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freeze thawing soil

Dan Wan, Fa-Hu Li, Wu Yu, Chao Chen, Yuan Gao
Erosion of freeze-thaw soil by meltwater from snow/glacier is one of the main erosion types in high altitude or latitude regions. This study aims to experimentally measure soil erosion processes over partially-unfrozen soil slopes in laboratory. The experiments including three slope gradients of 10°, 15°, and 20°, three water flow rates of 1, 2, and 4 L/min (0.06, 0.12, and 0.24 m3 /h), and three thawed-soil depths of 1, 2, and 5 cm were conducted to measure sediment concentration and calculate its delivery rate under seven slope lengths of 0...
March 8, 2019: Scientific Reports
Jicheng Zhang, Chuan Zhang, Jiahao Xiao, Jinwei Jiang
It is important to conduct research on the soil freeze⁻thaw process because concurrent adverse effects always occur during this process and can cause serious damage to engineering structures. In this paper, the variation of the impedance signature and the stress wave signal at different temperatures was monitored by using Lead Zirconate Titanate (PZT) transducers through the electromechanical impedance (EMI) method and the active sensing method. Three piezoceramic-based smart aggregates were used in this research...
March 5, 2019: Sensors
Tian Wang, Peng Li, Zhanbin Li, Jingming Hou, Lie Xiao, Zongping Ren, Guoce Xu, Kunxia Yu, Yuanyi Su
The seasonal freeze-thaw process affects soil water migration, which influence spring planting, especially in arid and semi-arid regions that cannot be irrigated on the Loess Plateau. This study was conducted to evaluate differences in the freeze-thaw process and water migration between dam farmland (DF) and slope farmland (SF). To accomplish this, two typical agricultural soils (DF and SF), soil water content (SWC) and soil temperature (ST) were monitored at different depths (15, 30, 60 and 90 cm), were investigated under freeze-thaw conditions from November 2015 to April 2016 in the Northwest China...
February 20, 2019: Science of the Total Environment
Zhan Wang, Markus Flury
The goal of this study was to evaluate the effects of freezing-thawing and wetting-drying on heavy metals leaching from biosolids. Biosolid samples were irrigated with water at two flow rates and three flow stop events in 24 hr intervals. During the period of flow stop, biosolids were subjected to different temperatures, water contents, or freezing-thawing. Leachates were analyzed for heavy metals. The concentrations of metals in biosolids ranged from lower than detection limits (for Pb) to 1,039 mg/kg (for Zn)...
October 26, 2018: Water Environment Research: a Research Publication of the Water Environment Federation
Dahu Rui, Zhipeng Wu, Mingchng Ji, Jianfei Liu, Shuren Wang, Yuzuru Ito
To improve the washing efficiency for low-permeability clay, the method of freeze-thaw synergistic chemical washing was put forward to study the cadmium (Cd)-and lead (Pb)- real-site contaminated soils as the research object and ethylene diaminete traacetic acid (EDTA) was selected as the eluent to conduct a soil column washing test of heavy metal-contaminated clay soil. Results show that repeated freeze-thaw of soil can destroy the original structure of soil particles, help the eluent fully interact with pollutants, and thus improve washing efficiency...
February 11, 2019: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Yulian Yang, Li Zhang, Xinyu Wei, Ya Chen, Wanqin Yang, Bo Tan, Kai Yue, Xiangyin Ni, Fuzhong Wu
Repeated freeze-thaw cycles (FTCs) can alter the relationships between plant litter and soil nitrogen (N) mineralization in subalpine ecosystems, but little information is available about the underlying mechanisms. Therefore, a controlled soil incubation experiment was carried out to study the effects of litter removal on soil N mineralization during FTCs, and the results indicated that FTCs promoted soil N mineralization more than the continuously frozen or nonfrozen condition did. Litter removal promoted soil ammonium N (NH4 + -N) and dissolved organic N (DON) as well as the cumulative N mineralization (CNM) and ammonification, but it reduced the soil microbial biomass N (MBN) in the early stage of FTCs...
February 14, 2019: Scientific Reports
Tingzhang Hu, Yuanli Liu, Shanshan Zhu, Juan Qin, Wenping Li, Nong Zhou
The group 5 LEA (late embryogenesis abundant) proteins are an atypical LEA protein group, which is associated with resistance to multiple stresses. In this study, OsLea14-A gene was isolated from Oryza sativa L., which encodes a 5C LEA protein with 151 amino acids. The qPCR analysis showed that OsLea14-A expressed in all tissues and organs at all times. The expression of OsLea14-A in the panicles of plumping stage were dramatically increased. The heterologous expression of OsLea14-A in Escherichia coli improved its growth performance under salinity, desiccation, high temperature, and freeze-thaw stresses...
