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Basic knowledge of CA

Amarpreet Kaur, Shalinder Kaur, Harminder Pal Singh, Daizy Rani Batish, Ravinder Kumar Kohli
Invasive plant species constantly adjust their behavior with ecological shifts by virtue of phenotypic plasticity and/or local adaptations. Changes in the phenotype of an invasive species may also trigger variations in its community level impacts, which is an acceptable, yet unexplored aspect of invasion biology. Our study attempts to fill important knowledge gaps on the basic behavior and ecological interactions of invasive species. Parthenium hysterophorus, a widely distributed invasive alien species of tropical and sub-tropical regions, was evaluated for variations in its morpho-functional traits and ecological performance at a common spatial and temporal scale...
April 16, 2019: Journal of Environmental Management
K Závacká, K Plevová, M Jarošová, Š Pospíšilová
BACKGROUND: Chromosome rearrangements play an important role in cancer pathophysiology. Recently, chromothripsis has been proposed among the mechanisms leading to their formation. Chromothripsis leads to fragmentation of chromosomes and their reconstitution with tens to hundreds of rearrangements clustered in small genome regions. In contrast to the traditional concept of malignant transformation, abnormalities caused by chromothripsis are not accumulated gradually but arise during a single event...
2019: Klinická Onkologie: Casopis Ceské a Slovenské Onkologické Spolecnosti
Krzysztof Czaderny
BACKGROUND: During 2015 in Poland, male-to-female ratio in age-adjusted cancer mortality rate amounted to 1.83, which is close to that observed in 1990 (1.94) and considerably more than in 1965 (1.38). DATA AND METHODS: Nearest-neighbor matching and latent class model were estimated to assess gender gap in cancer prevention in 2006 and 2014. The analysis is based on nationally representative data from a two-wave survey carried out on a stratified random sample of <mml:math xmlns:mml="http://www...
April 16, 2019: Aging Male: the Official Journal of the International Society for the Study of the Aging Male
Jhumki Das, Prateek Bhatia, Aditya Singh
Gene editing research has seen rapid growth over the past decade or so, however with the discovery of CRISPR - Cas9 gene editing tool in recent years, the same has witnessed a global interest with many scientists and research groups worldwide carrying out cutting edge experiments to target various diseases and cancers and develop a cure. This has been made possible partially due to the ease of use and flexibility of the CRISPR - Cas9 system as compared to other conventional gene editing tools. Hence, CRISPR - Cas9 has found its way into most basic molecular laboratories and within reach of most low-middle income research groups...
April 2019: Indian Journal of Hematology & Blood Transfusion
Andrew Dhawan, Alessandro Barberis, Wei-Chen Cheng, Enric Domingo, Catharine West, Tim Maughan, Jacob G Scott, Adrian L Harris, Francesca M Buffa
With the increased use of next-generation sequencing generating large amounts of genomic data, gene expression signatures are becoming critically important tools for the interpretation of these data, and are poised to have a substantial effect on diagnosis, management, and prognosis for a number of diseases. It is becoming crucial to establish whether the expression patterns and statistical properties of sets of genes, or gene signatures, are conserved across independent datasets. Conversely, it is necessary to compare established signatures on the same dataset to better understand how they capture different clinical or biological characteristics...
April 10, 2019: Nature Protocols
A Paladini, G E Vallati, D Beomonte Zobel, L Paladini, A Annovazzi, R Sciuto, F Cappelli, A Borzelli, F Pane, D Negroni, M Cernigliaro, A Galbiati, B Del Sette, M Spinetta, G Guzzardi, A Carriero, G Pizzi
"Difficult vascular anatomy" is a challenge for Interventional Radiologists especially in liver directed therapies such as trans arterial radio embolization. Trans arterial radio embolization is a long and difficult procedure in which the basic knowledge of hepatic and gastro-enteric vascularization, with its high degree of variations, is very important in order to correctly administer the therapeutic drug selectively. In this report, we present a case of an atypical patient affected by an unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma, candidate for Radio-embolization treatment...
