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monocytes macrophages

Mohamed H Abumaree, Seham Al Harthy, Abdullah M Al Subayyil, Manal A Alshabibi, Fawaz M Abomaray, Tanvier Khatlani, Bill Kalionis, Mohammed F El-Muzaini, Mohammed A Al Jumah, Dunia Jawdat, Abdullah O Alawad, Ahmed S AlAskar
Placental mesenchymal stem cells from maternal decidua basalis tissue (DBMSCs) are promising cells for tissue repair because of their multilineage differentiation and ability to protect endothelial cells from injury. Here, we examined DBMSC interaction with macrophages and whether this interaction could modulate the characteristics and functions of these macrophages. We induced monocytes to differentiate into M1-like macrophages in the presence of DBMSCs. DBMSC effects on differentiation were evaluated using microscopy, flow cytometry, and ELISA...
February 18, 2019: Cells
James Logue, Walter Vargas Licona, Timothy K Cooper, Becky Reeder, Russel Byrum, Jing Qin, Nicole Deiuliis Murphy, Yu Cong, Amanda Bonilla, Jennifer Sword, Wade Weaver, Gregory Kocher, Gene G Olinger, Peter B Jahrling, Lisa E Hensley, Richard S Bennett
Following the largest Ebola virus disease outbreak from 2013 to 2016, viral RNA has been detected in survivors from semen and breast milk long after disease recovery. However, as there have been few cases of sexual transmission, it is unclear whether every RNA positive fluid sample contains infectious virus. Virus isolation, typically using cell culture or animal models, can serve as a tool to determine the infectivity of patient samples. However, the sensitivity of these methods has not been assessed for the Ebola virus isolate, Makona...
February 16, 2019: Viruses
Yeongkag Kwon, Ok-Jin Park, Jiseon Kim, Jae Ho Cho, Cheol-Heui Yun, Seung Hyun Han
Cyclic dinucleotides (CDNs) such as cyclic diadenylate monophosphate and cyclic diguanylate monophosphate are commensal bacteria-derived second messengers in the gut that modulate bacterial survival, colonization, and biofilm formation. Recently, CDNs have been discovered to have an immunomodulatory activity by inducing the expression of type I interferon (IFN) through STING signaling pathway in macrophages. Since CDNs are possibly absorbed and delivered into the bone marrow, where bone-resorbing osteoclasts are derived from monocyte/macrophage lineages, CDNs could affect bone metabolism by regulating osteoclast differentiation...
February 19, 2019: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
Marion Mussbacher, Manuel Salzmann, Christine Brostjan, Bastian Hoesel, Christian Schoergenhofer, Hannes Datler, Philipp Hohensinner, José Basílio, Peter Petzelbauer, Alice Assinger, Johannes A Schmid
The transcription factor NF-κB is a central mediator of inflammation with multiple links to thrombotic processes. In this review, we focus on the role of NF-κB signaling in cell types within the vasculature and the circulation that are involved in thrombo-inflammatory processes. All these cells express NF-κB, which mediates important functions in cellular interactions, cell survival and differentiation, as well as expression of cytokines, chemokines, and coagulation factors. Even platelets, as anucleated cells, contain NF-κB family members and their corresponding signaling molecules, which are involved in platelet activation, as well as secondary feedback circuits...
2019: Frontiers in Immunology
Cecilia Analia Panek, Andrea Cecilia Bruballa, Gonzalo Ezequiel Pineda, Carlos De Brasi, Romina Jimena Fernández-Brando, María Pilar Mejías, María Victoria Ramos, Marina Sandra Palermo
Membrane expression of fractalkine (CX3 CL1)-receptor (CX3 CR1) is relevant in monocytes (Mo) because CX3 CR1-CX3 CL1 interactions might participate on both, homeostatic and pathologic conditions. We have previously demonstrated that CX3 CR1 levels are decreased during culture and when Mo are differentiated into dendritic cells, but enhanced when differentiated into macrophages. Regarding soluble factors, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) accelerated the loss of CX3 CR1, while interleukin (IL)-10 and Interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) prevented it...
February 15, 2019: Molecular Immunology
Yonghae Son, Jeongyoon Choi, Boyoung Kim, Young Chul Park, Seong-Kug Eo, Hyok-Rae Cho, Sun Sik Bae, Chi Dae Kim, Koanhoi Kim
27-Hydroxycholesterol (27OHChol) is a bioactive molecule that induces monocytic cell activation and differentiation and thereby participates in immune responses under hypercholesterolemic condition. However, it is unknown whether cyclosporin A (CsA), an immunosuppressant, affects biological effects of 27OHChol. In this study, we investigated whether CsA alters 27OHChol-induced cellular and molecular responses using the human monocyte/macrophage THP-1 cells. Treatment of the cells with CsA resulted in decreased expression of the mDC-specific markers (CD80, CD83 and CD88) induced by 27OHChol...
