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Rayane Chami, Alessio Maria Monteleone, Janet Treasure, Palmiero Monteleone
AIMS: The aim of this paper is to emphasize the role of stress processes in the aetiology of eating disorders. METHODS: We have examined the literature for evidence that people with eating disorders might exhibit markers of stress and show signs of the "maltreated ecophenotype". RESULTS: Early adversity is more common among people with binge eating behaviours. The secondary effects of malnutrition, which are mostly marked in anorexia nervosa, may be an added stressor that could also contribute to the stress related phenotype...
December 14, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
Yuan-Zhen Chen, Dan-Qin Sun, Yi Zheng, Guang-Kuai Zheng, Rong-Quan Chen, Mei Lin, Lian-Fang Huang, Cong Huang, Dan Song, Ben-Qing Wu
Uremia can affect hepatic metabolism of drugs by regulating the clearance of drugs, but it has not been clarified whether gene silencing could modulate the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) process in uremia. Hence, we investigated the effect of WISP1 gene silencing on the renal tubular EMT in uremia through the wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. Initially, microarray-based gene expression profiling of uremia was used to identify differentially expressed genes. Following the establishment of uremia rat model, serum creatinine, and urea nitrogen of rats were detected...
December 17, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
Xuechan Tang, Xiaoli Xie, Xin Wang, Yan Wang, Xiaoyu Jiang, Huiqing Jiang
BACKGROUND Piwi-interacting RNA (piRNA) is the largest class of small non-coding RNA, which has also been identified in somatic tissues, and aberrant expression of piRNAs in tumor tissues may be implicated in carcinogenesis. piR-823 is increased in liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, there is no report on the function of piR-823 in hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) activation during hepatic fibrosis. The present study investigated the role of piR-823 in HSC activation. MATERIAL AND METHODS Liver fibrosis was induced in mice by carbon tetrachloride (CCL4) injection and bile duct ligation (BDL)...
December 17, 2018: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
Hui Xu, Min Ling, Junchao Xue, Xiangyu Dai, Qian Sun, Chao Chen, Yi Liu, Liang Zhou, Jianping Liu, Fei Luo, Qian Bian, Qizhan Liu
Rationale: Aberrant bronchial epithelium-fibroblast communication is essential for the airway remodeling that contributes to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Exosomes have emerged as novel mediators of intercellular communication, but their role in cigarette smoke (CS)-induced COPD is unknown. Here, we investigated the role of exosomal miR-21 in the dysfunctional epithelium-fibroblast cross-talk caused by CS. Methods: Normal or CS extract (CSE)-treated human bronchial epithelial (HBE) cells were co-cultured with bronchial fibroblasts (MRC-5 cells)...
2018: Theranostics
Pi Liu, Luhong Zhu, Guohui Zou, Huajing Ke
PURPOSE: This study aimed to elucidate the molecular mechanisms of the anti-pancreatic fibrosis effects of matrine in rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid was administrated to rats to establish a pancreatic fibrosis model. Rats were divided into four groups: Control, Sham, Model, and Matrine (n=8). Hematoxylin-eosin staining, Masson staining, and Azan staining were performed to evaluate pancreatic fibrosis. Expression of transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1), α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), and collagen I in pancreatic tissues was evaluated by immunohistochemical staining...
January 2019: Yonsei Medical Journal
Massimiliano Cadamuro, Simone Brivio, Joachim Mertens, Marta Vismara, Anja Moncsek, Chiara Milani, Christian Fingas, Maria Cristina Malerba, Giorgia Nardo, Luigi Dall'Olmo, Eleonora Milani, Valeria Mariotti, Tommaso Stecca, Marco Massani, Carlo Spirli, Romina Fiorotto, Stefano Indraccolo, Mario Strazzabosco, Luca Fabris
BACKGROUND & AIMS: In cholangiocarcinoma, early metastatic spread via lymphatic vessels often precludes curative therapies. Cholangiocarcinoma invasiveness is fostered by an extensive stromal reaction, enriched in cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) and lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs). Cholangiocarcinoma cells recruit and activate CAFs by secreting PDGF-D. Herein, we investigated the role of PDGF-D and liver myofibroblasts in promoting lymphangiogenesis in cholangiocarcinoma. METHODS: Human cholangiocarcinoma specimens were immunostained for podoplanin (LEC marker), α-SMA (CAF marker), VEGF-A, VEGF-C, and their cognate receptors (VEGFR2, VEGFR3)...
