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nutrient requirements

Di You, Ying Xu, Bin-Cheng Yin, Bang-Ce Ye
WhiB3 is a conserved cytoplasmic redox sensor which is required in the infection and lipid anabolism of Mycobacterium tuberculosis . The response of WhiB3 to environmental nutrient and its regulatory cascades are crucial during the persistent infection, while little is known about the relationship between WhiB3 and emergence of nutrient stress in this process. Here, we found that nitrogen regulator GlnR directly interacted with the WhiB3 promoter region and activated its transcription in response to nitrogen availability...
2019: Frontiers in Microbiology
Shintaro Shimamura, Taiga Miyazaki, Masato Tashiro, Takahiro Takazono, Tomomi Saijo, Kazuko Yamamoto, Yoshifumi Imamura, Koichi Izumikawa, Katsunori Yanagihara, Shigeru Kohno, Hiroshi Mukae
Candida glabrata is one of the leading causes of candidiasis and serious invasive infections in hosts with weakened immune systems. C. glabrata is a haploid budding yeast that resides in healthy hosts. Little is known about the mechanisms of C. glabrata virulence. Autophagy is a 'self-eating' process developed in eukaryotes to recycle molecules for adaptation to various environments. Autophagy is speculated to play a role in pathogen virulence by supplying sources of essential proteins for survival in severe host environments...
2019: Frontiers in Microbiology
J U Van Dyke, R -J Spencer, M B Thompson, B Chessman, K Howard, A Georges
Conservation requires rapid action to be effective, which is often difficult because of funding limitations, political constraints, and limited data. Turtles are among the world's most endangered vertebrate taxa, with almost half of 356 species threatened with extinction. In Australia's Murray River, nest predation by invasive foxes (Vulpes vulpes) was predicted to drive turtle declines in the 1980s. We assessed populations of the broad-shelled turtle (Chelodina expansa), eastern long-necked turtle (C. longicollis), and Murray River turtle (Emydura macquarii) in the Murray River and some of its associated waterways...
February 13, 2019: Scientific Reports
Diego Tapia, Tomás Jiménez, Constanza Zamora, Javier Espinoza, Riccardo Rizzo, Alexis González-Cárdenas, Danitza Fuentes, Sergio Hernández, Viviana A Cavieres, Andrea Soza, Fanny Guzmán, Gloria Arriagada, María Isabel Yuseff, Gonzalo A Mardones, Patricia V Burgos, Alberto Luini, Alfonso González, Jorge Cancino
Inter-organelle signalling has essential roles in cell physiology encompassing cell metabolism, aging and temporal adaptation to external and internal perturbations. How such signalling coordinates different organelle functions within adaptive responses remains unknown. Membrane traffic is a fundamental process in which membrane fluxes need to be sensed for the adjustment of cellular requirements and homeostasis. Studying endoplasmic reticulum-to-Golgi trafficking, we found that Golgi-based, KDEL receptor-dependent signalling promotes lysosome repositioning to the perinuclear area, involving a complex process intertwined to autophagy, lipid-droplet turnover and Golgi-mediated secretion that engages the microtubule motor protein dynein-LRB1 and the autophagy cargo receptor p62/SQSTM1...
February 13, 2019: Nature Communications
Sofia Reddel, Lorenza Putignani, Federica Del Chierico
The gut microbiota performs several essential protective, structural, and metabolic functions for host health. The maintenance of a beneficial microbiota requires a homeostatic equilibrium within microbial communities, and between the microorganisms and the host. The gut microbiota composition may be affected by external factors, among them diet habits may be considered most important. In some pathological conditions such as irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), celiac disease (CD), or neurological disorders (ND), specific dietary regimens as low-fermentable, oligo-, di-, mono-saccharides and polyols (FODMAPs), ketogenic (KD), and gluten-free (GFD) diets are considered therapeutic...
February 12, 2019: Nutrients
Pedro L P Fontes, Nicola Oosthuizen, Francine M Ciriaco, Carla D Sanford, Luara B Canal, Ky G Pohler, Darren D Henry, Vitor R G Mercadante, Claire L Timlin, Alan D Ealy, Sally E Johnson, Nicolas DiLorenzo, G Cliff Lamb
To evaluate how the inclusion of Bos indicus genotype influences early fetal development in cattle, a reciprocal embryo transfer approach was used in a completely randomized design with a 2 × 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments in order to generate 55 pregnancies over 2 consecutive years (n = 55). Recipient cows were randomly assigned to 1) a diet that met daily energy maintenance requirements (MAINT), or 2) a diet that restricted intake to 70% of the energy maintenance requirements (RESTR). Angus (AN) and Brangus (BN) embryo donors were superovulated and artificially inseminated with female sexed-sorted semen from the same breed...
