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Ling Liao, Tiantian Dong, Xinya Liu, Zhixiang Dong, Xia Qiu, Yi Rong, Guochao Sun, Zhihui Wang
Nitrogen metabolism in citrus has received increased attention due to its effects on plant growth and productivity. However, little is known about the effects of nitrogen fertilization on nitrogen metabolism in young trees of citrus cultivar 'Huangguogan' (Citrus reticulata × Citrus sinensis). Here, genes encoding nitrate reductase (NR), nitrite reductase (NiR), glutamine synthetase (GS), glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH), and asparagine synthetase (AS), represented as HgNR, HgNiR, HgGS, HgGDH, and HgAS, respectively, were cloned from Huangguogan...
2019: PloS One
Tenglong Xie, Wanrong Gu, Mingquan Wang, Liguo Zhang, Congfeng Li, Caifeng Li, Wenhua Li, Lijie Li, Shi Wei
BACKGROUND: Nitrogen (N) metabolism plays an important role in plant drought tolerance. 2-(3,4-Dichlorophenoxy) triethylamine (DCPTA) regulates many aspects of plant development; however, the effects of DCPTA on soil drought tolerance are poorly understood, and the possible role of DCPTA on nitrogen metabolism has not yet been explored. RESULTS: In the present study, the effects of DCPTA on N metabolism in maize (Zea mays L.) under soil drought and rewatering conditions during the pre-female inflorescence emergence stage were investigated in 2016 and 2017...
March 19, 2019: BMC Plant Biology
Sonya Galcheva, Hüseyin Demirbilek, Sara Al-Khawaga, Khalid Hussain
Congenital hyperinsulinism (CHI) is a heterogenous and complex disorder in which the unregulated insulin secretion from pancreatic beta-cells leads to hyperinsulinaemic hypoglycaemia. The severity of hypoglycaemia varies depending on the underlying molecular mechanism and genetic defects. The genetic and molecular causes of CHI include defects in pivotal pathways regulating the secretion of insulin from the beta-cell. Broadly these genetic defects leading to unregulated insulin secretion can be grouped into four main categories...
2019: Frontiers in Endocrinology
Shah Fahad, Faheem Ahmed Khan, NuruliarizkiShinta Pandupuspitasari, Saddam Hussain, Imtiaz Ali Khan, Muhammad Saeed, Shah Saud, Shah Hassan, Muhammad Adnan, Amanullah, Muhammad Arif, Mukhtar Alam, Hidayat Ullah, Khalid Rehman Hakeem, Hesham Alharby, Muhammad Riaz, Muhammad Sameeullah, Hafiz Mohkum Hammad, Wajid Nasim, Shakeel Ahmad, Muhammad Afzal, Salem Safer Alghamdi, Atif A Bamagoos, Elsayed Fathi Abd Allah, Jianliang Huang
Environmental variations resulting in biotic and abiotic stresses demand adaptive changes in the photosynthetic machinery. To cope with these challenges, plant scientists are constantly striving to enhance photosynthetic activity. The photorespiration pathway, which fixes O2 and releases CO2 in C3 plants, competes with photosynthesis. One method to increase yield would be to enhance photosynthesis by engineering the photorespiratory pathway. To date, three engineered photorespiratory pathways have been produced, of which two have been proven experimentally in the model plant, Arabidopsis thaliana...
March 11, 2019: Journal of Environmental Management
S Viesy, J Abdi, K Haghani, R Valizadeh
Giardia lamblia has proved to be the most common intestinal protozoan parasite in humans that causes giardiasis. Given the high mutations in the genome of this parasite, the present study was conducted to determine the prevalence of Giardia lamblia subtypes and their relationship with clinical symptoms in patients who appear to have giardiasis. In 69 stool specimens with an appropriate number of giardia cysts, the DNA was first purified, and the genotype was then determined based on the glutamate dehydrogenase (gdh) gene sequence using PCR-RFLP...
March 13, 2019: Infectious Disorders Drug Targets
Dan Chen, Yang Zou, Zhao Li, Sha-Sha Wang, Shi-Chen Xie, Lian-Qin Shi, Feng-Cai Zou, Jian-Fa Yang, Guang-Hui Zhao, Xing-Quan Zhu
BACKGROUND: Giardia duodenalis is an important intestinal protozoan infecting both humans and animals, causing significant public health concern and immeasurable economic losses to animal husbandry. Sheep and goats have been reported as common reservoirs of G. duodenalis, but only a limited amount of information is available for native breeds of these small ruminants in China. The present study investigated the prevalence and multilocus genotypes of G. duodenalis in black-boned sheep and goats, two important native breeds in Yunnan Province, southwestern China...
