experimental sequence data is valuable for deciphering virus-host interactions. Thus far, a specific predictive model for viral miRNA identification has yet to be developed...
2015: BMC Bioinformatics
Thierry Vasselon, Manuella Bouttier, Anne Saumet, Charles-Henri Lecellier
RNA interference (RNAi) is a potent cellular system against viruses in various organisms. Although common traits are observed in plants, insects, and nematodes, the situation observed in mammals appears more complex. In mammalian somatic cells, RNAi is implicated in endonucleolytic cleavage mediated by artificially delivered small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) as well as in translation repression mediated by microRNAs (miRNAs). Because siRNAs and miRNAs recognize viral mRNAs, RNAi inherently limits virus production and participates in antiviral defense...
February 2013: Biomolecular Concepts
Raja Sekhar Nandety, Yen-Wen Kuo, Shahideh Nouri, Bryce W Falk
RNA interference (RNAi) in insects is a gene regulatory process that also plays a vital role in the maintenance and in the regulation of host defenses against invading viruses. Small RNAs determine the specificity of the RNAi through precise recognition of their targets. These small RNAs in insects comprise small interfering RNAs (siRNAs), micro RNAs (miRNAs) and Piwi interacting RNAs (piRNAs) of various lengths. In this review, we have explored different forms of the RNAi inducers that are presently in use, and their applications for an effective and efficient fundamental and practical RNAi research with insects...
2015: Bioengineered
Andras Donaszi-Ivanov, Irina Mohorianu, Tamas Dalmay, Penny P Powell
INTRODUCTION: In contrast to the defence mechanism of RNA interference (RNAi) in plants and invertebrates, its role in the innate response to virus infection of mammals is a matter of debate. Since RNAi has a well-established role in controlling infection of the alphavirus Sindbis virus (SINV) in insects, we have used this virus to investigate the role of RNAi in SINV infection of human cells. RESULTS: SINV AR339 and TR339-GFP were adapted to grow in HEK293 cells...
2013: PloS One
Graeme J Kettles, Claire Drurey, Henk-jan Schoonbeek, Andy J Maule, Saskia A Hogenhout
· Small RNAs play important roles in resistance to plant viruses and the complex responses against pathogens and leaf-chewing insects. · We investigated whether small RNA pathways are involved in Arabidopsis resistance against a phloem-feeding insect, the green peach aphid (Myzus persicae). We used a 2-wk fecundity assay to assess aphid performance on Arabidopsis RNA silencing and defence pathway mutants. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction was used to monitor the transcriptional activity of defence-related genes in plants of varying aphid susceptibility...
June 2013: New Phytologist
Keira Lucas, Alexander S Raikhel
MicroRNAs (miRNA) are a class of endogenous regulatory RNA molecules 21-24 nucleotides in length that modulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level via base pairing to target sites within messenger RNAs (mRNA). Typically, the miRNA "seed sequence" (nucleotides 2-8 at the 5' end) binds complementary seed match sites within the 3' untranslated region of mRNAs, resulting in either translational inhibition or mRNA degradation. MicroRNAs were first discovered in Caenorhabditis elegans and were shown to be involved in the timed regulation of developmental events...
January 2013: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Esther Schnettler, Mark G Sterken, Jason Y Leung, Stefan W Metz, Corinne Geertsema, Rob W Goldbach, Just M Vlak, Alain Kohl, Alexander A Khromykh, Gorben P Pijlman
West Nile virus (WNV) and dengue virus (DENV) are highly pathogenic, mosquito-borne flaviviruses (family Flaviviridae) that cause severe disease and death in humans. WNV and DENV actively replicate in mosquitoes and human hosts and thus encounter different host immune responses. RNA interference (RNAi) is the predominant antiviral response against invading RNA viruses in insects and plants. As a countermeasure, plant and insect RNA viruses encode RNA silencing suppressor (RSS) proteins to block the generation/activity of small interfering RNA (siRNA)...
December 2012: Journal of Virology
Simone Backes, Jillian S Shapiro, Leah R Sabin, Alissa M Pham, Ismarc Reyes, Bernard Moss, Sara Cherry, Benjamin R tenOever
The life cycle of several viruses involves host or virally encoded small noncoding RNAs, which play important roles in posttranscriptional regulation. Small noncoding RNAs include microRNAs (miRNAs), which modulate the transcriptome, and small interfering RNAs (siRNAs), which are involved in pathogen defense in plants, worms, and insects. We show that insect and mammalian poxviruses induce the degradation of host miRNAs. The virally encoded poly(A) polymerase, which polyadenylates viral transcripts, also mediates 3' polyadenylation of host miRNAs, resulting in their degradation by the host machinery...
August 16, 2012: Cell Host & Microbe
Nick C T Schopman, Marcel Willemsen, Ying Poi Liu, Ted Bradley, Antoine van Kampen, Frank Baas, Ben Berkhout, Joost Haasnoot
Small virus-derived interfering RNAs (viRNAs) play an important role in antiviral defence in plants, insects and nematodes by triggering the RNA interference (RNAi) pathway. The role of RNAi as an antiviral defence mechanism in mammalian cells has been obscure due to the lack of viRNA detection. Although viRNAs from different mammalian viruses have recently been identified, their functions and possible impact on viral replication remain unknown. To identify viRNAs derived from HIV-1, we used the extremely sensitive SOLiD(TM) 3 Plus System to analyse viRNA accumulation in HIV-1-infected T lymphocytes...
January 2012: Nucleic Acids Research
Eri Seto, Andreas Moosmann, Sebastian Grömminger, Nicole Walz, Adam Grundhoff, Wolfgang Hammerschmidt
Cellular and viral microRNAs (miRNAs) are involved in many different processes of key importance and more than 10,000 miRNAs have been identified so far. In general, relatively little is known about their biological functions in mammalian cells because their phenotypic effects are often mild and many of their targets still await identification. The recent discovery that Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and other herpesviruses produce their own, barely conserved sets of miRNAs suggests that these viruses usurp the host RNA silencing machinery to their advantage in contrast to the antiviral roles of RNA silencing in plants and insects...
August 19, 2010: PLoS Pathogens
Ana Giner, Lóránt Lakatos, Meritxell García-Chapa, Juan José López-Moya, József Burgyán
RNA silencing is an evolutionarily conserved sequence-specific gene-inactivation system that also functions as an antiviral mechanism in higher plants and insects. To overcome antiviral RNA silencing, viruses express silencing-suppressor proteins. These viral proteins can target one or more key points in the silencing machinery. Here we show that in Sweet potato mild mottle virus (SPMMV, type member of the Ipomovirus genus, family Potyviridae), the role of silencing suppressor is played by the P1 protein (the largest serine protease among all known potyvirids) despite the presence in its genome of an HC-Pro protein, which, in potyviruses, acts as the suppressor...
2010: PLoS Pathogens
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