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https://read.qxmd.com/read/30771753/brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-dna-methylation-mediates-the-association-between-neighborhood-disadvantage-and-adolescent-brain-structure
#1
Jo Wrigglesworth, Joanne Ryan, Nandita Vijayakumar, Sarah Whittle
Prior research indicates that socioeconomic disadvantage is associated with prefrontal cortical (PFC) development in childhood and adolescence, however the mechanisms of this link are unclear. This study investigated whether DNA methylation of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF, which plays a key role in synaptic plasticity), mediated the association between neighborhood disadvantage and thickness of the PFC in adolescents. Neighborhood disadvantage was measured in 33 adolescents aged 12-13 years using the Socio-Economic Indexes for Areas...
December 24, 2018: Psychiatry research. Neuroimaging
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30771717/graphene-based-electrochemical-biosensors-for-monitoring-noncommunicable-disease-biomarkers
#2
REVIEW
S Taniselass, M K Md Arshad, Subash C B Gopinath
Graphene is a 2-dimensional nanomaterial with an atomic thickness has attracted a strong scientific interest owing to their remarkable optical, electronic, thermal, mechanical and electrochemical properties. Graphene-based materials particularly graphene oxide and reduced graphene oxide are widely utilized in various applications ranging from food industry, environmental monitoring and biomedical fields as well as in the development of various types of biosensing devices. The richness in oxygen functional groups in the materials serves as a catalysis for the development of biosensors/electrochemical biosensors which promotes for an attachment of biological recognition elements, surface functionalization and compatible with micro- and nano- bio-environment...
January 29, 2019: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30771574/the-effect-of-recycling-culture-medium-after-harvesting-of-chlorella-vulgaris-biomass-by-flocculating-bacteria-on-microalgal-growth-and-the-functionary-mechanism
#3
Yi Li, Zhiyu Zhang, Yingxing Duan, Hailei Wang
Microalgal cultivation and harvesting are two main factors that restrict the development of microalgae. To help solve these two questions, flocculating bacteria and recycling culture medium were investigated in this study. Proteins in bacterial cells of Bacillus sp. y3 and y6 exhibited direct flocculation activities on Chlorella vulgaris cells. The recycling culture media after harvest of microalgal biomass by strain y3 and y6 could promote C. vulgaris growth. The determination of bacterial community confirmed that strain Bw in C...
February 8, 2019: Bioresource Technology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30771550/cannabis-for-refractory-epilepsy-in-children-a-review-focusing-on-cdkl5-deficiency-disorder
#4
REVIEW
Tristan Dale, Jenny Downs, Heather Olson, Ann Marie Bergin, Stephanie Smith, Helen Leonard
Severe paediatric epilepsies such as CDKL5 Deficiency Disorder (CDD) are extremely debilitating, largely due to the early-onset and refractory nature of the seizures. Existing treatment options are often ineffective and associated with a host of adverse effects, causing those that are affected to seek alternative treatments. Cannabis based products have attracted significant attention over recent years, primarily driven by reports of miraculous cures and a renewed public preference for 'natural' therapies, thus placing intense pressure on health professionals and the government for regulatory change...
February 5, 2019: Epilepsy Research
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30771506/rice-genomics-over-the-past-two-decades-and-into-the-future
#5
REVIEW
Shuhui Song, Dongmei Tian, Zhang Zhang, Songnian Hu, Jun Yu
Domestic rice (Oryza sativa L.) is one of the most important cereal crops, feeding a large number of worldwide populations. Along with various high-throughput genome sequencing projects, rice genomics has been making great headway toward direct field applications of basic research advances in understanding the molecular mechanisms of agronomical traits and utilizing diverse germplasm resources. Here, we briefly review its achievements over the past two decades and present the potential for its bright future...
February 13, 2019: Genomics, Proteomics & Bioinformatics
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30771461/cerebellum-and-cognition-does-the-rodent-cerebellum-participate-in-cognitive-functions
#6
Megan L Shipman, John T Green
There is a widespread, nearly complete consensus that the human and non-human primate cerebellum is engaged in non-motor, cognitive functions. This body of research has implicated the lateral portions of lobule VII (Crus I and Crus II) and the ventrolateral dentate nucleus. With rodents, however, it is not so clear. We review here approximately 40 years of experiments using a variety of cerebellar manipulations in rats and mice and measuring the effects on executive functions (working memory, inhibition, and cognitive flexibility), spatial navigation, discrimination learning, and goal-directed and stimulus-driven instrumental conditioning...
February 13, 2019: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30771446/comparative-transcriptomics-reveals-mechanisms-underlying-cln3-deficiency-phenotypes-in-dictyostelium
#7
Robert J Huber, Sabateeshan Mathavarajah
Mutations in CLN3 cause a juvenile form of neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (NCL). This devastating neurological disorder, commonly known as Batten disease, is currently untreatable due to a lack of understanding of the physiological role of the protein. Recently, work in the social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum has provided valuable new insight into the function of CLN3 in the cell. More specifically, research has linked the Dictyostelium homolog (gene: cln3, protein: Cln3) to protein secretion, adhesion, and aggregation during starvation, which initiates multicellular development...