February 15, 2019: International Immunopharmacology
Yuan-Yuan Lu, Xiao-Dong Li, Han-Dan Zhou, Shuai Shao, Shun He, Mo-Na Hong, Jia-Chen Liu, Ying-Le Xu, Yong-Jie Wu, Ding-Liang Zhu, Ji-Guang Wang, Ping-Jin Gao
Krüppel-like factor (KLF) 15 has emerged as a critical regulator of fibrosis in cardiovascular diseases. However, the precise role that KLF15 and its functional domain played in adventitial inflammation and fibrosis remains unclear. This study aims to investigate the role of the transactivation domain (TAD) of KLF15 in angiotensin II (Ang II)-induced adventitial pathologic changes. KLF15 expression was decreased in the vascular adventitia of Ang II-infused mice (1000 ng/kg/min, 14 d) and in adventitial fibroblasts (AFs) stimulated by Ang II (10-7 M)...
February 18, 2019: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
Claire E Olingy, Huy Q Dinh, Catherine C Hedrick
Monocytes are innate immune cells of the mononuclear phagocyte system that have emerged as important regulators of cancer development and progression. Our understanding of monocytes has advanced from viewing these cells as a homogenous population to a heterogeneous system of cells that display diverse responses to different stimuli. During cancer, different monocyte subsets perform functions that contribute to both pro- and antitumoral immunity, including phagocytosis, secretion of tumoricidal mediators, promotion of angiogenesis, remodeling of the extracellular matrix, recruitment of lymphocytes, and differentiation into tumor-associated macrophages and dendritic cells...
February 18, 2019: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
Katharina Klöditz, Bengt Fadeel
Macrophage clearance of apoptotic cells has been extensively investigated, but less is known regarding the clearance of cells dying by other forms of programmed cell death, e.g., necroptosis or ferroptosis. Here, we established a model of three different cell deaths using the same cell line and the occurrence of distinct cell death modalities was verified by using the specific inhibitors, zVAD-fmk, necrostatin-1, and ferrostatin-1, respectively. Cell death was characterized by using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), the gold standard for the demarcation of different cell death modalities...
2019: Cell Death Discovery
Kentaro Maruyama, Eiji Nemoto, Satoru Yamada
Mechanical stress maintains tissue homeostasis by regulating many cellular functions including cell proliferation, differentiation, and inflammation and immune responses. In inflammatory microenvironments, macrophages in mechanosensitive tissues receive mechanical signals that regulate various cellular functions and inflammatory responses. Macrophage function is affected by several types of mechanical stress, but the mechanisms by which mechanical signals influence macrophage function in inflammation, such as the regulation of interleukin-1β by inflammasomes, remain unclear...
2019: Inflammation and Regeneration
Takanori Kitamura, Dahlia Doughty-Shenton, Jeffrey W Pollard, Neil O Carragher
Potentiation of the tumor-killing ability of CD8+ T cells in tumors, along with their efficient tumor infiltration, is a key element of successful immunotherapies. Several studies have indicated that tumor infiltrating myeloid cells (e.g., myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) and tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs)) suppress cytotoxicity of CD8+ T cells in the tumor microenvironment, and that targeting these regulatory myeloid cells can improve immunotherapies. Here, we present an in vitro assay system to evaluate immune suppressive effects of monocytic-MDSCs and TAMs on the tumor-killing ability of CD8+ T cells...
January 29, 2019: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Li Zhao, Mei Liu, Jiayue Ouyang, Zheming Zhu, Wenqing Geng, Jinxiu Dong, Ying Xiong, Shumei Wang, Xiaowei Zhang, Ying Qiao, Haibo Ding, Hong Sun, Guoxin Liang, Hong Shang, Xiaoxu Han
BACKGROUND: Understanding of the restriction of HIV-1 transcription in resting CD4+ T-cells is critical to find a cure for AIDS. Although many negative factors causing HIV-1 transcription blockage in resting CD4+ T cells have been found, there are still unknown mechanisms to explore. OBJECTIVE: To explore the mechanism for the suppression of de novo HIV-1 transcription in resting CD4+ T-cells. METHODS: In this study, a short isoform of Per-1 expression plasmid was transfected into 293T cells with or without Tat's presence to identify Per-1 as a negative regulator for HIV-1 transcription...
February 18, 2019: Current HIV Research
Hasan Tükenmez, Isabel Edström, Sadaf Kalsum, Clara Braian, Ramesh Ummanni, Stina Berglund Fick, Charlotta Sundin, Maria Lerm, Mikael Elofsson, Christer Larsson
The effect of corticosteroids on human physiology is complex and their use in tuberculosis patients remains controversial. In a high-throughput screening approach designed to discover virulence inhibitors, several corticosteroids were found to prevent cytolysis of fibroblasts infected with mycobacteria. Further experiments with Mycobacterium tuberculosis showed anti-cytolytic activity in the 10 nM range, but no effect on bacterial growth or survival in the absence of host cells at 20 μM. The results from a panel of corticosteroids with various affinities to the glucocorticoid- and mineralocorticoid receptors indicate that the inhibition of cytolysis most likely is mediated through the glucocorticoid receptor...
