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Christa A Baker, Jan Clemens, Mala Murthy
Across the animal kingdom, social interactions rely on sound production and perception. From simple cricket chirps to more elaborate bird songs, animals go to great lengths to communicate information critical for reproduction and survival via acoustic signals. Insects produce a wide array of songs to attract a mate, and the intended receivers must differentiate these calls from competing sounds, analyze the quality of the sender from spectrotemporal signal properties, and then determine how to react. Insects use numerically simple nervous systems to analyze and respond to courtship songs, making them ideal model systems for uncovering the neural mechanisms underlying acoustic pattern recognition...
February 20, 2019: Annual Review of Neuroscience
Nitin Mahajan, Brandon Hoover, Manohary Rajendram, Heidi Y Shi, Kiyoshi Kawasaki, Douglas B Weibel, Ming Zhang
A central question in cell biology is how cells respond to stress signals and biochemically regulate apoptosis. One critical pathway involves the change of mitochondrial function and release of cytochrome c to initiate apoptosis. In response to apoptotic stimuli, we found that maspin-a noninhibitory member of the serine protease inhibitor superfamily-translocates from the cytosol to mitochondria and binds to cardiolipin in the inner mitochondrial membrane. Biolayer interferometry assay revealed that recombinant maspin binds cardiolipin with an apparent Kd ,of ∼15...
February 20, 2019: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
A Makvandi, R Kowsar, M Hajian, A H Mahdavi, N Tanhaei Vash, M H Nasr-Esfahani
BACKGROUND: Reproductive toxicity of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on spermatozoa is well established. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to show the potential benefits of alpha lipoic acid (ALA) as a strong antioxidant in alleviating the reproductive toxicity of LPS. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sperm cells and cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) were collected from healthy NMRI mice (body weights ranged from 25 to 35 g, 100 females and 200 males)...
February 20, 2019: Andrology
Sebastian Preiß, Ayla Päpcke, Lukas Burkhardt, Luca Großmann, Stefan Lochbrunner, Matthias Bauer, Till Opatz, Katja Heinze
In the context of solar to chemical energy conversion inspired by natural photosynthesis, we present the synthesis, electrochemical properties and photoinduced electron transfer processes of three novel zinc(II)-gold(III) bis(porphyrin) dyads [ZnII(P)-AuIII(P)]+. Time-resolved spectroscopic studies indicate ultrafast dynamics (kET1 > 10^10 s-1) after visible light excitation finally yielding a charge-shifted state [ZnII(P•+)-AuII(P)]+ featuring a gold(II) centre. The lifetime of this excited state is quite long thanks to a comparably slow charge recombination (kBET2 = 3x10^8 s-1)...
February 20, 2019: Chemistry: a European Journal
R Morató, S Hammami, M T Paramio, D Izquierdo
This study examines the presence of activin IIA and IIB receptors (ActR-IIA and ActR-IIB) by Western blotting and immunocytochemistry in immature and IVM-oocytes, 2 to 8-cells embryos and blastocysts from prepubertal goats. Western blotting revealed that activin receptors are synthesized during oocyte maturation and embryo development. In the immunocytochemistry experiments, no immunostaining for either receptor was detected in oocytes while both receptors were immunolabeled in all the cells of cleaved embryos...
February 20, 2019: Reproduction in Domestic Animals, Zuchthygiene
Junsheng Ma, Francesco C Stingo, Brian P Hobbs
The evolution of "informatics" technologies has the potential to generate massive databases, but the extent to which personalized medicine may be effectuated depends on the extent to which these rich databases may be utilized to advance understanding of the disease molecular profiles and ultimately integrated for treatment selection, necessitating robust methodology for dimension reduction. Yet, statistical methods proposed to address challenges arising with the high-dimensionality of omics-type data predominately rely on linear models and emphasize associations deriving from prognostic biomarkers...
February 20, 2019: Biometrical Journal. Biometrische Zeitschrift
Quanli An, Wei Peng, Yuyao Cheng, Zhenzhen Lu, Chuan Zhou, Yong Zhang, Jianmin Su
Oocyte quality, which is directly related to reprogramming competence, is a major important limiting factor in animal cloning efficiency. Compared with oocytes matured in vivo, in vitro matured oocytes exhibit lower oocyte quality and reprogramming competence primarily because of their higher levels of reactive oxygen species. In this study, we investigate whether supplementing the oocyte maturation medium with melatonin, a free radical scavenger, could improve oocyte quality and reprogramming competence. We found that 10-9 M melatonin effectively alleviated oxidative stress, markedly decreased early apoptosis levels, recovered the integrity of mitochondria, ameliorated the spindle assembly and chromosome alignment in oocytes, and significantly promoted subsequent cloned embryo development in vitro...