December 14, 2018: Journal of Hepatology
Heidemarie Kletzl, Anne Marquet, Andreas Günther, Wakana Tang, Jules Heuberger, Geert Jan Groeneveld, Willem Birkhoff, Eugenio Mercuri, Hanns Lochmüller, Claire Wood, Dirk Fischer, Irene Gerlach, Katja Heinig, Teodorica Bugawan, Sebastian Dziadek, Russell Kinch, Christian Czech, Omar Khwaja
Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is a rare genetic and progressively debilitating neuromuscular disease. It is the leading genetic cause of death among infants. In SMA, low levels of survival of motor neuron (SMN) protein lead to motor neuron death and muscle atrophy as the SMN protein is critical to motor neuron survival. SMA is caused by mutations in, or deletion of, the SMN1 gene. A second SMN gene, SMN2, produces only low levels of functional SMN protein due to alternative splicing which excludes exon 7 from most transcripts, generating truncated, rapidly degraded SMN protein...
October 30, 2018: Neuromuscular Disorders: NMD
Karla Méndez-Maldonado, Guillermo Vega-López, Sara Caballero-Chacón, Manuel J Aybar, Iván Velasco
The neural crest (NC) comprises a multipotent cell population that produces peripheral neurons, cartilage, and smooth muscle cells, among other phenotypes. The participation of Hes1 and Msx1 when expressed in mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs) undergoing NC differentiation is unexplored. In this work, we generated stable mESCs transfected with constructs encoding chimeric proteins in which the ligand binding domain of glucocorticoid receptor (GR), which is translocated to the nucleus by dexamethasone addition, is fused to either Hes1 (HGR) or Msx1 (MGR), as well as double-transgenic cells (HGR+MGR)...
December 13, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Jing Pan, Min Shi, Lingzhi Li, Jing Liu, Fan Guo, Yanhuan Feng, Liang Ma, Ping Fu
Accumulating evidences indicated that hyperuricemia was an independent risk factor for kidney diseases and contributed to kidney fibrosis. Preventing and treating renal fibrosis was an optimal treatment for hyperuricemia-induced kidney diseases. In the study, pterostilbene (PTE) as a bioactive component of blueberries was confirmed to possess lowering serum uric acid and renal protective functions by the decrease of serum creatinine, BUN, urine albumin, and urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio (uACR) in a mouse model of hyperuricemic nephropathy (HN)...
January 2019: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Ying Li, Weidong Ren, Xin Wang, Xiaona Yu, Li Cui, Xinyang Li, Xintong Zhang, Bo Shi
Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a dangerous disease, featured by pulmonary vascular remodeling. Excessive proliferation of pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMCs) and pulmonary artery endothelial cells (PAECs) plays crucial roles in this process. MicroRNA-150 (miR-150) level has been found to be reduced in patients with PH, and correlated with the poor survival. This study aimed to investigate the beneficial effect of miR-150 on PH in hypoxia-induced rats, PASMCs and PAECs. The results showed that miR-150 level was reduced in the lung tissue and plasma of hypoxia-treated rats...
January 2019: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Hui-Fang Wang, Jing-Xue Ma, Qing-Li Shang, Jian-Bin An, Hai-Ting Chen, Cai-Xia Wang
The study was designed to determine the safety and pharmacokinetics of intraocular crocetin and examine whether crocetin inhibits the development of proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR) in a rabbit model. In the toxicity study, the right eyes of rabbits were injected with 0.2 μmol or 0.4 μmol crocetin. The left eyes were injected with 0.1 ml phosphate buffered saline (PBS) containing the same concentration of DMSO. Fundus photography, optical coherence tomography (OCT), and electroretinogram (ERG) were obtained at baseline and 14 days...
January 2019: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Walaa Arafa Keshk, Samer Mahmoud Zahran
Chronic kidney diseases occur as result of exposure to wide range of deleterious agents as environmental pollutants, toxins and drug. Currently, there is no effective protective therapy against renal damage, fibrosis and its sequel of end stage renal disease. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) has a progressively gained consideration in wound healing, repair/regeneration of damaged tissues and conservation of organ function. However, its impact on thioacetamide (TAA) induced chronic renal damage has not been elucidated yet...
January 2019: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Lihua Cui, Caixia Li, Ge Gao, Yuzhen Zhuo, Lei Yang, Naiqiang Cui, Shukun Zhang
AIMS: Pancreatic stellate cells (PSCs) play a critical role in the development of pancreatic fibrosis. Any agents that can affect PSC activation could become potential candidates for treating pancreatic fibrosis. FTY720 can attenuate chronic pancreatic fibrosis by suppressing T-cell infiltration, but its effect on PSCs remains unknown. This study was conducted to investigate the effects of FTY720 on PSC activation in cultured rat PSCs. MAIN METHODS: The viability of PSCs after FTY720 treatment was detected by MTT...
December 11, 2018: Life Sciences
Jorge Lizandra, José Devís-Devís, Alexandra Valencia-Peris, José M Tomás, Carmen Peiró-Velert
BACKGROUND: This paper determines longitudinal changes in the time Spanish adolescents devote to moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and screen media activity (SMA). Moreover, it examines the displacement hypothesis between time spent on SMA and MVPA. METHODS: A cohort of 755 adolescents participated in a prospective cohort study over a three-year period. Repeated measures ANOVA to highlight interaction effects among all variables and Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) techniques were employed...