February 13, 2019: Journal of Animal Science
Christine Henry, Jizhou Li, François Danion, Laura Alcazar-Fuoli, Emilia Mellado, Rémi Beau, Grégory Jouvion, Jean-Paul Latgé, Thierry Fontaine
Fungal cell wall mannans are complex carbohydrate polysaccharides with different structures in yeasts and molds. In contrast to yeasts, their biosynthetic pathway has been poorly investigated in filamentous fungi. In Aspergillus fumigatus , the major mannan structure is a galactomannan that is cross-linked to the β-1,3-glucan-chitin cell wall core. This polymer is composed of a linear mannan with a repeating unit composed of four α1,6-linked and α1,2-linked mannoses with side chains of galactofuran. Despite its use as a biomarker to diagnose invasive aspergillosis, its biosynthesis and biological function were unknown...
February 12, 2019: MBio
Antoine Fort, Morgane Lebrault, Margot Allaire, Alberto A Esteves-Ferreira, Marcus McHale, Francesca Lopez, Jose Maria Farinas Franco, Saleh Alseekh, Alisdair R Fernie, Ronan Sulpice
Green macroalgae of the genus Ulva play a key role in coastal ecosystems and are of increasing commercial importance. However, physiological differences between strains and species have yet to be described in detail. Furthermore, the strains of Ulva used in aquaculture usually originate from opportunistic collection in the wild without prior selection of best performing strains. Hence, efforts are required to detect the potential variability in growth and metabolic accumulation between Ulva strains and ultimately select the best performing strains under given environmental conditions...
February 12, 2019: Plant Physiology
Tair Ben-Porat, Anat Weiss-Sadan, Amihai Rottenstreich, Shiri Sherf-Dagan, Chaya Schweiger, Irit Mor Yosef-Levi, Dana Weiner, Odile Azulay, Nasser Sakran, Rivki Harari, Ram Elazary
Bariatric surgery (BS) may be effective for chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients by reducing microalbuminuria and proteinuria, and by facilitating their meeting inclusion criteria for kidney transplantation. However, nutritional management for this population is complex and specific guidelines are scarce. A literature search was performed to create dietetic practice for these patients based on the most recent evidence. For the purposes of nutritional recommendations, we divided the patients into 2 subgroups: 1) patients with CKD and dialysis, and 2) patients after kidney transplantation...
January 1, 2019: Advances in Nutrition
Cristina Jardi, Núria Aranda, Cristina Bedmar, Victoria Arija
Adequate dietary intake is vital for infants' growth and development. The aim was to analyse food consumption and energy and nutrient intakes in a group of healthy Spanish infants and toddlers. Cross-sectional study. 154 infants were assessed at 6 months, and followed at 12 and 30 months. Clinical history, anthropometry, type of feeding, food consumption and energy and nutrient intakes (24-hours recall) were estimated. Advice about food consumed, estimated average requirements, the prevalence of inadequate intakes and percentage of adequacy of the recommended dietary allowance were applied...
February 12, 2019: International Journal for Vitamin and Nutrition Research. Journal International de Vitaminologie et de Nutrition
Stephanie Munroe, Kenneth Sandoval, Dirk E Martens, Detmer Sipkema, Shirley A Pomponi
Sponges are rich sources of novel natural products. Production in cell cultures may be an option for supply of these compounds but there are currently no sponge cell lines. Because there is a lack of understanding about the precise conditions and nutritional requirements that are necessary to sustain sponge cells in vitro, there has yet to be a defined, sponge-specific nutrient medium. This study utilized a genetic algorithm approach to optimize the amino acid composition of a commercially available basal cell culture medium in order to increase the metabolic activity of cells of the marine sponge Dysidea etheria...
February 11, 2019: In Vitro Cellular & Developmental Biology. Animal
Seung-Hyun Ro, Yura Jang, Jiyoung Bae, Isaac M Kim, Cameron Schaecher, Zachery D Shomo
Autophagy, lipophagy, and mitophagy are considered to be the major recycling processes for protein aggregates, excess fat, and damaged mitochondria in adipose tissues in response to nutrient status-associated stress, oxidative stress, and genotoxic stress in the human body. Obesity with increased body weight is often associated with white adipose tissue (WAT) hypertrophy and hyperplasia and/or beige/brown adipose tissue atrophy and aplasia, which significantly contribute to the imbalance in lipid metabolism, adipocytokine secretion, free fatty acid release, and mitochondria function...
2019: Frontiers in Physiology
P Moulin, V Rong, A Ribeiro E Silva, V G Pederick, E Camiade, L Mereghetti, C A McDevitt, A Hiron
Streptococcus agalactiae is part of the human intestinal and uro-genital microbiota, but also a leading cause of septicemia and meningitis in neonates. Its ability to cause disease depends upon the acquisition of nutrients from its environment, including the transition metal ion zinc. The primary zinc acquisition system of the pathogen is the Adc/Lmb ABC permease, which is essential for viability in zinc-restricted environments. Here, we show that in addition to the AdcCB transporter, and the three zinc-binding proteins, Lmb, AdcA and AdcAII, S...
