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Piotr Kuropka, Maciej Dobrzynski, Malgorzata Tarnowska, Marzena Styczynska, Krzysztof Dudek, Anna Leskow, Rafał J Wiglusz
A chicken embryo develops in ovo without access to a constant circulating maternal nutrient supply, and therefore all necessary nutrients are initially stored in the yolk, and with progressive development are transferred to the liver, where they are taken up in response to various needs. Fluctuations in hepatic trace elements correlate with their mobilization from egg stores. 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) intoxication causes liver damage by production of free radicals, while α-tocopherol is a well-known antioxidant and may play a protective role...
April 13, 2019: Acta Biochimica Polonica
Giuseppe Mininni, Elena Mauro, Bernardo Piccioli, Giordano Colarullo, Filippo Brandolini, Paolo Giacomelli
Results of an extended survey on the production and quality of sewage sludge produced in Italy are herewith reported and discussed. Data are relevant to 2015. They were provided by 84 Italian water utilities responsible for municipal wastewater treatment serving approximately 35 million persons. Total production was estimated at about 395,000 t dry solids/year, of which 9.9% is used in agriculture without further treatments, 26.4% is sent to external plants for compost production, 5.6% is sent to external plant for production of a soil conditioner called 'chalk of defecation', 17...
February 2019: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
Gang Zhang, Xiangxuan Huang, Wenbo Liao, Shimin Kang, Mingzhong Ren, Jing Hai
Polychlorinated dibenzo- p -dioxin and dibenzofuran (PCDD/Fs) emissions from basic small-scale waste incinerators (SWI) may cause health risks in nearby people and are thus subject to stringent regulations. The aim of this study was to evaluate PCDD/F emission and reduction of a basic SWI in the absence of air pollution controls (APCs). The results indicated that the stack gas and fly ash presented average PCDD/F levels and emission factors of 3.6 ng international toxic equivalent (I-TEQ)/Nm³ and 189.31µg I-TEQ/t and 6...
April 9, 2019: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Xia Guan, Ajit Ghimire, Phillip M Potter, Slawomir M Lomnicki
The correlation between the content and morphology of Fe2 O3 and the yields of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) was studied in this work. Three fly ash surrogates containing 1%, 2.5%, and 4% of Fe2 O3 were prepared and their effects on PCDD/Fs formation were investigated and compared to our previously studied 5% iron oxide sample using 2-monochlorophenol precursor model. As the intermediate of PCDD/Fs, environmentally persistent free radical formation propensity was correlated with the PCDD/Fs formation yields for different iron oxide samples...
March 29, 2019: Chemosphere
Man Jiao, Kaizhi Yin, Tao Zhang, Changyue Wu, Yan Zhang, Xinyuan Zhao, Qiyun Wu
The ubiquitous environmental pollutant 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) has been shown to trigger neurotoxicity. In this study, we investigated the protective effects of gastrodin on TCDD-induced neurotoxicity and the underlying molecular mechanisms. The results show that gastrodin decreased cell viability, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) release, and inducible nitrix oxide synthase (iNOS) and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) expression in TCDD-treated C6 cells. TCDD stimulated NF-κB signalling activation, demonstrated by increased p-NF-κB expression and translocation of nuclear Factor kappa B (NF-κB) to the nucleus...
April 1, 2019: Chemosphere
Luca Maria Chiesa, Emanuela Zanardi, Maria Nobile, Sara Panseri, Enrica Ferretti, Sergio Ghidini, Stefano Foschini, Adriana Ianieri, Francesco Arioli
Monitoring environmental contaminants in edible animal species is important for the assessment of environmental quality and for food safety as well. In this study, the occurrence of 2,3,7,8 dioxins, and furans, dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls, six non-dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyl indicators (ndl-PCBs), seven polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDEs), four polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and four metals (As, Hg, Ni, Pb) was evaluated in 90 European eels (Anguilla anguilla) from Lake Garda. The results on eel samples showed a frequent contamination of dl-PCBs, found at concentrations higher than the maximum limit (ML) provided by European Union in 41 % of the eels...
April 8, 2019: Food Additives & Contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment
Ya'nan Zhao, Dongyu Li, Zixian Zhang, Luqing Pan
We developed an in vitro recombinant yeast assay to investigate whether five representative xenobiotic ligands including 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), β-naphthoflavone (BNF), benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P), chrysene (CHR) and phenanthrene (PHE) can bind with the AhR of the scallop Chlamys farreri (CfAhR). The plasmid pGBKT7-CfAhR and pGADT7-XRE were transformed to yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae,Y187) to construct the recombinant yeast Y187CfAhR/XRE, and the report gene product β-galactosidase activity was measured after Y187CfAhR/XRE was induced by TCDD, BNF, B[a]P, CHR and PHE with a series of concentrations...
