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https://read.qxmd.com/read/30759127/evidence-of-a-trans-kingdom-plant-disease-complex-between-a-fungus-and-plant-parasitic-nematodes
#1
David Linnard Wheeler, Jeness Scott, Jeremiah Kam Sung Dung, Dennis Allen Johnson
Disease prediction tools improve management efforts for many plant diseases. Prediction and downstream prevention demand information about disease etiology, which can be complicated for some diseases, like those caused by soilborne microorganisms. Fortunately, the availability of machine learning methods has enabled researchers to elucidate complex relationships between hosts and pathogens without invoking difficult-to-satisfy assumptions. The etiology of a destructive plant disease, Verticillium wilt of mint, caused by the fungus Verticillium dahliae was reevaluated with several supervised machine learning methods...
2019: PloS One
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30754671/transcriptome-analysis-reveals-new-insights-into-the-bacterial-wilt-resistance-mechanism-mediated-by-silicon-in-tomato
#2
Nihao Jiang, Xueying Fan, Weipeng Lin, Guoping Wang, Kunzheng Cai
Bacterial wilt is a devastating disease of tomato caused by soilborne pathogenic bacterium Ralstonia solanacearum . Previous studies found that silicon (Si) can increase tomato resistance against R. solanacearum , but the exact molecular mechanism remains unclear. RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) technology was used to investigate the dynamic changes of root transcriptome profiles between Si-treated (+Si) and untreated (-Si) tomato plants at 1, 3, and 7 days post-inoculation with R. solanacearum . The contents of salicylic acid (SA), ethylene (ET), and jasmonic acid (JA) and the activity of defense-related enzymes in roots of tomato in different treatments were also determined...
February 11, 2019: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30742555/harvest-of-lettuce-from-verticillium-infested-fields-has-little-impact-on-postharvest-quality
#3
Krishna D Puri, Gary E Vallad, Qing-Ming Qin, Ryan J Hayes, Krishna V Subbarao
Verticillium wilt of lettuce, caused by the soilborne pathogen Verticillium dahliae, poses a serious threat to the California lettuce industry. Knowledge of disease development and its impact on postharvest marketability would facilitate better management of the affected fields. This study investigated postharvest marketability of 22 lettuce varieties harvested from two Verticillium-infested commercial lettuce fields in Salinas and Watsonville, CA, in 2005 using a randomized complete block design. Periodic sampling to monitor disease in several crisphead varieties in the field demonstrated that root symptoms developed quickly at later stages of heading, followed by the onset of foliar symptoms as the crop reached harvest maturity...
February 11, 2019: Plant Disease
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30673576/assessing-potato-cultivar-sensitivity-to-tuber-necrosis-caused-by-tobacco-rattle-virus
#4
S K R Yellareddygari, Charles R Brown, Jonathan L Whitworth, Richard A Quick, Launa L Hamlin, Neil C Gudmestad
Tobacco rattle virus (TRV) causes the economically important corky ring spot disease in potato. Chemical control is difficult due to the soilborne nature of the TRV-transmitting nematode vector, and identifying natural host resistance against TRV is considered to be the optimal control measure. The present study investigated the sensitivity of 63 cultivars representing all market types (evaluated at North Dakota and Washington over 2 years) for the incidence of TRV-induced tuber necrosis and severity. This article also investigates the cultivar-location interaction (using a mixed-effects model) for TRV-induced necrosis...
July 2018: Plant Disease
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30673563/powdery-mildew-resistant-rootstocks-that-impart-tolerance-to-grafted-susceptible-watermelon-scion-seedlings
#5
Chandrasekar S Kousik, Mihir Mandal, Richard Hassell
Powdery mildew (PM) is a major foliar disease causing serious economic losses of cucurbit crops grown in the United States. The pathogen Podosphaera xanthii, which causes PM, is known to infect seedlings, stems, foliage, petioles, and fruit of cucurbit crops. In recent years, grafting watermelon on resistant rootstocks for managing soilborne diseases has been gaining popularity in the U.S.A. However, grafting for managing foliar diseases has not yet received adequate attention. Three greenhouse experiments were conducted during the summer months of 2012, 2013, and 2014 to determine if PM-resistant rootstocks could impart resistance to a susceptible watermelon scion...
