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Excess Iodine

Jessica Farebrother, Michael B Zimmermann, Maria Andersson
Iodine is essential for thyroid hormone synthesis. High iodine intakes are well tolerated by most healthy individuals, but in some people, excess iodine intakes may precipitate hyperthyroidism, hypothyroidism, goiter, and/or thyroid autoimmunity. Individuals with preexisting thyroid disease or those previously exposed to iodine deficiency may be more susceptible to thyroid disorders due to an increase in iodine intake, in some cases at intakes only slightly above physiological needs. Thyroid dysfunction due to excess iodine intake is usually mild and transient, but iodine-induced hyperthyroidism can be life-threatening in some individuals...
March 20, 2019: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
Ann-Rong Yan, Xiaojuan Zhang, Hong Shen, Xia Zhou, Rui Li, Zhexing Yuan
Excessive iodine intake has been associated with increased risk of thyroid cancer (TC) in many studies, but the results have not been consistent. Since it was common knowledge that urinary iodine (UI) is considered a sensitive marker of current iodine intake, we conducted a meta-analysis to clarify the association between high UI and TC. We adhered to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses statement, and the Cochrane Collaboration. Between-group meta-analyses were performed to compare UI between TC patients and the healthy/euthyroid subjects in local residents and benign thyroid nodules (BTN) patients...
March 19, 2019: Endocrine Journal
Kaleab Baye
Micronutrient deficiencies are widespread and disproportionately affect women and children in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC). Among various interventions, food fortification and supplementation with micronutrients have been proven to be cost-effective. The aim of the present paper is to review existing literature to assess risks of excessive intake in LMIC to then highlight programmatic changes required to maximise benefits of micronutrient interventions while minimising risks of adverse effects. While very few LMIC have national food consumption surveys that can inform fortification programmes, many more are implementing mandatory fortification programmes...
March 11, 2019: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
Carolina Martins Corcino, Tatiana Martins Benvenuto Louro Berbara, Débora Ayres Saraiva, Nathalie Anne de Oliveira E Silva de Morais, Annie Schtscherbyna, Larissa Nascimento Gertrudes, Patrícia de Fátima Dos Santos Teixeira, Mario Vaisman
OBJECTIVE: To assess iodine status and its effects on maternal thyroid function throughout pregnancy. DESIGN: In the present prospective cohort study, three urinary samples were requested for urinary iodine concentration (UIC) determinations in both the first and third gestational trimesters. Serum thyrotropin (TSH) and free thyroxine (FT4) were analysed in both trimesters and thyroid antibodies were assessed once. SETTING: Rio de Janeiro, Brazil...
March 8, 2019: Public Health Nutrition
Paul Cherry, Cathal O'Hara, Pamela J Magee, Emeir M McSorley, Philip J Allsopp
Recent interest in seaweeds as a source of macronutrients, micronutrients, and bioactive components has highlighted prospective applications within the functional food and nutraceutical industries, with impetus toward the alleviation of risk factors associated with noncommunicable diseases such as obesity, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. This narrative review summarizes the nutritional composition of edible seaweeds; evaluates the evidence regarding the health benefits of whole seaweeds, extracted bioactive components, and seaweed-based food products in humans; and assesses the potential adverse effects of edible seaweeds, including those related to ingestion of excess iodine and arsenic...
March 6, 2019: Nutrition Reviews
Ying Xiong, Wei-Feng Miao, Na-Na Wang, Hong-Mei Chen, Xian-Ran Wang, Jia-Yi Wang, Qing-Lan Tan, Shuo-Ping Chen
Solid alcohols based on waste cooking oil (WCO) and other edible oils (butter or soybean oil) were synthesized by a simple one-step method. The effects of sodium hydroxide (NaOH) dosage and type of oil on the combustion performances were explored. IR spectroscopy and micro-morphologies of the oil based solid alcohols were also studied. Results showed that, for oil based solid alcohol, use of an appropriate excess of NaOH and an oil with lower iodine value produced the solid alcohol with better combustion performance...
February 15, 2019: Waste Management
Jiwei Liu, Lixiang Liu, Qingzhen Jia, Xiangdong Zhang, Xing Jin, Hongmei Shen
To understand the effects of excess iodine intake on blood glucose, blood pressure, and blood lipids in adults. We selected three villages from Shanxi Province to conduct cross-sectional survey: Maxi [median water iodine concentration (MWIC) 6.3 μg/L, median urinary iodine concentration (MUIC) 126.6 μg/L, 320 adults]; Xiwenzhuang (MWIC 79.8 μg/L, MUIC 221.2 μg/L, 264 adults); and Gaoche (MWIC 506.0 μg/L, MUIC 421.3 μg/L, 241 adults). According to the urinary iodine levels in adults, the three villages were defined as iodine-adequate, iodine-sufficient, and iodine-excess...
