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Daniel N Cagney, Nayan Lamba, Sofia Montoya, Puyao Li, Luke Besse, Allison M Martin, Rachel H Brigell, Paul J Catalano, Paul D Brown, Jose P Leone, Shyam K Tanguturi, Daphne A Haas-Kogan, Brian M Alexander, Nancy U Lin, Ayal A Aizer
PURPOSE: Brain metastases from breast cancer are frequently managed with brain-directed radiation but the impact of subtype on intracranial recurrence patterns after radiation has not been well-described. We investigated intracranial recurrence patterns of brain metastases from breast cancer after brain-directed radiation to facilitate subtype-specific management paradigms. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed 349 patients with newly diagnosed brain metastases from breast cancer treated with brain-directed radiation at Brigham and Women's Hospital/Dana-Farber Cancer Institute between 2000 and 2015...
April 13, 2019: Breast Cancer Research and Treatment
Elise Ouedraogo, Jeremy Gottlieb, Adèle de Masson, Clémence Lepelletier, Marie Jachiet, Camille Salle de Chou, Lionel Galicier, Martine Bagot, Sylvie Chevret, Jean-David Bouaziz
BACKGROUND: Paraneoplastic pemphigus (PNP) occurs more often in patients with hematologic malignancies (HMs) than in patients with solid cancer. Lung bronchiolitis obliterans (BO) is a severe complication of PNP. OBJECTIVE: To determine the precise clinical and biologic features of HM-associated PNP and identify factors associated with mortality and survival. METHODS: Systematic review of previously described cases of PNP associated with HMs...
April 10, 2019: Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
Ronni Wolf, Jennifer L Parish, Lawrence Charles Parish
We have explored the rash that appears as target lesions, with the central and dominant diseases belonging to the Stevens-Johnson syndrome/toxic epidermal necrolysis group. After presenting the clinical patterns of an individual target lesion and classifying them into different types of lesions, the contribution has been organized with groups characterized by such specific findings according to the type of lesion: flat or raised, typical or atypical, presence or absence of fever, presence or absence of mucosal ulcerations, presence or absence of arthralgias, and/or internal organ involvement...
March 2019: Clinics in Dermatology
Minori Kodaira, Nobuhiko Ohashi, Hiroshi Morita, Yoshiki Sekijima
OBJECTIVE: To elucidate Aδ-fiber dysfunction at the trunk in patients with hereditary transthyretin (ATTRm) amyloidosis using intra-epidermal electrical stimulation (IES). METHODS: In 16 patients with ATTRm amyloidosis and 18 healthy subjects, sensory thresholds using IES and cooling detection thresholds using the Computer-Aided Sensory Evaluation (CASE IV) system, were assessed to investigate Aδ-fiber functions at the Th10 level of the anterior, lateral, and posterior trunk...
March 23, 2019: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
Matteo Ghilli, Maria Donatella Mariniello, Livio Colizzi, Valeria Camilleri, Agata Janowska, Valentina Dini, Alessandro Quattrini Li, Salvatore Panduri, Michela Macchia, Marco Romanelli, Manuela Roncella
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 13, 2019: Breast Journal
Stuart Fawke, Thomas A Torode, Anna Gogleva, Eric A Fich, Iben Sørensen, Temur Yunusov, Jocelyn K C Rose, Sebastian Schornack
The leaf outer epidermal cell wall acts as a barrier against pathogen attack and to desiccation, and as such is covered by a cuticle, composed of waxes and the polymer cutin. Cutin monomers are formed by the transfer of fatty acids to glycerol by glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferases, which facilitates their transport to the surface. The extent to which cutin monomers affect leaf cell wall architecture and barrier properties is not known. We report a dual functionality of pathogen-inducible GLYCEROL-3-PHOSPHATE ACYLTRANSFERASE 6 (GPAT6) in controlling pathogen entry and cell wall properties affecting dehydration in leaves...
April 13, 2019: New Phytologist
Ruairi Donnelly, Nik J Cunniffe, John P Carr, Christopher A Gilligan
Aphids spread the majority of plant viruses through 'non-persistent' transmission (NPT) whereby virus particles attach transiently to these insects' probing mouthparts. Virus acquisition from infected plants and inoculation to healthy host plants is favored when aphids briefly probe plant epidermal cells. It is well established that NPT virus infection can alter plant-vector interactions, and moreover such pathogen modifications are found in a range of plant and animal systems. In particular, viruses can make plants more attractive to aphids but inhibit aphid settling on infected plants...
April 13, 2019: Ecology
Frank J Symons, Chantel C Barney, Breanne J Byiers, Brian D McAdams, Shawn X Y L Foster, Timothy J Feyma, Gwen Wendelschafer-Crabb, William R Kennedy
INTRODUCTION: Rett syndrome (RTT), a rare neurodevelopmental disorder occurring primarily in females (1:10-15,000 female live births), is most often caused by loss-of-function mutations in the X-linked methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 gene (MECP2). Clinical observations and preclinical findings indicate apparent abnormal sensory and nociceptive function. There have been no direct investigations of epidermal sensory innervation in patients with RTT. METHODS: We compared 3 mm epidermal punch biopsy specimens from adolescent female RTT patients (N = 4, aged 12-19 years) against an archived approximate age-, sex-, body-site matched comparison sample of healthy adolescent females (N = 8, ages 11-17)...