July 2018: Plant Disease
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30673438/assessing-potato-cultivar-sensitivity-to-tuber-necrosis-caused-by-potato-mop-top-virus
#6
S K R Yellareddygari, Jonathan L Whitworth, Neil C Gudmestad
Potato mop-top virus (PMTV) causes mop top disease in potato. This disease can result in a decline in tuber quality causing economic losses to growers due to the production of necrotic lesions and discolored tissue in infected tubers. Due to the soilborne nature of PMTV, identifying and developing host resistance against the virus is considered the best disease management option. Very little is known about the sensitivity of U.S. potato cultivars to PMTV-induced tuber necrosis. The current study is aimed at investigating the sensitivity of a large number of potato cultivars to PMTV-induced tuber necrosis...
June 2018: Plant Disease
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30673424/long-distance-spread-of-verticillium-dahliae-through-rivers-and-irrigation-systems
#7
Farah Baroudy, Wassim Habib, Ghassan Tanos, Elvis Gerges, Carine Saab, Elia Choueiri, Franco Nigro
Verticillium dahliae Kleb. is a soilborne pathogen causing Verticillium wilt disease on several hosts. The pathogen survival structure (i.e., microsclerotia) can be efficiently spread by different dispersal methods. In the present study, the medium to long dispersal spread of the pathogen through rivers and irrigation canals was investigated. Samples of sediments (n = 29) were gathered from eight Lebanese rivers and three regional irrigation canals, in addition to samples of soil particles and plant residues (n = 14) from irrigation filters in commercial orchards...
August 2018: Plant Disease
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30673404/combined-infection-with-cucumber-green-mottle-mosaic-virus-and-pythium-species-causes-extensive-collapse-in-cucumber-plants
#8
Amit M Philosoph, Aviv Dombrovsky, Yigal Elad, Amit K Jaiswal, Amnon Koren, Oded Lachman, Omer Frenkel
In the last decade, the phenomenon of late-wilting has increased in cucumber greenhouses during Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus (CGMMV) epidemics. Because the wilting appears in defined patches accompanied by root rot, it was hypothesized that the phenomenon is caused by coinfection of soilborne pathogens and CGMMV. A field survey showed that 69% of the collapsed plants were infected with both Pythium spp. and CGMMV, whereas only 20 and 6.6% were singly infected with Pythium spp. or CGMMV, respectively. Artificial inoculations in controlled-environmental growth chambers and glasshouse experiments showed that coinfection with Pythium spinosum and CGMMV leads to a strong synergistic wilting effect and reduces growth parameters...
April 2018: Plant Disease
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30673387/late-summer-disease-symptoms-in-western-washington-red-raspberry-fields-associated-with-co-occurrence-of-phytophthora-rubi-verticillium-dahliae-and-pratylenchus-penetrans-but-not-raspberry-bushy-dwarf-virus
#9
Jerry E Weiland, Chris Benedict, Inga A Zasada, Carolyn R Scagel, Bryan R Beck, Anne Davis, Kim Graham, Amy Peetz, Robert R Martin, Jeremiah K S Dung, Andres Reyes Gaige, Lindsey Thiessen
Sixty percent of the $109 million processed red raspberry industry of the United States occurs in northern Washington State. In 2012, late-summer symptoms of vascular wilt and root disease were observed in many raspberry plantings. These symptoms were initially attributed to Verticillium dahliae. However, diagnostic tests for the pathogen were often contradictory and other soilborne pathogens (Phytophthora rubi and Pratylenchus penetrans) or Raspberry bushy dwarf virus (RBDV) might also have been involved. Therefore, a survey was conducted in 2013 and 2014 to (i) establish the incidence and soil population levels of V...
May 2018: Plant Disease
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30657427/detection-and-quantification-of-pythium-tracheiphilum-in-soil-by-multiplex-real-time-qpcr
#10
Hervé Van der Heyden, Thérèse Wallon, C André Lévesque, Odile Carisse
In Canada, head lettuce (Lactuca sativa capitata) is extensively produced in the muck soils of southwestern Québec. However, yields are increasingly affected by various soilborne pathogens, including Pythium spp., which cause wilt and damping off. In a survey conducted in Québec muck soils in 2010 and 2011, Pythium tracheiphilum Matta was identified as the predominant Pythium sp. in the root of head lettuce showing Pythium stunt symptoms. Therefore, to improve risk assessment and help further understanding of disease epidemiology, a specific and sensitive real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assay based on TaqMan-minor groove binder (MGB) technology was developed for P...