December 14, 2018: European Journal of Sport Science
You-Cheng Hseu, Ting-Yu Yang, Mei-Ling Li, Peramaiyan Rajendran, Dony Chacko Mathew, Chia-Hsuan Tsai, Ruei-Wan Lin, Chuan-Chen Lee, Hsin-Ling Yang
TGF-β1 plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of vascular fibrotic diseases. Chalcones are reportedly cancer chemo-preventive food components that are rich in fruits and vegetables. In this study, flavokawain A (FKA, 2-30 μM), a naturally occurring chalcone in kava extracts, was evaluated for its anti-fibrotic and antioxidant properties in TGF-β1-stimulated vascular smooth muscle (A7r5) cells, as well as its underlying molecular mechanism of action. Immunofluorescence data showed down-regulated F-actin expression with FKA treatment in TGF-β1-stimulated A7r5 cells...
December 13, 2018: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
Andrew Smith, Vincenzo L'Imperio, Vanna Denti, Mariafrancesca Mazza, Mariia Ivanova, Martina Stella, Isabella Piga, Clizia Chinello, Elena Ajello, Federico Pieruzzi, Fabio Pagni, Fulvio Magni
MALDI-MSI technology has advanced rapidly during recent years with the development of instruments equipped with low-diameter lasers that are suitable for high spatial resolution imaging. This may provide significant advantages in certain fields of molecular pathology where more specific protein fingerprints of individual cell types are required, such as renal pathology. Here we performed MALDI-MSI analysis of a cohort of MN patients among which patients either responded favourably (R; n = 6), or unfavourably (NR; n = 4), to immunosuppressive treatment (Ponticelli Regimen), employing a 10μm laser spot diameter...
December 7, 2018: Proteomics. Clinical Applications
Baolei Guo, Daqiao Guo, Zhenyu Shi, Zhihui Dong, Weiguo Fu
PURPOSE: To describe endovascular treatment of mesenteric malperfusion in a multichannel aortic dissection (MCAD) with full true lumen (TL) collapse following thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR). CASE REPORT: A 54-year-old man presented with chronic mesenteric ischemia and a previous TEVAR for MCAD complicated by superior mesenteric artery (SMA) malperfusion. Computed tomography angiography (CTA) demonstrated a 3-channel aortic dissection with a "false-true-false" configuration...
December 14, 2018: Journal of Endovascular Therapy
Chen Jesse, Stern Jonathan, Neuman Jeremy, Koshy June
We report a rare case of a neonatal girl who presented with coughing and dyspnea immediately after feeds. At birth, she was noted to have an imperforate anus with a posterior fourchette fistula from which she was stooling. Initial imaging with radiography showed a normal bowel gas pattern; however, lumbar vertebral anomalies were noted. An upper GI series was performed and revealed a laryngeal cleft and malrotation. Ultrasound confirmed malrotation with an abnormal SMA-SMV relationship. Since laryngeal cleft is a rare condition and may not be known to most radiologists, its incidence is likely underestimated...
March 2019: Radiology Case Reports
Alissa C Greenwald, Tamar Licht, Saran Kumar, Sunday S Oladipupo, Seema Iyer, Myriam Grunewald, Eli Keshet
Insufficient erythropoiesis due to increased demand is usually met by hypoxia-driven up-regulation of erythropoietin (Epo). Here, we uncovered vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) as a novel inducer of Epo capable of increasing circulating Epo under normoxic, nonanemic conditions in a previously unrecognized reservoir of Epo-producing cells (EPCs), leading to expansion of the erythroid progenitor pool and robust splenic erythropoiesis. Epo induction by VEGF occurs in kidney, liver, and spleen in a population of Gli1+ SMA+ PDGFRβ+ cells, a signature shared with vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) derived from mesenchymal stem cell-like progenitors...
December 13, 2018: Journal of Experimental Medicine
Casey Fowler, Christine Cserti-Gazdewich, Aggrey Dhabangi, Charles Musoke, Himanshu Sharma, Sami S Amr, Walter Dzik
BACKGROUND: Evolutionary pressure by Plasmodium falciparum malaria is known to have favoured a large number of human gene adaptations, but there is surprisingly little investigation of the effect of malaria on human mitochondrial sequence variation. Plasmodium falciparum infection can cause severe malaria anaemia (SMA) with insufficient tissue oxygenation, lactic acidosis and death. Despite equal degrees of severe anaemia, some individuals develop lactic acidosis while others do not. A case-control study design was used to investigate whether differences in host mitochondrial gene sequences were associated with lactic acidosis in SMA...
December 13, 2018: Malaria Journal
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