February 13, 2019: Cellular Signalling
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30771407/do-theta-oscillations-explain-the-somatosensory-change-detection-mechanism
#8
Zhilin Zhang, Guoxin Guo, Jian Zhang, Chunlin Li, Qiang Huang, Ritsu Go, Tianyi Yan, Hidenao Fukuyama, Shintaro Funahashi, Jinglong Wu
Recent research has indicated that the mismatch negativity (MMN) is elicited in response to a discernible small change of a somatosensory stimulus applied on the hand. However, the neural mechanism for detecting small change of somatosensory stimulus remains unknown. In the present study, we developed a novel pressure stimulation device using air jet applied on the index finger pad, and determined the just noticeable differences (JNDs) of pressure discrimination for each subject. Using the deviant-standard-reversed oddball paradigm, we analyzed the average dynamic changes in MMN amplitude and changes of evoked spectral power...
February 13, 2019: Biological Psychology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30771352/g-protein-coupled-receptors-are-dynamic-regulators-of-digestion-and-targets-for-digestive-diseases
#9
REVIEW
Meritxell Canals, Daniel P Poole, Nicholas A Veldhuis, Brian L Schmidt, Nigel W Bunnett
G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are the largest family of transmembrane signaling proteins. Within the gastrointestinal tract, GPCRs expressed by epithelial cells sense contents of the lumen, and GPCRs expressed by epithelial cells, myocytes, neurons, and immune cells participate in communication amongst cells. GPCRs control digestion, mediate digestive diseases, and coordinate repair and growth. GPCRs are the target of over one third of therapeutic drugs, including many drugs used to treat digestive diseases...
February 13, 2019: Gastroenterology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30771348/anticancer-and-antimetastatic-potential-of-enterolactone-clinical-preclinical-and-mechanistic-perspectives
#10
REVIEW
Aniket V Mali, Subhash B Padhye, Shrikant Anant, Mahabaleshwar V Hegde, Shivajirao S Kadam
Currently cancer is the second leading cause of death globally and worldwide incidence and mortality rates of all cancers of males and females are rising tremendously. In spite of advances in chemotherapy and radiation, metastasis and recurrence are considered as the major causes of cancer related deaths. Hence there is a mounting need to develop new therapeutic modalities to treat metastasis and recurrence in cancers. A significant amount of substantiation from epidemiological, clinical and laboratory research highlights the importance of diet and nutrition in cancer chemoprevention...
February 13, 2019: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30771272/strategies-for-controlling-egress-of-therapeutic-cells-from-hydrogel-microcapsules
#11
Ainara Benavente-Babace, Kristina Haase, Duncan J Stewart, Michel Godin
Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) and human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) have shown great regenerative potential to repair damaged tissue; however, their injection in vivo results in low retention and poor cell survival. Early clinical research has focused on cell-encapsulation, to improve viability and integration of delivered cells. However, this strategy has been limited by the inability to reproduce large volumes of standardized microcapsules and the lack of information on cell-specific egress and timed release from hydrogel microcapsules...
February 16, 2019: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30771265/the-impact-of-terrain-on-lower-limb-bone-structure
#12
Brigitte Holt, Erin Whittey
OBJECTIVES: Lower limb diaphyseal geometry is often used to evaluate mobility in past populations. Diaphyseal dimensions such as high shape (IX /IY ) indices generally thought to reflect high mobility may also result from walking over rough terrain. This study investigates the possible effects of terrain on lower limb diaphyseal cross-sectional geometric dimensions. MATERIALS: The sample (N = 3,195) comprises adult skeletons from Europe, Africa, North America, and Asia, spanning from around 30,000 BP to mid-twentieth century...
February 16, 2019: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30771165/assays-for-neuronal-defects-caused-by-early-formation-of-%C3%AE-synuclein-inclusions-in-primary-cultured-neurons
#13
Laura A Volpicelli-Daley
Parkinson's disease (PD) and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) are characterized by intracellular inclusions composed mostly of α-synuclein (Baba et al., Am J Pathol 152:879-884, 1998). How inclusion formation impacts neuronal function prior to death is key to understanding disease progression and identifying therapeutic windows. In the α-synuclein fibril model, exposure of primary neurons to α-synuclein fibrils induces endogenously expressed α-synuclein to form inclusions which closely resembles pathologic mechanisms in humans with PD and DLB (Volpicelli-Daley et al...
2019: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30771132/a-quantitative-sensory-testing-approach-to-pain-in-autism-spectrum-disorders
#14
Sarah Vaughan, Francis McGlone, Helen Poole, David J Moore
Sensory abnormalities in autism has been noted clinically, with pain insensitivity as a specified diagnostic criterion. However, there is limited research using psychophysically robust techniques. Thirteen adults with ASD and 13 matched controls completed an established quantitative sensory testing (QST) battery, supplemented with measures of pain tolerance and central modulation. The ASD group showed higher thresholds for light touch detection and mechanical pain. Notably, the ASD group had a greater range of extreme scores (the number of z-scores outside of the 95% CI > 2), dynamic mechanical allodynia and paradoxical heat sensation; phenomena not typically seen in neurotypical individuals...