January 18, 2019: Plant Disease
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30505001/canker-and-decline-diseases-caused-by-soil-and-airborne-phytophthora-species-in-forests-and-woodlands
#11
REVIEW
T Jung, A Pérez-Sierra, A Durán, M Horta Jung, Y Balci, B Scanu
Most members of the oomycete genus Phytophthora are primary plant pathogens. Both soil- and airborne Phytophthora species are able to survive adverse environmental conditions with enduring resting structures, mainly sexual oospores, vegetative chlamydospores and hyphal aggregations. Soilborne Phytophthora species infect fine roots and the bark of suberized roots and the collar region with motile biflagellate zoospores released from sporangia during wet soil conditions. Airborne Phytophthora species infect leaves, shoots, fruits and bark of branches and stems with caducous sporangia produced during humid conditions on infected plant tissues and dispersed by rain and wind splash...
December 2018: Persoonia
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30478234/response-of-the-biocontrol-agent-pseudomonas-pseudoalcaligenes-avo110-to-rosellinia-necatrix-exudate
#12
Clara Pliego, José Ignacio Crespo-Gómez, Adrián Pintado, Isabel Pérez-Martínez, Antonio de Vicente, Francisco M Cazorla, Cayo Ramos
The rhizobacterium Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes AVO110, isolated by enrichment of competitive avocado root tip colonizers, controls avocado white root rot disease caused by Rosellinia necatrix. Here, we applied signature-tagged mutagenesis (STM) during the growth and survival of AVO110 in fungal exudate-containing medium with the goal of identifying molecular mechanisms linked to the interaction of this bacterium with R. necatrix A total of 26 STM mutants out-competed by the parental strain in fungal exudate, but not in rich medium, were selected and named <u>g</u>rowth-<u>a</u>ttenuated <u>m</u>utants (GAM)...
November 26, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30417880/a-plate-competition-assay-as-a-quick-preliminary-assessment-of-disease-suppression
#13
Deborah A Neher, Thomas R Weicht
The goal was to develop and optimize a simple, affordable, and effective bioassay to detect disease suppressive ability of a specific compost against soilborne fungus Rhizoctonia solani. R. solani is a pathogen of a wide range of plant hosts worldwide. The fungus survives in soils as a saprophyte and grows rapidly on simple water agar media. The plate assay is a rapid method to compare composts for their ability to slow the growth of R. solani. The assay also correlates well with suppression of other soilborne fungal pathogens that survive as saprophytes in soils such as Alternaria early blights, Fusarium wilt, Phytophthora root rot, and Pythium root rot...
October 28, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30417562/tomato-tolerance-and-pest-control-following-fumigation-with-different-ratios-of-dimethyl-disulfide-and-chloropicrin
#14
Jialin Yu, Caroline J Land, Gary E Vallad, Nathan S Boyd
BACKGROUND: The phaseout of methyl bromide (MeBr) continues to stimulate research into the use of other soil fumigants for controlling soilborne diseases and weeds. This research evaluated tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) tolerance, weed emergence and the recovery of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici (FOL) inoculum following fumigation with various combination ratios of dimethyl disulfide plus chloropicrin (DMDS + Pic). RESULTS: DMDS on its own did not effectively control purple nutsedge (Cyperus rotundus L...
November 11, 2018: Pest Management Science
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30360288/metabolomics-approaches-for-the-discrimination-of-disease-suppressive-soils-for-rhizoctonia-solani-ag8-in-cereal-crops-using-1-h-nmr-and-lc-ms
#15
Helen L Hayden, Simone J Rochfort, Vilnis Ezernieks, Keith W Savin, Pauline M Mele
The suppression of soilborne crop pathogens such as Rhizoctonia solani AG8 may offer a sustainable and enduring method for disease control, though soils with these properties are difficult to identify. In this study, we analysed the soil metabolic profiles of suppressive and non-suppressive soils over 2 years of cereal production. We collected bulk and rhizosphere soil at different cropping stages and subjected soil extracts to liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) and proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1 H NMR) analyses...
