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gastrocnemius medialis

Shawn M Robbins BScPT, Moreno Morelli, Paul A Martineau, Nancy St-Onge, Mathieu Boily, Ron Dimentberg, John Antoniou
OBJECTIVE: The objective was to compare muscle activation and knee mechanics during gait between participants with non-traumatic knee osteoarthritis (OA), post-traumatic knee OA, and healthy adults. DESIGN: Participants with non-traumatic knee OA (n=22), post-traumatic knee OA (n=19), and healthy adults (n=22) completed gait trials for this observational, cross-sectional study. Post-traumatic OA group had a history of traumatic anterior cruciate ligament rupture...
March 18, 2019: Osteoarthritis and Cartilage
Mark Vlutters, Edwin H F van Asseldonk, Herman van der Kooij
The ankle joint muscles can contribute to balance during walking by modulating the center of pressure and ground reaction forces through an ankle moment. This is especially effective in the sagittal plane through ankle plantar- or dorsiflexion. If the ankle joints would be physically blocked to make an ankle strategy ineffective, there would be no functional contribution of these muscles to balance during walking, nor would these muscles generate afferent output regarding ankle joint rotation. Consequently, ankle muscle activation for the purpose of balance control would be expected to disappear...
March 13, 2019: Journal of Neurophysiology
Megna Marisa, Marvulli Riccardo, Farì Giacomo, Gallo Giulia, Dicuonzo Franca, Fiore Pietro, Ianieri Giancarlo
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Spasticity (most common disability in upper motor neuron syndrome or UMNS) caused an inability of patients' activities daily and quality of life. One of the promising methods nowadays, but still not widely used in everyday practice, for spasticity reduction is extracorporeal shock wave. Aim of this study was to evaluate objective clinical effects of combined treatment botulinum toxin type A and radial Extracorporeal Shock Wave Therapy in spasticity post stroke...
March 5, 2019: Endocrine, Metabolic & Immune Disorders Drug Targets
Alessandro Picelli, Elena Chemello, Elisabetta Verzini, Federico Ferrari, Annalisa Brugnera, Marialuisa Gandolfi, Leopold Saltuari, Angela Modenese, Nicola Smania
OBJECTIVE: To identify the anatomical landmarks of tibial motor nerve branches to the gastrocnemii, soleus and tibialis posterior muscles for selective motor nerve blocks in the management of spastic equinovarus foot. DESIGN: Observational study. PATIENTS: Twenty-five chronic stroke patients with spastic equinovarus foot. METHODS: Motor nerve branches to the gastrocnemii, soleus and tibialis posterior muscles were tracked in the affected leg, using ultrasonography, and located in the space (vertical, horizontal and deep) according to the position of the fibular head (proximal/distal) and a virtual line from the middle of the popliteal fossa to the Achilles tendon insertion (medial/lateral)...
March 6, 2019: Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine
Damir Zubac, Armin Paravlić, Katja Koren, Urzi Felicita, Boštjan Šimunič
OBJECTIVE: This study investigated the effects of an 8-week plyometric training (PT) session on countermovement jump (CMJ) height, take-off velocity, and Tensiomyography (TMG) derived contractile parameters in seniors. METHODS: Twenty-three senior adults (age 66.7±5.2 years) were randomly divided into two groups: PLYO (n=11) and CTRL (n=12). Tensiomyography was measured in vastus lateralis (VL), biceps femoris (BF), tibialis anterior (TA), gastrocnemius medialis (GM), and lateralis (GL)...
March 1, 2019: Journal of Musculoskeletal & Neuronal Interactions
A Konrad, M M Reiner, S Thaller, M Tilp
The purpose of this study was to investigate the time course of the changes of muscle-tendon mechanical properties and the function responses of the plantar flexor muscles following 5 × 60 s of static stretching. Fourteen healthy volunteers were tested on four separate days in a random order with three different rest times (0, 5, 10 min) after 5 × 60 s of stretching or following a control period without stretching. During each test, the dorsiflexion range of motion (RoM), passive resistive torque (PRT), and maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) were measured with a dynamometer...