February 20, 2019: Journal of Cellular Physiology
Andre Chevrier, Mehereen Bhaijiwala, Jonathan Lipszyc, Douglas Cheyne, Simon Graham, Russell Schachar
ADHD is associated with altered dopamine regulated reinforcement learning on prediction errors. Despite evidence of categorically altered error processing in ADHD, neuroimaging advances have largely investigated models of normal reinforcement learning in greater detail. Further, although reinforcement leaning critically relies on ventral striatum exerting error magnitude related thresholding influences on substantia nigra (SN) and dorsal striatum, these thresholding influences have never been identified with neuroimaging...
2019: PloS One
Wing-Yiu Yu, Qi Xing, Chun-Ming Chan, Yiu-Wai Yeung
We report the Ru-catalyzed enantioselective annulation of 1,4,2-dioxazol-5-ones to furnish γ-lactams in up to 97% yield and 98% ee via intramolecular carbonylnitrene C-H insertion. By employing chiral diphenylethylene diamine (dpen) as ligands bearing electron-withdrawing arylsulfonyl substituents, the reactions occur with remarkable chemo- and enantioselectivities; the competing Curtius-type rearrangement was largely suppressed. The Ru-catalyzed reactions display re-markable tolerance to C=C and CΞC bonds on the substrates, and enantioselective nitrene C-H insertions were accomplished in all cases...
February 20, 2019: Journal of the American Chemical Society
John D Grossman, Eric J Camire, Calina A Glynn, Christopher M Neil, Bryan O Seguinot, Deborah L Perlstein
The cytosolic iron sulfur cluster assembly (CIA) scaffold biosynthesizes iron sulfur cluster cofactors for enzymes residing in the cytosol and the nucleus. In fungi and animals, it comprises two homologous ATPases, called Nbp35 and Cfd1 in yeast, which can form homodimeric and heterodimeric complexes. Both proteins are required for CIA function but their individual roles are not well understood. Here we investigate the nucleotide affinity of each form of the scaffold for ATP and ADP to reveal any differences that could shed light on the functions of the different oligomeric forms of the protein or any distinct roles of the individual subunits...
February 20, 2019: Biochemistry
Tabbetha J Bohac, Luting Fang, Daryl E Giblin, Timothy A Wencewicz
Environmental and pathogenic microbes produce siderophores as small iron-binding molecules to scavenge iron from natural environments. It is common for microbes to produce multiple siderophores to gain a competitive edge in mixed microbial environments. Strains of human pathogenic Acinetobacter baumannii produce up to three siderophores: acinetobactin, baumannoferrin, and fimsbactin. Production of acinetobactin and baumannoferrin is highly conserved amongst clinical isolates while fimsbactin production appears to be less common...
February 20, 2019: ACS Chemical Biology
Liang Zheng, Limei Wang, Gui Ren, Rongchun Zhang, Shuhui Liang, Biaoluo Wang, Linhui Zhang, Xiangping Wang, Bing Luo, Yanglin Pan, Xuegang Guo
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Hands-on endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) training is an essential step for trainees to grasp the technique. Cannulation success rate (CSR) is considered one of main indicators of competency of trainees. This study aimed to investigate whether patient-related factors had an impact on the CSR of trainees. METHODS: A post-hoc analysis of data from two multicenter studies (NCT02002650 and NCT03057769) were conducted. Patients aged 18-90 with native papilla undergoing ERCP were eligible for this study...
February 20, 2019: Digestive Endoscopy: Official Journal of the Japan Gastroenterological Endoscopy Society
Silas P Trumbo, Wade T Iams, Heather M Limper, Kathryn Goggins, Jayme Gibson, Lauren Oliver, David L Leverenz, Lauren R Samuels, Donald W Brady, Sunil Kripalani
BACKGROUND: Choosing Wisely® is a national initiative to deimplement or reduce low-value care. However, there is limited evidence on the effectiveness of strategies to influence ordering patterns. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to describe the effectiveness of an intervention to reduce daily chest X-ray (CXR) ordering in two intensive care units (ICUs) and evaluate deimplementation strategies. DESIGN: We aimed to describe the effectiveness of an intervention to reduce daily chest X-ray (CXR) ordering in two intensive care units (ICUs) and evaluate deimplementation strategies...