February 15, 2019: Science of the Total Environment
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30294977/towards-take-all-control-a-c-21%C3%AE-oxidase-required-for-acylation-of-triterpene-defence-compounds-in-oat
#16
Aymeric Leveau, James Reed, Xue Qiao, Michael J Stephenson, Sam T Mugford, Rachel E Melton, Jenni C Rant, Robert Vickerstaff, Tim Langdon, Anne Osbourn
Oats produce avenacins, antifungal triterpenes that are synthesized in the roots and provide protection against take-all and other soilborne diseases. Avenacins are acylated at the carbon-21 position of the triterpene scaffold, a modification critical for antifungal activity. We have previously characterized several steps in the avenacin pathway, including those required for acylation. However, transfer of the acyl group to the scaffold requires the C-21β position to be oxidized first, by an as yet uncharacterized enzyme...
October 8, 2018: New Phytologist
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30283421/microbial-community-composition-in-take-all-suppressive-soils
#17
Paola Durán, Gonzalo Tortella, Sharon Viscardi, Patricio Javier Barra, Victor J Carrión, María de la Luz Mora, María José Pozo
Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici (Ggt) is the main soilborne factor that affects wheat production around the world. Recently we reported the occurrence of six suppressive soils in monoculture areas from indigenous "Mapuche" communities, and evidenced that the suppression relied on the biotic component of those soils. Here, we compare the rhizosphere and endosphere microbial community structure (total bacteria, actinomycetes, total fungi, and ascomycetes) of wheat plants grown in suppressive and conducive soils...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30281419/verticillium-wilt-on-fiber-flax-symptoms-and-pathogen-development-in-planta
#18
Adrien Blum, Mélanie Bressan, Abderrakib Zahid, Isabelle Trinsoutrot-Gattin, Azeddine Driouich, Karine Laval
Fiber flax (Linum usitatissimum L.), an important crop in Normandy (France), is increasingly affected by Verticillium wilt caused by the soilborne fungus Verticillium dahliae. This disease leads to nonnegligible yield losses and depreciated fibers that are consequently difficult to upgrade. Verticillium wilt is a major threat to a broad range of agriculture. In this study, susceptible fiber flax cultivar Adélie was infected by VdLu01 (isolated from fiber flax, this study) or green fluorescent protein-tagged VdLs17 (transformed and provided by the department of Plant Pathology, University of California, Davis)...
December 2018: Plant Disease
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30181923/do-volatile-compounds-produced-by-fusarium-oxysporum-and-verticillium-dahliae-affect-stress-tolerance-in-plants
#19
Ningxiao Li, Seogchan Kang
Volatile compounds (VCs) produced by diverse microbes seem to affect plant growth, development and/or stress tolerance. We investigated how VCs released by soilborne fungi  Fusarium oxysporum and Verticillium dahliae affect  Arabidopsis thalian a responses to abiotic and biotic stresses. Under salt stress, VCs from both fungi helped its growth and increased chlorophyll content. However, in contrast to wild-type A. thaliana (Col-0), V. dahliae VCs failed to increase leaf surface area in auxin signalling mutants aux1-7, tir1-1 and axr1-3 ...
2018: Mycology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30172302/hydroxycoumarins-new-effective-plant-derived-compounds-reduce-ralstonia-pseudosolanacearum-populations-and-control-tobacco-bacterial-wilt
#20
Liang Yang, Lintong Wu, Xiaoyuan Yao, Shiyuan Zhao, Jiao Wang, Shili Li, Wei Ding
Plant wilt disease caused by the soilborne bacterial pathogen Ralstonia pseudosolanacearum is one of the most devastating plant diseases; however, no effective protection against this disease has been developed. Coumarins are important natural plant-derived compounds with a wide range of bioactivities and extensive applications in medicine and agriculture. In the present study, three hydroxycoumarins (Hycs), umbelliferone (UM), esculetin (ES) and daphnetin (DA) significantly inhibited the growth of R. pseudosolanacearum on solid medium in a concentration-dependent manner, and the minimum inhibitory concentration (MICs) of these compounds was 325  mg L-1 , 125 mg L-1 and 75 mg L-1 , respectively...
October 2018: Microbiological Research
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