April 4, 2019: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
Anna A Stec, Kathryn Dickens, Jessica L J Barnes, Clare Bedford
The Grenfell Tower fire in central London, started within a flat, engulfed the whole 24 storey building in flames, killed 72 people and spread toxic effluent via the plume and particulate deposits. Soil samples from 6 locations up to 1,2 km from the Tower, together with semi-burnt fire debris and char samples, were collected 1 and 6 months after the fire. Additionally, dust samples and condensates were collected from a flat 160 m away from the Tower after 17 months. Samples were analysed for common potentially toxic components of fire effluents and synthetic vitreous fibres...
March 28, 2019: Chemosphere
Yiding Bian, Yiran Li, Garima Shrestha, Xiaoli Wen, Bailian Cai, Wang Kai, Xiaoping Wan
BACKGROUND: Identification of new molecular targets for the treatment of endometrial cancer (EC) is an important clinical goal, especially for the patients which were resistant to conventional therapies. The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is a ligand- activated transcription factor known primarily as the mediator of dioxin toxicity. However, the AhR can also inhibit cellular proliferation in a ligand-dependent manner and act as a tumor suppressor in mice, thus may be a potential anticancer target...
April 3, 2019: Toxicology
Chenpeng Zuo, Hetong Wang, Wenxiao Pan, Siyuan Zheng, Fei Xu, Qingzhu Zhang
Polychlorinated phenoxathiins (PCPTs), polychlorinated dibenzothiophenes (PCDTs), and polychlorinated thianthrenes (PCTAs) are sulfur analogues of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/DFs). Chlorothiophenols (CTPs) and chlorophenols (CPs) are key precursors for the formation of PCTA/PT/DTs, which can react with H or OH to form chloro(thio)phenoxy radical, sulfydryl/hydroxyl-substituted phenyl radicals, and (thio)phenoxyl diradicals. However, previous radical/radical PCTA/DT formation mechanisms in the literature failed to explain the higher concentration of PCDTs than that of PCTAs under the pyrolysis or combustion conditions...
March 27, 2019: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
R Weber, L Bell, A Watson, J Petrlik, M C Paun, J Vijgen
Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) including PCDD/Fs, PCBs and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) are among the most important and hazardous pollutants of soil. Food producing animals such as chicken, beef, sheep and goats can take up soil while grazing or living outdoors (free-range) and this can result in contamination. In recent decades, large quantities of brominated flame retardants such as polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), short-chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs) and per- and polyfluorinated alkylated substances (PFAS) have been produced and released into the environment and this has resulted in widespread contamination of soils and other environmental matrices...
March 20, 2019: Environmental Pollution
Martí Nadal, Montse Mari, Marta Schuhmacher, José L Domingo
The concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) were analyzed in 40 plasma samples of individuals living in zones under potential influence of the emissions of a hazardous waste incinerator (HWI) (Tarragona County, Catalonia, Spain). Samples corresponded to subjects of different gender, age and specific areas of residence. The levels of PCDD/Fs were compared to those obtained in a baseline study (1998), as well as in previous surveys (2002, 2007 and 2012). The current mean concentration of PCDD/Fs in plasma was 6...
March 23, 2019: Environmental Research
Hee Seok Kim, Dong Soo Lee
To capture the pollutant distribution status among environmental media and to understand how the distribution varies with the pollutants' properties, we assessed a total of 225 fugacity ratios (FRs) of 45 semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs) (polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/furans (PCDDs/Fs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), phthalates, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)) for five medium pairs (air-water, air-soil, water-sediment, soil-water, and soil-sediment) using the nationwide multimedia monitoring data...
March 20, 2019: Science of the Total Environment
Yi Wang, Cun Liu, Anping Peng, Cheng Gu
Fe(III)-bearing clay minerals are ubiquitous in the environment. However, the fate of organic contaminants mediated by structural Fe(III) in clays was rarely reported. Here we demonstrated that hydroxylated polychlorinated diphenyl ethers (HO-PCDEs) could be spontaneously formed from the reaction of 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (2,4,6-TCP) with three native smectites: SWy-2, NAu-1, and NAu-2. Further research demonstrated that the structural Fe(III) in smectite is indispensable for the mediation of 2,4,6-TCP to produce chlorophenoxy radical for the subsequent dimerization...