June 2019: Radiology Case Reports
Magdalena Montowska, Przemysław Łukasz Kowalczewski, Iga Rybicka, Emilia Fornal
There are various indicators, including FAO and EU sources, that edible insects could become one of the solutions to the problem of global food supply. This report was aimed at improving the knowledge on powdered crickets (Acheta domesticus). The analyses of the basic nutritional composition revealed that cricket powders were rich in protein (42.0-45.8% of dry matter) and fat (23.6-29.1% of dry matter). In terms of mineral content, CPs were rich in Ca, Mg and Fe. Most of all, the levels of Cu, Mn and Zn were especially high (2...
August 15, 2019: Food Chemistry
Amy L Beck, Estibaliz M Iturralde, Julissa Haya-Fisher, Sarah Kim, Victoria Keeton, Alicia Fernandez
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to explore barriers and facilitators to healthy eating among low-income Latino adolescents using an intervention development framework. METHODS: Semi-structured interviews (n = 30) were conducted with Latino youth ages 13-17 who had overweight or obesity at a safety-net clinic in San Francisco, CA. Adolescent beliefs and attitudes regarding healthy eating and individual, family, and community level barriers and facilitators were elicited...
April 4, 2019: Appetite
Philip W Chiu, Yasushi Sano, Noriya Uedo, Rajvinder Singh, Enders K W Ng, Tiing Leong Aang, Han Mo Chiu, Shiaw-Hooi Ho, Rupa Banerjee, Shinji Tanaka, Xiao Bo Li, Fang Yao, James Y W Lau, Kenshi Yao
Background and study aims  Image enhanced endoscopy (IEE) allows endoscopists to improve recognition and characterization of gastrointestinal neoplasia. The Asian Novel Bio-Imaging and Intervention Group (ANBIG) conducted a standardized training program in endoscopic diagnosis and treatment of early gastrointestinal cancers in Asia. We embarked on a study to investigate the effect of this module on endoscopic diagnosis of early gastrointestinal neoplasia. Methods  This prospectively collected database was from workshops conducted on training for endoscopic diagnosis of early gastrointestinal neoplasia...
April 2019: Endoscopy International Open
X J Liu, J Wu
Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) may progress to end-stage liver disease, and needs medical intervention. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) may occur in patients with NASH prior to occurrence of cirrhosis. There is paucity of knowledge in understanding how NASH progresses to HCC. The present overview intends to provide updates in clinical and basic research of NASH-HCC, challenges and strategies in understanding its pathogenesis and solutions to increased incidence.
March 20, 2019: Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing za Zhi, Zhonghua Ganzangbing Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Hepatology
Jinhai Huo, Young-Rock Hong, Reetu Grewal, Sandhya Yadav, Isaac W Heller, Jiang Bian, Diana J Wilkie
CONTEXT: Palliative care will play an important role to alleviate disease suffering and improve quality of life for cancer patients and their family caregivers. OBJECTIVE: We examined the knowledge penetration of palliative care in a nationally representative sample of U.S. adults. METHODS: We used the 2018 NCI's Health Information National Trends Survey to determine the proportion of respondents who had knowledge of palliative care as well as the depth and sources of their knowledge...
March 25, 2019: Journal of Pain and Symptom Management
Daniel A Müller, Unai Silvan
Although rare among the general population, bone malignancies have a high rate of incidence among children and adolescents and are associated with high mortality rates. Osteosarcoma (also known as osteogenic sarcoma) is the most frequent primary cancer of bone and shows a high tendency to metastasize to the lung. Despite the frequent use of osteosarcoma-derived cell lines in basic biomechanical research and for the evaluation of cell responses to new biomaterials, the mechanical phenotype and the differences between osteosarcoma cells and related cell types, such as mesenchymal cells, osteoblasts and osteocytes, remain largely unknown...
2019: International Journal of Developmental Biology
Marla Karine Amarante, Nathalia de Sousa Pereira, Glauco Akelinghton Freire Vitiello, Maria Angelica Ehara Watanabe
Breast cancer (BC) is a complex and heterogeneous disease whose evolution depends on the tumor-host interaction. This type of cancer occurs when the mammary cells begin to grow wildly and become able to invade nearby tissues and/or promote metastases. Mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV) is the accepted etiological agent of mammary tumors in mice. The identification of MMTV-like sequences and antigens in human mammary carcinoma has supported the theory that a virus homologous to MMTV (namely, HMTV) may be involved in human BC, but the role of retroviral elements in this disease remains elusive, as results from different research groups were contradictory...