March 1, 2019: European Journal of Sport Science
Meaghan Elizabeth Spedden, Peter Jensen, Cecilie Ulbæk Terkildsen, Nicole Jacqueline Jensen, David M Halliday, Jesper Lundbye-Jensen, Jens Bo Nielsen, Svend Sparre Geertsen
In adults, oscillatory activity in the sensorimotor cortex is coherent with contralateral muscle activity at beta frequencies (15-35 Hz) during tonic contraction. This functional coupling reflects the involvement of the sensorimotor cortex, the corticospinal pathway, and likely also ascending sensory feedback in the task at hand. However, little is known about the developmental trajectory of task-related corticomuscular connectivity relating to the voluntary control of the ankle muscles. To address this, we recorded electroencephalography (EEG) from the vertex (Cz) and electromyography (EMG) from ankle muscles (proximal and distal anterior tibial, TA; soleus, SOL; gastrocnemius medialis, GM) in 33 participants aged 7-23 yr during tonic dorsi- and plantar flexion requiring precise maintenance of a submaximal torque level...
February 25, 2019: NeuroImage
Reid A Mitchell, Kyle G Boyle, Andrew H Ramsook, Joseph H Puyat, William R Henderson, Michael S Koehle, Jordan A Guenette
PURPOSE: The physiological consequences of freely chosen cadence (FCC) during cycling remains poorly understood. We sought to determine the effect of cadence on the respiratory and hemodynamic response to cycling exercise. METHODS: Eleven cyclists (10M:1F; age=27±6yr; V[Combining Dot Above]O2max=60.8±3.7ml·kg·min) completed four, 6-min constant-load cycling trials at 10% below their previously determined gas exchange threshold (i.e., 63±5% peak power) while pedaling at 60, 90, and 120rpm, and a FCC (94...
February 23, 2019: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
David S Ryan, Norman Stutzig, Tobias Siebert, James M Wakeling
External forces from our environment impose transverse loads on our muscles. Studies in rats have shown that transverse loads result in a decrease in the longitudinal muscle force. Changes in muscle architecture during contraction may contribute to the observed force decrease. The aim of this study was to quantify changes in pennation angle, fascicle dimensions, and muscle thickness during contraction under external transverse load. Electrical stimuli were elicited to evoke maximal force twitches in the right calf muscles of humans...
March 27, 2019: Journal of Biomechanics
Olyvia Donti, Ioli Panidis, Gerasimos Terzis, Gregory C Bogdanis
BACKGROUND: This study examined gastrocnemius medialis (GM) architectural properties and ankle joint range of motion (ROM) between female athletes with different flexibility training background. METHODS: Elite rhythmic gymnasts ( n = 10) were compared to national level volleyball athletes ( n = 10). Fascicle length, pennation angle and muscle thickness at the medial and the distal part of GM, and ankle ROM were measured at rest and during 1 min of static stretching...
February 13, 2019: Sports
Meizhen Huang, Marco Y C Pang
PURPOSE: This study aimed to investigate the influence of whole-body vibration (WBV) frequency, amplitude, and body posture on lower limb muscle activation among people with chronic stroke, and whether the EMG response to vibration stimulus differed between paretic and non-paretic side. The relationship between muscle activation and WBV transmission was also examined. METHOD: Thirty-two participants with chronic stroke performed three different exercises on the WBV platform with different vibration conditions (frequency: 20 Hz, 30 Hz, 40 Hz; amplitude: 0...
February 14, 2019: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
Linard Filli, Christian Meyer, Tim Killeen, Lilla Lörincz, Beat Göpfert, Michael Linnebank, Vinzenz von Tscharner, Armin Curt, Marc Bolliger, Björn Zörner
Locomotion relies on the fine-tuned coordination of different muscles which are controlled by particular neural circuits. Depending on the attendant conditions, walking patterns must be modified to optimally meet the demands of the task. Assessing neuromuscular control during dynamic conditions is methodologically highly challenging and prone to artifacts. Here we aim at assessing corticospinal involvement during different locomotor tasks using non-invasive surface electromyography. Activity in tibialis anterior (TA) and gastrocnemius medialis (GM) muscles was monitored by electromyograms (EMGs) in 27 healthy volunteers (11 female) during regular walking, walking while engaged in simultaneous cognitive dual tasks, walking with partial visual restriction, and skilled, targeted locomotion...
2019: Frontiers in Neurology
Xiyao Shan, Shun Otsuka, Tomiko Yakura, Munekazu Naito, Takashi Nakano, Yasuo Kawakami
The human triceps surae (two gastrocnemii and soleus) has aponeuroses in the proximal and distal aspects, the latter of which insert into the calcaneus by sharing the common Achilles tendon. These tendinous tissues are known to have elasticity and upon muscle contraction the aponeurosis is stretched both longitudinally (along the muscle's line of action) and transversely. Higher aponeurosis transverse deformability has been documented, but there is a paucity of information on the morphology and mechanical properties of human aponeurosis...