March 19, 2019: Chemosphere
Òscar Torres, Nils Pfister, Thomas Braun, Philipp Wittwer
The reactivity of [Ni(cod)2] towards perfluorophenazine in the presence of phosphines is reported. When PiPr3 and PCy3 are used, an initial κ-(N) coordination of the nickel centre to the nitrogen atom of the perfluorophenazine ring occurs, forming the dark blue complexes [Ni{κ-(N)-C12N2F8}(PiPr3)2] (1) and [Ni{κ-(N)-C12N2F8}(PCy3)2] (2). Complex 1 was structurally characterized by X-ray diffraction analysis. The complexes rearranged by regioselective C-F activation of the perfluorophenazine ring in the 2-position to yield complexes trans-[NiF(2-C12N2F7)(PiPr3)2] (5) and trans-[NiF(2-C12N2F7)(PCy3)2] (6)...
March 27, 2019: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
Anne Mahringer, Alexandra Bernd, David S Miller, Gert Fricker
Many widespread and persistent organic pollutants, e.g., 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) and some polychlorinated biphenyls, activate the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) causing it to translocate to the cell nucleus where it transactivates target genes, increasing expression of a number of xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes as well as some transporters. AhR's ability to target transporters within the kidney is essentially unexplored. We show here that exposing isolated killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus) renal proximal tubules to micromolar β-naphthoflavone (BNF) or nanomolar TCDD roughly doubled transport activity of multidrug resistance related proteins Mrp2 and Mrp4, P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and breast cancer resistance protein (Bcrp), all ATP-driven xenobiotic efflux pumps and critical determinants of renal xenobiotic excretion...
December 1, 2018: Biological Chemistry
Zhezheng Ding, Yayi Yi, Qingzhu Zhang, Tao Zhuang
Atmospheric oxidation of fluorene and its derivatives initiated by OH radicals was investigated theoretically with quantum chemical calculation methods [M06-2X/6-311++G(3df,2p)//M06-2X/6-311+G(d,p)]. It revealed that the OH addition pathways form hydroxyfluorene and ring-opening product dialdehyde while the H abstraction pathways lead to the formation of 9-fluorenone. Subsequent oxidation of 9-fluorenone has considerable potential to form dibenzo-p-dioxin and nitrofluorenone according to the present calculation results...
February 27, 2019: Science of the Total Environment
Stephenie D Prokopec, Raimo Pohjanvirta, Selma Mahiout, Lars Pettersson, Paul C Boutros
IMA-08401 (C2) is a novel aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) agonist and selective AHR modulator (SAHRM) that is structurally similar to laquinimod (LAQ). Both compounds are converted to the AHR-active metabolite DELAQ (IMA-06201) in vivo. SAHRMs have been proposed as therapeutic options for various autoimmune disorders. Clinical trials on LAQ have not reported any significant toxic outcomes and C2 has shown low toxicity in rats; however, their functional resemblance to the highly toxic AHR agonist 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo- p -dioxin (TCDD) raises questions...
March 19, 2019: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Wanglong Zhang, Heidi Qunhui Xie, Yunping Li, Tao Jin, Jiao Li, Li Xu, Zhiguang Zhou, Songyan Zhang, Dan Ma, Mark E Hahn, Bin Zhao
The freshwater climbing perch (Anabas testudineus) can tolerate water environments contaminated with persistent organic pollutants (POPs). The mechanisms underlying this tolerance are unknown. We used de novo transcriptomic analysis to investigate the defensive mechanisms of A. testudineus against POPs based on its genetic features and biological responses to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) exposure. Our results revealed a specific expansion of cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A subfamily, which may be involved in the elimination of certain POPs...
February 28, 2019: Science of the Total Environment
Laurent Brureau, Elise Emeville, Carole Helissey, Jean Pierre Thome, Luc Multigner, Pascal Blanchet
Previous studies have suggested that exposure to environmental chemicals with hormonal properties, also called endocrine disrupting chemicals, may be involved in the occurrence of prostate cancer. Such exposure may also influence the treatment outcome as it is still present at the time of diagnosis, the beginning of therapy, and beyond. We followed 326 men in Guadeloupe (French West Indies) who underwent radical prostatectomy as primary treatment of localized prostate cancer. We analyzed the relationship between exposure to the estrogenic chlordecone, the anti-androgenic dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE, the main metabolite of the insecticide DDT), and the non-dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyl congener 153 (PCB-153) with mixed estrogenic/anti-estrogenic properties and the risk of biochemical recurrence after surgery...
March 20, 2019: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
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