February 14, 2019: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Terézia Salaj, Katarína Klubicová, Radoslava Matusova, Ján Salaj
Somatic embryogenesis was achieved in the conifers Pinus nigra Arn. and in the hybrids Abies alba × A. cephalonica and Abies alba × A. numidica . For initiation of embryogenic tissue in P. nigra , immature zygotic embryos enclosed in megagametophytes were used. The initiated embryogenic cultures were maintained and proliferated on solid culture medium DCR supplemented with 9 μM 2,4-D and 2.2 μM BA. Microscopic investigations revealed the presence of bipolar early somatic embryos in proliferating tissue...
2019: Frontiers in Plant Science
Xinqiang Du, Min Fang, Hang Lv, Tingting Cheng, Peidong Hong, Chang Liu
The effect of spring snowmelt infiltration in a seasonal soil frost area on groundwater recharge was evaluated by systematically monitoring meteorological factors, soil temperature and humidity, groundwater table and temperature, electrical conductivity, and the value of δ18 O in a small field site over a 2-year period. The variation of soil temperature and humidity, groundwater table during the freezing period, and the snowmelt period respectively, as well as their correspondence to the relevant environmental factors, and the influencing factors of the permeability of frozen layer were analyzed...
February 9, 2019: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Steven K Schmidt, Lara Vimercati
Various Nostoc spp. and related cyanobacteria are able to survive extreme temperatures and are among the most successful colonists of high-elevation sites being exposed due to glacial retreat. It is unclear, however, if cyanobacteria can grow during the extreme freeze-thaw cycles that occur on a yearround basis at high-elevation, peri-glacial sites or if they only grow during the rare periods when freeze-thaw cycles do not occur. We conducted several experiments to determine if cyanobacteria that form biological soil crusts (BSCs) at highelevation sites (> 5,000 m...
February 5, 2019: Journal of Microbiology / the Microbiological Society of Korea
Morten Schostag, Anders Priemé, Samuel Jacquiod, Jakob Russel, Flemming Ekelund, Carsten Suhr Jacobsen
The active layer of soil overlaying permafrost in the Arctic is subjected to annual changes in temperature and soil chemistry, which we hypothesize to affect the overall soil microbial community. We investigated changes in soil microorganisms at different temperatures during warming and freezing of the active layer soil from Svalbard, Norway. Soil community data were obtained by direct shotgun sequencing of total extracted RNA. No changes in soil microbial communities were detected when warming from -10 to -2 °C or when freezing from -2 to -10 °C...
January 28, 2019: ISME Journal
Fei Lin, Chunyan Liu, Xiaoxia Hu, Yongfeng Fu, Xunhua Zheng, Rui Wang, Wei Zhang, Guangmin Cao
A portion of alpine meadows has been and will continue to be cultivated due to the concurrent increasing demands for animal- and crop-oriented foods and global warming. However, it remains unclear how these long-term changes in land use will affect nitric oxide (NO) emission. At a field site with a calcareous soil on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, the authors measured the year-round NO fluxes and related variables in a typically winter-grazed natural alpine meadow (NAM) and its adjacent forage oat field (FOF)...
March 2019: Journal of Environmental Sciences (China)
Shiqiu Zhang, Xue Yang, Meiting Ju, Le Liu, Kui Zheng
Biochar is frequently applied for the reduction of mercury (Hg) migration in soil; however, most of the studies only focused on the adsorption capacity evaluation of fresh biochar. We investigated the Hg adsorption capacities of biochar prepared from wheat straw, corn straw, and sunflower seed shells. Biochar aging was simulated via natural aging, high-temperature aging, and freeze-thaw aging. The adsorption capacities of all the aged biochar were increased, and wheat straw biochar and seed shells biochar treated with high-temperature aging (wBC-Ha500 and sBC-Ha600) and corn straw biochar treated with freeze-thaw aging (cBC-Fta500) showed an observable improvement on the equilibrium adsorption amounts...