February 23, 2019: Biological Trace Element Research
Dalila Lebsir, Julien Guemri, Dimitri Kereselidze, Stephane Grison, Marc Benderitter, Annick Pech, David Cohen, Mohamed Amine Benadjaoud, Philippe Lestaevel, Maâmar Souidi
Protracted radioiodine release, may requires repeated intake of potassium iodide (KI) to protect thyroid gland. It is well established that iodine excess inhibits transiently the thyroid function. As developing foetus depends on maternal thyroid hormones (TH) supply, more knowledge are needed about the plausible effects that repeated KI intake can cause in this sensitive population, especially that even subtle variation of maternal thyroid function may have persistent consequences on progeny brain processing...
February 20, 2019: Neuroscience
Zahra Heidari, Seyed Rafie Arefhosseini, Mehdi Hedayati, Elnaz Vaghef-Mehrabany, Mehranghiz Ebrahimi-Mameghani
Background: Adequate iodine intake by women in child-bearing age affects fetus neurodevelopment during pregnancy. A majority of previous studies has investigated iodine status among children, and there is limited data on female adolescents who are more exposed to consequences of iodine deficiency (ID) in their near-future pregnancies; thus, we aimed to assess iodine status, and knowledge on iodine deficiency disorders (IDDs) among adolescent school girls (14-19 years old) in Shahriar, Iran. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted among 223 female students selected through multi-stage cluster sampling from 12 schools...
2019: Health Promotion Perspectives
Guo-Xing Li, Xiafei Hu, Gang He, Gong Chen
We report an efficient and economical method for remote δ C(sp3 )-H heteroarylation of free aliphatic alcohols using a hypervalent iodine PFBI-OH oxidant under photoredox catalysis. The reaction sequence involves in situ alcoholysis of PFBI-OH with alcohol, generation of an alkoxy radical intermediate by SET reduction, 1,5-HAT, and Minisci-type C-C bond formation. This method uses a slight excess of alcohols, can facilitate reaction at δ methyl and methylene positions, and has been successfully applied to modification of complex drug molecules...
January 21, 2019: Chemical Science
Marina O Gorbunova, Anastasiya A Baulina, Margarita S Kulyaginova, Vladimir V Apyari, Aleksei A Furletov, Pavel A Volkov, Vladimir E Bochenkov, Aleksandr S Starukhin, Stanislava G Dmitrienko
A method is described for sensitive and selective detection of iodine by using a paper strip modified with silver triangular nanoplates (AgTNPs). It is based on the extraction of iodine from a solution into a flow of air via dynamic gas extraction and transferring it through a reactive paper modified with AgTNPs. The interaction of AgTNPs with iodine results in a color change from blue to white. This can be visually detected and monitored by digital colorimetry. The dynamic gas extraction is highly selective for volatile compounds so that a sample pretreatment is minimal...
February 15, 2019: Mikrochimica Acta
Marianne S Morseth, Inger Aakre, Ingrid Barikmo, Lisbeth Dahl, Sigrun Henjum
Excessive iodine intake is a major public health problem in the Saharawi refugee camps in Algeria, where animal milk is an important source of iodine. The purpose of this study was to assess the association between iodine concentrations in locally produced animal milk and in animal drinking water and further to assess the risk of exceeding European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) tolerable upper intake level for iodine (600 μg/d) among Saharawi women. In 2009 and 2010, 202 milk samples from goats and sheep and 52 milk samples from camel were collected...
2019: PloS One
György Csekő, Qingyu Gao, Li Xu, Attila K Horváth
The thiourea dioxide--iodate reaction has been reinvestigated spectrophotometrically under acidic condition using phosphoric acid--dihydrogen-phosphate buffer within the pH range of 1.1-1.8 at 1.0 M ionic strength adjusted by sodium perchlorate and at 25 ○C. The system was found to exhibit clock behavior, having a well-defined and reproducible time lag called Landolt time, though elementary iodine may even be detected in substrate excess, hence under these conditions the reaction can be classified as an autocatalysis-driven clock reaction...
February 11, 2019: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
Sanjoy Saha, Brenda A Z Abu, Yasaman Jamshidi-Naeini, Upasana Mukherjee, Makenzie Miller, Li-Ling Peng, Wilna Oldewage-Theron
Iodine is an essential trace mineral, vital for its functions in many physiological processes in the human body. Both iodine deficiency (ID) and excess are associated with adverse health effects; ID and excess iodine intake have both been identified in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). The review aims to (1) review the iodine status among populations in SSA until October 2018, and (2) identify populations at risk of excess or inadequate iodine intakes. A systematic search of relevant articles was carried out by a seven-member research team using PubMed, Science Direct and Scopus...