March 13, 2019: Parasites & Vectors
Ran Zuo, Yousong Ding
Nitrotryptophan and its analogs are useful building blocks for synthesizing bioactive and biotechnologically relevant chemicals, materials and proteins. However, synthetic routes to enantiopure nitro-containing tryptophan derivatives are either complex and polluting or even unestablished yet. Herein, we describe microbial production of 4-NO2-L-tryptophan (Nitrotrp) and its analogs by designing and expressing the biosynthetic pathway in Escherichia coli. The biosynthetic pathway comprised one engineered self-sufficient P450 TB14 of Streptomyces origin for direct nitration of the C-4 of L-Trp indole and one nitric oxide synthase from Bacillus subtilis (BsNOS) for the production of nitric oxide (NO) from L-Arg to support the direct aromatic nitration...
March 13, 2019: ACS Synthetic Biology
Ruiyan Zhu, Xizheng Ma, Jiayu Liu
A new glutamate-dependent γ-polyglutamic acid (γ-PGA) producer Z3 isolated from soil samples in Daxinganling forest region of China was identified, and its optimal medium components were investigated using response surface methodology. Strain Z3 was identified as Bacillus velezensis by physiology and biochemistry and 16S rDNA sequence analysis. This is the first report of glutamate-dependent B. velezensis with the ability to synthesize γ-PGA. Then, the optimum γ-PGA yield (5.58 g/L) was achieved with glutamate 86 g/L, glucose 36 g/L, yeast extract powder 5...
September 2018: International Microbiology: the Official Journal of the Spanish Society for Microbiology
Ximena Villamizar, Adriana Higuera, Giovanny Herrera, Luis Reinel Vasquez-A, Lorena Buitron, Lina Maria Muñoz, Fabiola E Gonzalez-C, Myriam Consuelo Lopez, Julio Cesar Giraldo, Juan David Ramírez
BACKGROUND: Parasitic infections, particularly those caused by protozoa, represent a considerable public health problem in developing countries. Blastocystis, Giardia duodenalis, Cryptosporidium spp. and the Entamoeba complex (Entamoeba histolytica, Entamoeba dispar and Entamoeba moshkovskii) are the most common etiological causes of intestinal parasitic infections. METHODS: We carried out a descriptive cross-sectional study in school-age children attending a daycare institution in commune eight of Popayán, Cauca (Southwest Colombia)...
February 26, 2019: BMC Infectious Diseases
Olufemi Ambrose Akinkuotu, Michael Irewole Takeet, Ebenezer Babatunde Otesile, Frederick Olufemi, Spencer J Greenwood, J Trenton McClure
Giardia duodenalis is an intestinal flagellated protozoan parasite that is infectious to humans and a wide range of animals worldwide. While varying prevalence rates have been reported in pigs worldwide, there are currently no published reports on the genotypes of Giardia infecting pigs in any African country. The present study is on the prevalence and genotypes of G. duodenalis in 209 pigs raised on four farms in Ogun State Nigeria. Using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit, Giardia duodenalis coproantigens were detected on all farms and in 25...
February 21, 2019: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
Takaaki Kiryu, Taro Kiso, Daisuke Koma, Shigemitsu Tanaka, Hiromi Murakami
Acetic acid bacteria are used in the commercial production of lactobionic acid (LacA). However, the lactose-oxidizing enzyme of these bacteria remains unidentified. Lactose-oxidizing activity has been detected in bacterial membrane fractions and is strongly inhibited by d-glucose, suggesting that the enzyme was a membrane-bound quinoprotein glucose dehydrogenase, but these dehydrogenases have been reported to be incapable of oxidizing lactose. Thus, we generated m-GDH-overexpressing and -deficient strains of Komagataeibacter medellinensis NBRC3288 and investigated their lactose-oxidizing activities...
February 19, 2019: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Melanie Williams, Domenico Barranca, Carol Bucking
Trout caeca are vermiform structures projecting from the anterior intestine of the gastrointestinal tract. Despite their simple gross morphology, these appendages are physically distinct along the anterior-posterior axis and ultrastructural evidence suggests zonation of function within the structures. Individual caeca from three sections (anterior, middle, posterior) were removed from the intestine of freshwater rainbow trout and investigated for ion transport and enzyme activity. Ca2+ absorption appeared as a combination of active and passive movement, with Michaelis-Menten kinetics observable under symmetrical conditions, and was inhibited by several pharmacological agents (ouabain, La3+ , and a calmodulin antagonist)...
February 14, 2019: Journal of Experimental Biology
Hiroaki Sakamoto, Ayako Koto, Ei-Ichiro Takamura, Hitoshi Asakawa, Takeshi Fukuma, Takenori Satomura, Shin-Ichiro Suye
For increasing the output of biofuel cells, increasing the cooperation between enzyme reaction and electron transfer on the electrode surface is essential. Highly oriented immobilization of enzymes onto a carbon nanotube (CNT) with a large specific surface area and excellent conductivity would increase the potential for their application as biosensors and biofuel cells, by utilizing the electron transfer between the electrode-molecular layer. In this study, we prepared a CNT-enzyme complex with highly oriented immobilization of enzyme onto the CNT surface...