February 2019: Journal of Hospital Medicine: An Official Publication of the Society of Hospital Medicine
Andrew J Golnar, Estelle Martin, Jillian D Wormington, Rebekah C Kading, Pete D Teel, Sarah A Hamer, Gabriel L Hamer
African swine fever virus (ASFV) continues to threaten global animal health and agricultural biosecurity. Mitigating the establishment of ASFV in the United States (U.S.) is contingent on (1) the identification of arthropod vectors and vertebrate hosts that are capable of viral maintenance and transmission in the U.S. and (2) knowledge of vector-host associations that may permit transmission. We aggregated data on vector competence, host competence and tick-host associations by systematic review of published articles and collection records to identify species that may support the invasion of ASFV in the U...
February 20, 2019: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
Rui Chen, Yanling She, Qiang Fu, Xiaodan Chen, Huacai Shi, Si Lei, Shanyao Zhou, Jun Ou, Yulin Liu
AIM: We aimed to explore potential regulators of coding and noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) in Co(II) ion-induced myo cytotoxicity. MATERIALS & METHODS: We confirmed the toxic effects of Co(II) on mouse skeletal C2C12 myotubes by CoCl2 , and performed the expression profiles of circular RNAs (circRNAs), long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) and mRNAs using microarray analysis. We constructed co-expression, competing endogenous RNA and cis/trans regulation networks for ncRNAs, and filtered 71 candidate circRNAs with coding potential...
February 20, 2019: Epigenomics
Flora Jay, Simon Boitard, Frédéric Austerlitz
Species generally undergo a complex demographic history consisting, in particular, of multiple changes in population size. Genome-wide sequencing data are potentially highly informative for reconstructing this demographic history. A crucial point is to extract the relevant information from these very large datasets. Here we design an approach for inferring past demographic events from a moderate number of fully sequenced genomes. Our new approach uses Approximate Bayesian Computation (ABC), a simulation-based statistical framework that allows (i) identifying the best demographic scenario among several competing scenarios, and (ii) estimating the best-fitting parameters under the chosen scenario...
February 20, 2019: Molecular Biology and Evolution
Tomisin Happy Ogunwa, Kenichi Taii, Kei Sadakane, Yuka Kawata, Shinsaku Maruta, Takayuki Miyanishi
Among forty plant-derived biflavonoids with inhibitory potential against Eg5, morelloflavone from Garcinia dulcis leaves was selected for further testing based on in silico analysis of binding modes, molecular interactions, binding energies, and functional groups that interact with Eg5. Computational models predicted that morelloflavone binds the putative allosteric pocket of Eg5, within the cavity surrounded by amino acid residues of Ile-136, Glu-116, Glu-118, Trp-127, Gly-117, Ala-133, Glu-215, Leu-214, and Tyr-211...
February 20, 2019: Journal of Biochemistry
Juri Hwang, Hee-Man Yang, Kune-Woo Lee, Yang-Il Jung, Kyung Jin Lee, Chan Woo Park
We report the development of magnetically steerable self-propelled micromotors that selectively remove radioactive Cs from contaminated water. Mesoporous silica microspheres were functionalized with the highly Cs-selective copper ferrocyanide, and half of the adsorptive particle surface was then coated with ferromagnetic Ni and catalytic Pt layers to fabricate Janus micromotors. The micromotor adsorbent displayed random propulsion in an H2 O2 solution via catalytic bubble evolution from the Pt surface, and the micromotor adsorbent self-propulsion resulted in an 8-fold higher Cs removal compared to the stationary adsorbent within one hour...
February 14, 2019: Journal of Hazardous Materials
A Zabihi, H Karami Shabankareh, H Hajarian, S Foroutanifar
The present study aimed to examine the effects of adding different concentrations of resveratrol during in vitro culture (IVC) alone and during both in vitro maturation (IVM) and IVC on ovine blastocyst yield and quality. Therefore, this study was conducted in two separate experiments. The first experiment was carried out to test the effect of different concentrations of resveratrol (0, 0.1, 0.25, 0.5, 2.0, and 5.0 μM) in the IVC medium on cleavage, morula, developmental potential of blastocyst, and total cell number (TCN) of the embryos...
January 5, 2019: Domestic Animal Endocrinology
Donglei Liu, Min Gao, Kai Wu, Dengyan Zhu, Yang Yang, Song Zhao
Long non-coding RNAs (LncRNAs) have been found to be associated with the biological behaviors of human cancers. LINC00152 is reported as an oncogene in many kinds of malignancies. However, the functions and mechanisms of LINC00152 involved in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) remain elusive. Our results revealed that LINC00152 expression was up-regulated in ESCC, and correlated with advanced TNM stage, lymph node metastasis, and poor prognosis of ESCC patients. Functionally, LINC00152 knockdown suppressed proliferation, decreased colony forming ability, and induced apoptosis in ESCC cells...
February 19, 2019: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
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