February 15, 2019: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30770962/vanadium-elicitation-of-trifolium-pratense-l-cell-culture-and-possible-pathways-of-produced-isoflavones-transport-across-the-plasma-membrane
#15
Jan Kubes, Milan Skalicky, Lenka Tumova, Jan Martin, Vaclav Hejnak, Jaroslava Martinkova
Vanadium compounds increased the content and release of distinct isoflavones in a Trifolium pratense suspension culture. Regarding transport-mechanism inhibitors, the process was mostly facilitated by ABC proteins and vesicular transport. The transport of isoflavones and other secondary metabolites is an important part of metabolism within plants and cultures in vitro regarding their role in defence against various abiotic and biotic stressors. This research focuses on the way how to increase production and exudation of isoflavones by application of chemical elicitor and the basic identification of their transport mechanisms across cell membranes...
February 15, 2019: Plant Cell Reports
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30770928/generation-of-immortalized-human-endometrial-stromal-cell-lines-with-different-endometriosis-risk-genotypes
#16
S J Holdsworth-Carson, E M Colgrave, J F Donoghue, J N Fung, M L Churchill, S Mortlock, P Paiva, M Healey, G W Montgomery, J E Girling, P A W Rogers
Endometriotic lesions are composed in part of endometrial-like stromal cells, however, there is a shortage of immortalized human endometrial stromal cultures available for research. As genetic factors play a role in endometriosis risk, it is important that genotype is also incorporated into analysis of pathological mechanisms. Human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) immortalization (using Lenti-hTERT-green fluorescent protein virus) took place following genotype selection; 13 patients homozygous for either the risk or non-risk 'other' allele for one or more important endometriosis risk single nucleotide polymorphism on chromosome 1p36...
February 16, 2019: Molecular Human Reproduction
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30770893/deep-neural-networks-in-psychiatry
#17
REVIEW
Daniel Durstewitz, Georgia Koppe, Andreas Meyer-Lindenberg
Machine and deep learning methods, today's core of artificial intelligence, have been applied with increasing success and impact in many commercial and research settings. They are powerful tools for large scale data analysis, prediction and classification, especially in very data-rich environments ("big data"), and have started to find their way into medical applications. Here we will first give an overview of machine learning methods, with a focus on deep and recurrent neural networks, their relation to statistics, and the core principles behind them...
February 15, 2019: Molecular Psychiatry
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30770892/delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol-increases-striatal-glutamate-levels-in-healthy-individuals-implications-for-psychosis
#18
Marco Colizzi, Nathalie Weltens, Philip McGuire, David Lythgoe, Steve Williams, Lukas Van Oudenhove, Sagnik Bhattacharyya
The neurobiological mechanisms underlying the association between cannabis use and acute or long-lasting psychosis are not completely understood. While some evidence suggests altered striatal dopamine may underlie the association, direct evidence that cannabis use affects either acute or chronic striatal dopamine is inconclusive. In contrast, pre-clinical research suggests that cannabis may affect dopamine via modulation of glutamate signaling. A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover design was used to investigate whether altered striatal glutamate, as measured using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy, underlies the acute psychotomimetic effects of intravenously administered delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC; 1...
February 15, 2019: Molecular Psychiatry
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30770838/cost-effective-and-robust-genotyping-using-double-mismatch-allele-specific-quantitative-pcr
#19
Steve Lefever, Ali Rihani, Joni Van der Meulen, Filip Pattyn, Tom Van Maerken, Jo Van Dorpe, Jan Hellemans, Jo Vandesompele
For a wide range of diseases, SNPs in the genome are the underlying mechanism of dysfunction. Therefore, targeted detection of these variations is of high importance for early diagnosis and (familial) screenings. While allele-specific PCR has been around for many years, its adoption for SNP genotyping or somatic mutation detection has been hampered by its low discriminating power and high costs. To tackle this, we developed a cost-effective qPCR based method, able to detect SNPs in a robust and specific manner...
February 15, 2019: Scientific Reports
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30770831/single-gametophyte-sequencing-reveals-that-crossover-events-differ-between-sexes-in-maize
#20
Cheng Luo, Xiang Li, Qinghua Zhang, Jianbing Yan
Meiotic crossover (CO) plays a key role in producing gametophytes and generating genetic variation. The patterns of CO production differ inter- and intra-species, as well as between sexes. However, sex-specific patterns of CO production have not been accurately profiled independently of genetic backgrounds in maize. Here, we develop a method to isolate single female gametophyte for genomes sequencing in maize. We show that more COs are observed in male (19.3 per microspore) than in female (12.4 per embryo sac)...
February 15, 2019: Nature Communications
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