June 1, 2019: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
Yuka Ito, Junko Okuda-Shimazaki, Wakako Tsugawa, Noya Loew, Isao Shitanda, Chi-En Lin, Jeffrey La Belle, Koji Sode
Faradaic electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (faradaic EIS) is an attractive measurement principle for biosensors. However, there have been no reports on sensors employing direct electron transfer (DET)-type redox enzymes based on faradaic EIS principle. In this study, we have attempted to construct the 3rd-generation faradaic enzyme EIS sensor, which used DET-type flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) dependent glucose dehydrogenase (GDH) complex, to elucidate its characteristic properties as well as to investigate its potential application as the future immunosensor platform...
January 16, 2019: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
Mellesia F Lee, John F Lindo, Herbert Auer, Julia Walochnik
Extracting genomic DNA of pathogenic agents from formalin-fixed specimens is inherently difficult. Storage of samples in formalin results in nucleic acid cross-linking and DNA fragmentation. In this study, DNA was extracted from 45 Giardia-positive stool samples stored in formalin and subjected to PCR amplification targeting the triose phosphate isomerase (tpi), beta gardin (bg) and glutamate dehydrogenase (gdh) genes. Samples were rehydrated by using a descending alcohol series before DNA extraction using a commercial kit...
January 30, 2019: Experimental Parasitology
Sheetal K Bhardwaj, Ruchika Chauhan, Premlata Yadav, Subhasis Ghosh, Ajit K Mahapatro, Jay Singh, Tinku Basu
Recently, increased attention has been drawn to application of graphene and its derivatives for construction of biosensors, since they can be used to rapidly detect the presence of bio-analytes. Present paper establishes the preparation of a unique transducer which relies on toluidine blue (TB), absorbed by electrochemically reduced graphene oxide (ERGO) transparent thin film onto the surface of the indium tin-oxide (ITO) glass electrode. The proposed TB/ERGO/ITO electrode shows excellent reversible electro-chemical properties...
January 30, 2019: Biomaterials Science
Zuhha Ashraf, Elham Rahmati, Jeffrey M Bender, Neha Nanda, Rosemary C She
Diagnosing Clostridioides (Clostridium) difficile infection is challenged by lack of a clear gold standard. We sought to determine if the two-step algorithm (screening GDH and toxin lateral flow assay followed by tcdB PCR) would have adequate clinical performance at a tertiary care center. Of 486 patients, 310 (63.8%) were immunocompromised. Of 150 PCR-positive specimens, 52 (34.7%) were toxin-positive and 126 (84.0%) were GDH positive. Positive GDH or toxin results corresponded to lower PCR cycle threshold values (P < 0...
December 29, 2018: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
Elnaze Zare Mirzaei, Mahdi Rajabnia, Farzin Sadeghi, Elaheh Ferdosi-Shahandashti, Mahmoud Sadeghi-Haddad-Zavareh, Soraya Khafri, Abolfazl Davoodabadi
Background and Objectives: Clostridium difficile is responsible for 15-25% of nosocomial antibiotic associated diarrhea (AAD) cases and all cases of pseudomembranous colitis. C. difficile has two major virulence factors, toxin A (enterotoxin) and toxin B (cytotoxin). The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of C. difficile strains in patients with diarrhea in Babol' hospitals with toxigenic culture and PCR assay. Materials and Methods: One hundred stool specimens were taken from diarrheal patients in hospitals of the city of Babol...
October 2018: Iranian Journal of Microbiology
Maryam Soleimani, Faezeh Ghanati, Zahra Hajebrahimi, Abazar Hajnorouzi, Parviz Abdolmaleki, Fatemeh Zarinkamar
Studies have confirmed that on the ground, the plant cells must expend energy to maintain positional homeostasis against gravity. Under microgravity conditions, such energy may be saved for other process such as biosynthesis of beneficial metabolites for growth. This hypothesis was examined on a cell line of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum cv. Burley 21). The cells were continuously treated with 2-D clinostat for 1 week. Exposure to clinorotation conditions increased biomass and total protein. Total content of soluble sugar also increased which may provide more precursors for Krebs cycle and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) production...
January 4, 2019: Journal of Plant Physiology
Yuanyuan Feng, Xiaoqing Gong, Kexin Zhu, Na Li, Zhengjie Yu, Yaqiong Guo, Yabiao Weng, Martin Kváč, Yaoyu Feng, Lihua Xiao
BACKGROUND: Cryptosporidium spp., Giardia duodenalis and Enterocytozoon bieneusi are common enteric pathogens in humans and animals. Data on the transmission of these pathogens are scarce from Guangdong, China, which has a subtropical monsoon climate and is the epicenter for many emerging infectious diseases. This study was conducted to better understand the prevalence and identity of the three pathogens in pre-weaned dairy calves in Guangdong. METHODS: The occurrence and genetic identity of three pathogens were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction...
January 17, 2019: Parasites & Vectors
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