February 11, 2019: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
Ziyun Pan, Tingkai Cui, Wen Chen, Shu Gao, Elizabeth N Pearce, Wei Wang, Yanting Chen, Wenxing Guo, Long Tan, Jun Shen, Wanqi Zhang
OBJECTIVE: This study aims to evaluate the association of serum iodine concentration (SIC) with urinary iodine concentration (UIC) and thyroid function in pregnant women, as well as to provide the reference range of SIC of pregnant women in iodine-sufficiency area. METHODS: Pregnant women were enrolled in the Department of Obstetrics, Tanggu Maternity Hospital, Tianjin from March 2016 to May 2017. Fasting venous blood and spot urine samples were collected. Serum free-triiodothyronine (FT3), free-thyroxine (FT4), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), thyroglobulin (Tg), thyroid peroxidase antibody (TPOAb), thyroglobulin antibody (TgAb), UIC, and serum iodine concentration (SIC) were measured...
February 6, 2019: Clinical Endocrinology
William W Brennessel, Alexander Romanenkov, Victor G Young, John E Ellis
Treatment of tetraethylammonium hexacarbonyltantalate, [Et4 N][Ta(CO)6 ], with 1.1 equivalents of molecular iodine (I2 ) in tetrahydrofuran (THF) at 200 K, followed by the addition of 6.0 equivalents of 2,6-diisopropylphenyl isocyanide (CNDipp) and slow warming to 293 K over a 24 h period gave the tantalum(I) iodide derivative hexakis(2,6-diisopropylphenyl isocyanide-κC)iodidotantalum(I), [TaI(C13 H17 N)6 ] or TaI(CNDipp)6 , 1. Recrystallization of this substance from pentane provided deep-red nearly black parallelepipeds of the product, which was characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction...
February 1, 2019: Acta Crystallographica. Section C, Structural Chemistry
Udayan Bhattacharya, Amar K Chandra
Background To compare the state of iodine nutrition among school age children (SAC) in high- (HSGs) and low-socioeconomic groups (LSGs) during a post iodation scenario in Kolkata. Methods Clinical examinations of the goiter, median urinary iodine (MUI), mean urinary thiocyanate (MUSCN) in SAC (6-12 years) from both sexes in the different socioeconomic groups were carried out and the iodine content of edible salt was measured. Results A total of 5315 SAC, of which 2875 SAC were from a HSG and another 2440 SAC from an LSG were clinically examined for goiter...
February 2, 2019: Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism: JPEM
G A Mel'nichenko, I I Larina
Since the middle of the twentieth century, there has been a significant change in methods of the diagnosis and treatment of thyroid diseases with thyrotoxicosis syndrome. Previously doctors did not have trouble just with diagnosing diseases that occur with a typical clinical presentation (the Merzeburg triad, a multinodal goiter with fibrillation) because of no possible to determine thyroid hormones. Then in the early 70s years the appearance of immunological methods for estimating hormones in the blood has led to significant changes in our understanding of the variants of thyroid pathology with thyrotoxicosis (TT)...
November 22, 2018: Terapevticheskiĭ Arkhiv
Robert Krysiak, Karolina Kowalcze, Bogusław Okopień
OBJECTIVE: Despite high prevalence in a female population, surprisingly little is known about sexual functioning of women with thyroid hyperfunction. This study was aimed at assessing female sexual function and depressive symptoms in women with overt hyperthyroidism of autoimmune and non-autoimmune origin. STUDY DESIGN: The study included three age-matched groups of young women inhabiting the Upper Silesia (a selenium-deficient and iodine-sufficient area): individuals with overt hyperthyroidism induced by Graves' disease (group A, n = 31), women with overt hyperthyroidism caused by toxic multinodular goiter or toxic adenoma (group B, n = 30) and women with normal thyroid function (group C, n = 34)...
January 9, 2019: European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology
Jessica Farebrother, Michael B Zimmermann, Vincent Assey, Mary Christine Castro, Mohamed Cherkaoui, Ralph Fingerhut, Qingzhen Jia, Tomislav Jukic, Anselimo Makokha, Theofilo O San Luis, Rita Wegmüller, Maria Andersson
BACKGROUND: In areas with incomplete salt iodization coverage, infants and children aged 6-24 months weaning from breast milk and receiving complementary foods are at risk of iodine deficiency. However, few data exist on the risk of excessive iodine intake in this age group. Thyroglobulin (Tg) is a sensitive marker of iodine intake in school-age children and adults and may be used to estimate the optimal iodine intake range in infancy. The aim of this study was to assess the association of low and high iodine intakes with Tg and thyroid function in weaning infants...
February 2019: Thyroid: Official Journal of the American Thyroid Association
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