February 11, 2019: Journal of Bacteriology
William J Beck, Peter L Moore, Keith E Schilling, Calvin F Wolter, Thomas M Isenhart, Kevin J Cole, Mark D Tomer
Floodplain storage commonly represents one of the largest sediment fluxes within sediment budgets. In watersheds responding to large scale disturbance, floodplain-channel lateral connectivity may change over time with progression of channel evolution and associated changes in channel geometry. In this study we investigated the effects of channel geometry change on floodplain inundation frequency and flux of suspended sediment (SS) and total phosphorus (TP) to floodplain storage within the 52.2 km2 Walnut Creek watershed (Iowa, USA) through a combination of 25 in-field channel cross section transects, hydraulic modeling (HEC-RAS), and stream gauging station-derived water quality and quantity data...
April 10, 2019: Science of the Total Environment
Alisa Morss-Clyne, Swathi Swaminathan, Andres Diaz Lantada
Design and fabrication of effective biomimetic vasculatures constitutes a relevant and yet unsolved challenge, lying at the heart of tissue repair and regeneration strategies. Even if cell growth is achieved in 3D tissue scaffolds or advanced implants, tissue viability inevitably requires vascularization, as diffusion can only transport nutrients and eliminate debris within a few hundred microns. This engineered vasculature may need to mimic the intricate branching geometry of native microvasculature, referred to herein as vascular complexity, to efficiently deliver blood and recreate critical interactions between the vascular and perivascular cells as well as parenchymal tissues...
February 11, 2019: Biofabrication
Xianchuan Chen, Xiong Xiong, Xiaoming Jiang, Huahong Shi, Chenxi Wu
Plastic pollution has been increasingly reported in both marine environment and inland waters, but their fate is not well understood. Several studies have showed that the surface of plastic debris can be colonized by microbes, leading to the sinking of floating plastic debris in marine environment. In this work, development of biofilm on polypropylene sheet (squares with a side length of 5 and 10 mm) and their buoyancy changes were studied in a freshwater lake in four seasons. Results showed that biofilm development have different growth rate and distinct algae composition in different seasons, which are mainly related to the difference in temperature, nutrient levels, and suspend solids in lake water...
February 6, 2019: Chemosphere
Arjun N Sasikumar, David W Killilea, Brian K Kennedy, Rachel B Brem
Lysosome function is compromised during aging and in many disease states. Interventions that promote lysosomal activity and acidification are thus of prime interest as treatments for longevity and health. Intracellular pH can be controlled by the exchange of protons for inorganic ions, and in cells from microbes to man, when potassium is restricted in the growth medium, the cytoplasm becomes acidified. Here we use a yeast model to show that potassium limited-cells exhibit hallmarks of increased acidity in the vacuole, the analog of the lysosome, and live long by a mechanism that requires the vacuolar machinery...
February 8, 2019: Experimental Gerontology
Jamie W Becker, Shane L Hogle, Kali Rosendo, Sallie W Chisholm
Prochlorococcus and SAR11 are among the smallest and most abundant organisms on Earth. With a combined global population of about 2.7 × 1028 cells, they numerically dominate bacterioplankton communities in oligotrophic ocean gyres and yet they have never been grown together in vitro. Here we describe co-cultures of Prochlorococcus and SAR11 isolates representing both high- and low-light adapted clades. We examined: (1) the influence of Prochlorococcus on the growth of SAR11 and vice-versa, (2) whether Prochlorococcus can meet specific nutrient requirements of SAR11, and (3) how co-culture dynamics vary when Prochlorococcus is grown with SAR11 compared with sympatric copiotrophic bacteria...
February 11, 2019: ISME Journal
Shibao Zhang, Yingjie Yang, Jiawei Li, Jiao Qin, Wei Zhang, Wei Huang, Hong Hu
The Orchidaceae is a diverse and wide spread family of flowering plants that are of great value in ornamental, medical, conservation, and evolutionary research. The broad diversity in morphology, growth form, life history, and habitat mean that the members of Orchidaceae exhibit various physiological properties. Epiphytic orchids are often characterized by succulent leaves with thick cell walls, cuticles, and sunken stomata, whereas terrestrial orchids possess rhizomes, corms, or tubers. Most orchids have a long juvenile period, slow growth rate, and low photosynthetic capacity...
August 2018: Plant Diversity
Angel Udias, Marco Pastori, Céline Dondeynaz, Cesar Carmona Moreno, Abdou Ali, Luigi Cattaneo, Javier Cano
We describe in this paper the implementation of E-Water, an open software Decision Support System (DSS), designed to help local managers assess the Water Energy Food Environment (WEFE) nexus. E-Water aims at providing optimal management solutions to enhance food crop production at river basin level. The DSS was applied in the transboundary Mékrou river basin, shared among Benin, Burkina Faso and Niger. The primary sector for local economy in the region is agriculture, contributing significantly to income generation and job creation...
November 2018: Computers and Electronics in Agriculture
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