December 19, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Timo Domisch, Françoise Martz, Tapani Repo, Pasi Rautio
Air temperatures and precipitation are predicted to increase in the future, especially at high latitudes and particularly so during winter. In contrast to air temperatures, changes in soil temperatures are more difficult to predict, as the fate of the insulating snow cover is crucial in this respect. Soil conditions can also be affected by rain-on-snow events and warm spells during winter, resulting in freeze-thaw cycles, compacted snow, ice encasement and local flooding. These adverse conditions during winter could counteract the otherwise positive effects of climate change on forest growth and productivity...
December 4, 2018: Tree Physiology
Roger Holten, Frederik Norheim Bøe, Marit Almvik, Sheela Katuwal, Marianne Stenrød, Mats Larsbo, Nicholas Jarvis, Ole Martin Eklo
Limited knowledge and experimental data exist on pesticide leaching through partially frozen soil. The objective of this study was to better understand the complex processes of freezing and thawing and the effects these processes have on water flow and pesticide transport through soil. To achieve this we conducted a soil column irrigation experiment to quantify the transport of a non-reactive tracer and the herbicide MCPA in partially frozen soil. In total 40 intact topsoil and subsoil columns from two agricultural fields with contrasting soil types (silt and loam) in South-East Norway were used in this experiment...
December 2018: Journal of Contaminant Hydrology
Kadiya Calderón, Laurent Philippot, Florian Bizouard, Marie-Christine Breuil, David Bru, Aymé Spor
There is a growing interest of overcoming the uncertainty related to the cumulative impacts of multiple disturbances of different nature in all ecosystems. With global change leading to acute environmental disturbances, recent studies demonstrated a significant increase in the possible number of interactions between disturbances that can generate complex, non-additive effects on ecosystems functioning. However, how the chronology of disturbances can affect ecosystems functioning is unknown even though there is increasing evidence that community assembly history dictates ecosystems functioning...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Arsham Hakimzadeh, Mira Okshevsky, Vimal Maisuria, Eric Deziel, Nathalie Tufenkji
Groundwater contamination by pathogenic bacteria present in land-applied manure poses a threat to public health. In cold climate regions, surface soil layers experience repeated temperature fluctuations around the freezing point known as freeze-thaw (FT) cycles. With global climate change, annual soil FT cycles have increased, and this trend is expected to continue. It is therefore of interest to understand how FT cycles impact soil microbial communities. This study investigates the influence of FT cycles on the growth, culturability, biofilm formation, and virulence of the bacterial opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a ubiquitous bacterium found in soil and water, responsible for infections in immunocompromised hosts...
November 16, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Md Abdul Halim, Sean C Thomas
Scientists unequivocally agree that winter air temperature (TA ) in northern high latitudes will increase sharply with anthropogenic climate change, and that such increases are already pervasive. However, contrasting hypotheses and results exist regarding the magnitude and even direction of changes in winter soil temperature (TS ). Here we use field and satellite data to examine the 'cold soil in a warm world' hypothesis for the first time in the boreal forest using a proxy year approach. In a proxy warm year with a mean annual temperature similar to that predicted for ~2080, average winter TS was reduced relative to the baseline year by 0...
November 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
Licong Dai, Xiaowei Guo, Yangong Du, Fawei Zhang, Xun Ke, Yingfang Cao, Yikang Li, Qian Li, Li Lin, Guangmin Cao
The Qinghai-Tibet plateau has the world's largest area of seasonally frozen ground. Here, shallow groundwater displays behavior that is distinct from that elsewhere in the world. In the present study, we explore the seasonal and interannual variation of the shallow groundwater levels from 2012 to 2016, and attempt to quantitatively evaluate the relative influences of individual driving factors on the shallow groundwater levels based on boosted regression trees. The results show that: (1) on a seasonal scale, the groundwater levels were characterized by a double peak and double valley relationship, while on an interannual scale the groundwater levels showed a slightly downwards trend from 2012 to 2016; and (2) during the frozen period, the seasonal variation of groundwater levels was determined by mean air temperature through its effect on the soil thaw-freeze process, accounting for 53...
October 16, 2018: Ground Water
Alla Orekhova, Miloš Barták, Josef Hájek
The soil microalgae of the genus Heterococcus are found in cold environments and have been reported for the terrestrial ecosystems of several Sub-Antarctic and Antarctic Islands. This study focused on resistance of Heterococcus sp. to sub-zero temperature. Heterococcus sp. was isolated from soil samples from James Ross Island, Antarctica. Culture of Heterococcus sp. grown in liquid medium were used to study ribitol effects at sub-zero temperatures on the species resistance to rapid freezing (RF, immersion of a sample into liquid nitrogen) and consequent cultivation on agar...
October 4, 2018: Cryobiology
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