February 14, 2019: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Zhe Wu, Jun Xu, Jiang Tan, Yang Song, Ling Liu, Feng Zhang, Yifan Zhang, Xia Li, Yujing Chi, Yulan Liu
Mesenteric adipose tissue (MAT) inflammation is associated with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), and immune cells play pivotal roles in the inflammation of adipose tissue. Here, we investigated the roles of MAT B lymphocytes in NAFLD. Mice fed with high-fat diet (HFD) and normal diet (ND) were killed in time gradients (4, 8 and 12 weeks). Compared with ND-fed mice, intra-hepatic CD45+ CD19+ B lymphocytes increased after 4 weeks (P < 0.01) of HFD feeding, and lasted until the 12th week, infiltrated earlier than CD45+ CD3+ T lymphocytes and CD45+ F4/80+ macrophages...
February 17, 2019: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
Kangkang Liu, Erlin Sun, Mingde Lei, Limin Li, Jingda Gao, Xuewu Nian, Lining Wang
Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) is one of the most effective treatments for bladder cancer. Little attention has been paid to the possible role of neutrophils in BCG immunotherapy. In this study, we examined neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) formation induced by BCG stimulation, and found that BCG-induced NETs exerted cytotoxicity, induced apoptosis and cell-cycle arrest, and inhibited migration in bladder tumor cells. BCG-activated tumor cells but not non-activated ones elicited NETs formation, in which IL-8 and TNF-α from activated tumor cells both took effect...
February 13, 2019: Clinical Immunology: the Official Journal of the Clinical Immunology Society
Hongbo Tang, Johanna F A Husch, Yang Zhang, John A Jansen, Fang Yang, Jeroen J J P van den Beucken
The effects of immune cells, in particular macrophages, on the behavior of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have recently gained much attention for MSCs-based tissue-engineered constructs. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of monocytes/macrophages on the osteogenic differentiation of adipose-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (ADMSCs) in three-dimensional (3D) co-cultures. For this, we co-cultured THP-1 monocytes, M1 macrophages or M2 macrophages with ADMSCs on 3D poly (lactic-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA)/polycaprolactone (PCL) scaffolds using osteogenic medium for up to 42 days...
February 16, 2019: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
Chunyan Wang, Michael C Petriello, Beibei Zhu, Bernhard Hennig
Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are persistent organic pollutants that contribute to inflammatory diseases such as atherosclerosis, and macrophages play a key role in the overall inflammatory response. Depending on specific environmental stimuli, macrophages can be polarized either to pro-inflammatory (e.g., M1) or anti-inflammatory (e.g., M2) phenotypes. We hypothesize that dioxin-like PCBs can contribute to macrophage polarization associated with inflammation. To test this hypothesis, human monocytes (THP-1) were differentiated to macrophages and subsequently exposed to PCB 126...
February 12, 2019: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
Jordan T Noe, Robert A Mitchell
The tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle is a mitochondrial metabolic hub that coordinates the metabolism of carbohydrates, proteins, and fats into carbon dioxide and ATP. At specific points in the cycle, the diversion, import, or export of TCA metabolites allows for the dynamic regulation of a variety of tissue and/or cell-specific phenotypic processes. Recent studies have identified that a number of TCA metabolites are important in controlling monocyte/macrophage phenotypes and effector functions while specific macrophage activation or polarization states functionally determine the relative utilization of each...
February 15, 2019: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
Eman Teer, Danzil E Joseph, Natasha Driescher, Theo Nell, Leanne Dominick, Natasha Midgley, Gaurang Deshpande, Martin Page, Etheresia Pretorius, Nicholas J Woudberg, Sandrine Lecour, Richard H Glashoff, M Faadiel Essop
Although rollout of combined anti-retroviral treatment (cART) has blunted human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) onset, there is increased development of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) in HIV-infected individuals. While most HIV-infected individuals on cART achieve viral suppression, this may not necessarily result in complete immunological recovery. This study therefore evaluated T cell-mediated changes and coagulation markers in HIV-positive individuals to ascertain their potential to increase CVD risk...
February 15, 2019: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
Hussein Al-Shehabi, Uwe Fiebig, Juliane Kutzner, Joachim Denner, Torsten Schaller, Norbert Bannert, Henning Hofmann
The release of porcine endogenous retrovirus (PERV) particles from pig cells is a potential risk factor during xenotransplantation by way of productively infecting the human transplant recipient. Potential countermeasures against PERV replication are restriction factors that block retroviral replication. SAMHD1 is a triphosphohydrolase that depletes the cellular pool of dNTPs in non-cycling cells starving retroviral reverse transcription. We investigated the antiviral activity of human SAMHD1 against PERV and found that SAMHD1 potently restricts its reverse transcription in human monocytes, monocyte-derived dendritic cells (MDDC), or macrophages (MDM) and in monocytic THP-1 cells...
February 15, 2019: Journal of General Virology
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