April 13, 2019: Brain and Behavior
R Ruiz-Villaverde, J Dominguez-Cruz, J C Armario-Hita, L Martinez-Pilar, S Alcantara-Luna, J J Pereyra-Rodriguez
Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic, systemic disease that has a multifactorial etiology, where immune system disorders and epidermal barrier dysfunction are added to the influence of genetic and environmental factors. Dupilumab has been approved by US and EU regulatory agencies in 2017 for the treatment of moderate to severe atopic dermatitis in adult patients who are candidates for systemic treatment. In this short report, we present a retrospective, multicentric study, in which five hospitals in Andalusia, Spain, have taken part...
April 13, 2019: Dermatologic Therapy
Fanny Ledys, Valentin Derangère, Manon Réda, Jean-Florian Guion, Romily Milliex, Valérie Roux, Emeric Limagne, Laurent Arnould, Leila Bengrine, François Ghiringhelli, Cédric Rébé
KRAS (Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene) or BRAF (v-raf murine sarcoma viral oncogene homolog B1) constitutive activation leads to anti-EGFR (epidermal growth factor receptor) therapy resistance of metastatic colorectal cancer patients. In this article we investigate the effects of anti-MEK (mitogen-activated protein kinase) antibody (trametinib) combined with anti-EGFR (cetuximab) on colon cancer cell lines with different RAS statuses. Even though cetuximab has no effect on RAS cell viability and ERK (extracellular-signal-regulated kinase) phosphorylation (one of the last kinases of the EGFR pathway), trametinib can induce cell death and inhibit the activation of ERK alone or in combination with cetuximab...
April 12, 2019: Advances in Therapy
Peter Hammarsten, Andreas Josefsson, Elin Thysell, Marie Lundholm, Christina Hägglöf, Diego Iglesias-Gato, Amilcar Flores-Morales, Pär Stattin, Lars Egevad, Torvald Granfors, Pernilla Wikström, Anders Bergh
Based on gene-expression profiles, prostate tumors can be subdivided into subtypes with different aggressiveness and response to treatment. We investigated if similar clinically relevant subgroups can be identified simply by the combination of two immunohistochemistry markers: one for tumor cell differentiation (prostate specific antigen, PSA) and one for proliferation (Ki67). This was analyzed in men with prostate cancer diagnosed at transurethral resection of the prostate 1975-1991 (n = 331) where the majority was managed by watchful waiting...
April 12, 2019: Modern Pathology: An Official Journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
Anamika Singh, Masum M Mia, Dasan Mary Cibi, Ashutosh Kumar Arya, Sanjay Kumar Bhadada, Manvendra K Singh
Primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) is a common endocrinopathy characterized by hypercalcemia and elevated levels of parathyroid hormone. The primary cause for PHPT is a benign overgrowth of parathyroid tissue causing excessive secretion of parathyroid hormone. However, the molecular etiology of PHPT is incompletely defined. Here, we demonstrate that semaphorin3d (Sema3d), a secreted glycoprotein is expressed in the developing parathyroid gland in mice. We also observed that genetic deletion of Sema3d leads to parathyroid hyperplasia, causing PHPT...
April 12, 2019: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Sandro Pignata, Giovanni Scambia, Domenica Lorusso, Ugo De Giorgi, Maria Ornella Nicoletto, Rossella Lauria, Anna Maria Mosconi, Cosimo Sacco, Claudia Omarini, Pierosandro Tagliaferri, Gabriella Ferrandina, Saverio Cinieri, Antonella Savarese, Giorgio Valabrega, Carmela Pisano, Vanda Salutari, Francesco Raspagliesi, Barbara Kopf, Sabrina Chiara Cecere, Giulia Amadio, Giuseppa Maltese, Marilena Di Napoli, Stefano Greggi, Simona Signoriello, Gennaro Daniele, Alessandra Sacco, Simona Losito, Nicola Normanno, Francesco Perrone, Ciro Gallo, Maria Carmela Piccirillo
BACKGROUND: Cervical cancer cells often express Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR). Cetuximab (CET), an anti-EGFR antibody, can be safely combined with carboplatin (C) and paclitaxel (P), a standard treatment for advanced/recurrent cervical cancer (ARCC) patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: ARCC patients, ECOG PS ≤ 1, were randomized to CP for 6 cycles with or without CET (400 mg/m2 one week before starting CP, then 250 mg/m2 weekly) until disease progression or unacceptable toxicity...
April 9, 2019: Gynecologic Oncology
Lorenzo Alibardi, Antonio Bonfitto
After tail loss in the African gecko Lygodactylus capensis (Smith, 1949) a new tail is regenerated, including caudal adhesive pads. The axial skeleton of the regenerating tail consists in an elastic cartilaginous tube replacing the original vertebrae that allows interacting with the substrate like in the original tail. The formation of adhesive setae has been analyzed using transmission and scanning electron microscopy coupled to immunolabeling for Corneous Beta Proteins. During progressive stages of epidermal differentiation new setae are developed at stage 4 of the shedding cycle and contain Corneous Beta Proteins...