2019: PloS One
Carl Jewell, Joseph Hamill, Vinzenz von Tscharner, Katherine A Boyer
INTRODUCTION: In response to fatigue during an exhaustive treadmill run, forefoot runner's muscles must adapt to maintain their pace. From a neuromuscular control perspective, certain muscles may not be able to sustain the force to meet the run's demands; thus, there may be alternative muscle coordination in the lower extremity that allows for continued running for an extended period of time. The aim of this study was to quantify the change in muscle coordination during a prolonged run in forefoot runners...
February 8, 2019: European Journal of Sport Science
Timothy Tsz Ting Yam, Man Sang Wong, Shirley Siu Ming Fong
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of Kinesio tape (KT) on lower limb muscle activation pattern in children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) during walking. DESIGN: A parallel-group randomized controlled trial. SETTING: University laboratory setting. PARTICIPANTS: Twenty-five children with DCD were randomly allocated to the KT group (mean age = 7.97 years) and 24 to the control group (mean age = 8...
February 2019: Medicine (Baltimore)
Michael Helm, Ramona Ritzmann, Albert Gollhofer, Kathrin Freyler
With an emphasis on ballistic movements, an accurately anticipated neural control is an essential prerequisite to deliver a motor response coincidentally with the event of ground contact. This study investigated how previous knowledge of the ground condition affects proactive and reactive motor control in drop jumps (DJ). Thereby, human anticipatory capacity of muscle activation was investigated regarding neuromuscular activation, joint kinematics and peak forces associated with DJ performance. In 18 subjects, the effect of knowledge of two different surface conditions during DJs was evaluated...
2019: PloS One
Aaron Martínez, Christopher K-Y Lam, Vinzenz von Tscharner, Benno M Nigg
It has been proposed that during walking and running the body has strategies to minimize the soft tissue vibrations. The concept of muscle tuning suggests that muscle activity changes in response to the input signal to modify the frequency and damping of such vibrations. Although it has been demonstrated for continuous vibrations and single impacts, the adaptations dynamics are still unclear. The purpose of this study was to determine (1) if the neuromuscular adaptation to repeated single impacts is immediate, (2) what are the adaptation mechanisms, and (3) if there are functional groups defined by different adaptation strategies...
January 2019: Physiological Reports
Émilie Simoneau-Buessinger, Jennifer M Jakobi, Anis Toumi, Anne Mathys, Jennifer Bassement, Franck Barbier, Sébastien Leteneur
OBJECTIVE: To investigate ankle torque and steadiness in the intact leg of transtibial and transfemoral unilateral amputees. DESIGN: Comparative study. SETTING: Medical rehabilitation centers. PARTICIPANTS: Fifteen persons with a unilateral transfemoral amputation, eight persons with a transtibial amputation, and 14 able-bodied male participants volunteered to participate in this study. INTERVENTIONS: Not applicable...
January 9, 2019: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
Daniel Boari Coelho, Corina Aparecida Fernandes, Alessandra Rezende Martinelli, Luis Augusto Teixeira
OBJECTIVE: Fast and scaled muscular activation is required to recover body balance following an external perturbation. An issue open to investigation is the extent to which the cerebral hemisphere lesioned by stroke leads to asymmetric deficits in postural reactive responses. In this experiment, we aimed to compare muscular responses to unanticipated stance perturbations between individuals who suffered unilateral stroke either to the right or to the left cerebral hemisphere. METHODS: Stance perturbations were produced by releasing a load attached to the participant's trunk, inducing fast forward body oscillation...
January 8, 2019: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
Wannes Swinnen, Wouter Hoogkamer, Tijs Delabastita, Jeroen Aeles, Friedl De Groote, Benedicte Vanwanseele
The interaction between Gastrocnemius medialis (GM) muscle and Achilles tendon, i.e. muscle-tendon unit (MTU) interaction, plays an important role in minimizing the metabolic cost of running. Foot strike pattern (FSP) has been suggested to alter MTU interaction and subsequently the metabolic cost of running. However, metabolic data from experimental studies on FSP is inconsistent and a comparison of MTU interaction between FSP is still lacking. We therefore investigated the effect of habitual rearfoot and mid-/forefoot striking on MTU interaction, ankle joint work and plantar flexor muscle force production while running at 10 and 14 km/h...
January 10, 2019: Journal of Applied Physiology
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