April 2019: Zoology: Analysis of Complex Systems, ZACS
Davide Adriano Santeufemia, Giuseppe Palmieri, Antonio Cossu, Valli De Re, Laura Caggiari, Mariangela De Zorzi, Milena Casula, Maria Cristina Sini, Giovanni Baldino, Maria Filomena Dedola, Giuseppe Corona, Gianmaria Miolo
Most non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients are likely to develop brain metastases during the course of their illness. Currently, no consensus on NSCLC patients' treatment with brain metastasis has been established. Although whole brain radiotherapy prolongs the median survival time of approximately 4 months, a cisplatin-pemetrexed combination may also represent a potential option in the treatment of asymptomatic NSCLC patients with brain metastases. Herein, we report the case of a non-smoker male patient with multiple, large and diffuse brain metastases from an "epidermal growth factor receptor ( EGFR ) wild-type" lung adenocarcinoma who underwent an overly aggressive chemo/radiation therapy...
April 11, 2019: Diagnostics
Carla De Giovanni, Lorena Landuzzi, Arianna Palladini, Marianna Lucia Ianzano, Giordano Nicoletti, Francesca Ruzzi, Augusto Amici, Stefania Croci, Patrizia Nanni, Pier-Luigi Lollini
(1) Background: Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)/neu-driven carcinogenesis is delayed by preventive vaccines able to elicit autochthonous antibodies against HER2/neu. Since cooperation between different receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) can occur in human as well as in experimental tumors, we investigated the set-up of DNA and cell vaccines to elicit an antibody response co-targeting two RTKs: HER2/neu and the Insulin-like Growth Factor Receptor-1 (IGF1R). (2) Methods: Plasmid vectors carrying the murine optimized IGF1R sequence or the human IGF1R isoform were used as electroporated DNA vaccines...
April 11, 2019: Cancers
Inmaculada Mora-Espí, Elena Ibáñez, Jorge Soriano, Carme Nogués, Thorarinn Gudjonsson, Leonardo Barrios
PURPOSE: To determine if the specific targeting of microparticles improves their internalization by cells under fluidic conditions. METHODS: Two isogenic breast epithelial cell lines, one overexpressing the Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor 2 (HER2) oncogene (D492HER2) and highly tumorigenic and the other expressing HER2 at much lower levels and non-tumorigenic (D492), were cultured in the presence of polystyrene microparticles of 1 µm in diameter, biofunctionalized with either a specific anti-HER2 antibody or a non-specific secondary antibody...
April 11, 2019: Pharmaceutics
David A D Parry, R D Bruce Fraser, Lorenzo Alibardi, Kim M Rutherford, Neil Gemmell
The birds and reptiles, collectively known as the sauropsids, can be subdivided phylogenetically into the archosaurs (birds, crocodiles), the testudines (turtles), the squamates (lizards, snakes) and the rhynchocephalia (tuatara). The structural framework of the epidermal appendages from the sauropsids, which include feathers, claws and scales, has previously been characterised by electron microscopy, infrared spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction analyses, as well as by studies of the amino acid sequences of the constituent β-keratin proteins (also referred to as the corneous β-proteins)...
April 9, 2019: Journal of Structural Biology
Miyuki Sato, Satoshi Watanabe, Hiroshi Tanaka, Koichiro Nozaki, Masashi Arita, Miho Takahashi, Satoshi Shoji, Kosuke Ichikawa, Rie Kondo, Nobumasa Aoki, Masachika Hayashi, Yasuyoshi Ohshima, Toshiyuki Koya, Riuko Ohashi, Yoichi Ajioka, Toshiaki Kikuchi
Although the blockade of programmed cell death 1 (PD-1)/PD-ligand (L) 1 has demonstrated promising and durable clinical responses for non-small-cell lung cancers (NSCLCs), NSCLC patients with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations responded poorly to PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors. Previous studies have identified several predictive biomarkers, including the expression of PD-L1 on tumor cells, for PD-1/PD-L1 blockade therapies in NSCLC patients; however, the usefulness of these biomarkers in NSCLCs with EGFR mutations has not been elucidated...
2019: PloS One
Sana Suhail, Naseem Sardashti, Devina Jaiswal, Swetha Rudraiah, Manoj Misra, Sangamesh G Kumbar
This article reviews the current status of skin tissue equivalents that have emerged as relevant tools in commercial and therapeutic product development applications. Due to rise of animal welfare concerns, numerous companies have designed skin model alternatives to assess the efficacy of pharmaceutical, skincare and cosmetic products in an in vitro setting, decreasing the dependency on such methods. Several validated test methods are performed on such models to investigate various characteristics including skin irritation, permeation, corrosion and hydration, genotoxicity and absorption...
April 12, 2019: Biotechnology Journal
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