May 2019: Microbial Pathogenesis
Liza-Marie Johnson, April D Sykes, Zhaohua Lu, Jessica M Valdez, Jami Gattuso, Elsie Gerhardt, Kayla V Hamilton, Lynn W Harrison, Stacy J Hines-Dowell, Niki Jurbergs, Rose B McGee, Regina Nuccio, Annastasia A Ouma, Michele Pritchard, Emily A Quinn, Justin N Baker, Belinda N Mandrell, Kim E Nichols
BACKGROUND: Patients with cancer are increasingly offered genomic sequencing, including germline testing for cancer predisposition or other disorders. Such testing is unfamiliar to patients and families, and clear communication is needed to introduce genomic concepts and convey risk and benefit information. METHODS: Parents of children with cancer were offered the opportunity to have their children's tumor and germline examined with clinical genomic sequencing. Families were introduced to the study with a 2-visit informed consent model...
March 22, 2019: Cancer
Sarah-Lena Puhl
The classical cannabinoid receptors CB1 and CB2 as well as the putative third cannabinoid-receptor family member GPR55 are widely distributed throughout the mammalian body and exert various physiological and pathological effects. Basic and clinical research has identified the receptors as potential targets in inflammatory, metabolic and cancer disease scenarios. In the cardiovascular field, CB1 and CB2 crucially impact on the development of atherosclerosis and acute myocardial infarction, the latter either promoted by coronary occlusion at the site of atheroma in patients or by experimental coronary ligation in animal models, respectively...
March 16, 2019: Biochimica et biophysica acta. Molecular cell research
Ge-Ge Wu, Li-Qiang Zhou, Jian-Wei Xu, Jia-Yu Wang, Qi Wei, You-Bin Deng, Xin-Wu Cui, Christoph F Dietrich
Artificial intelligence (AI) is gaining extensive attention for its excellent performance in image-recognition tasks and increasingly applied in breast ultrasound. AI can conduct a quantitative assessment by recognizing imaging information automatically and make more accurate and reproductive imaging diagnosis. Breast cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer in women, severely threatening women's health, the early screening of which is closely related to the prognosis of patients. Therefore, utilization of AI in breast cancer screening and detection is of great significance, which can not only save time for radiologists, but also make up for experience and skill deficiency on some beginners...
February 28, 2019: World Journal of Radiology
Jelena Marković, Mihajlo Jović, Ivana Smičiklas, Marija Šljivić-Ivanović, Antonije Onjia, Katarina Trivunac, Aleksandar Popović
As soil cadmium (Cd) contamination becomes a serious concern and one of the significant environmental pollution issues all over the world, knowledge of the basic chemistry, origin, inputs, sources, quantity, chemical forms, reactions, as well as the fate and transport of Cd in different types of soil is crucial for better understanding Cd bioavailability, health risks and remedial options. This study aimed to increase the current knowledge on the complex interdependence between the factors affecting behavior, transport and fate of Cd in the soil and to test and compare the performance of the stabilization agents in different soil types...
March 5, 2019: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Leonard D Shultz, James Keck, Lisa Burzenski, Sonal Jangalwe, Shantashri Vaidya, Dale L Greiner, Michael A Brehm
With the increase in knowledge resulting from the sequencing of the human genome, the genetic basis for the underlying differences in individuals, their diseases, and how they respond to therapies is starting to be understood. This has formed the foundation for the era of precision medicine in many human diseases that is beginning to be implemented in the clinic, particularly in cancer. However, preclinical testing of therapeutic approaches based on individual biology will need to be validated in animal models prior to translation into patients...
March 7, 2019: Mammalian Genome: Official Journal of the International Mammalian Genome Society
Beata Całyniuk, Michał Górski, Jagoda Garbicz, Elżbieta Grochowska-Niedworok
Background: Eating disorders are an increasingly common health problem that is a major therapeutic challenge. For many years, the basic form of therapy used to be psychiatric and psychotherapeutic treatment, but now it is postulated that the dietetician should also be part of the therapeutic teams. Objective: The main purpose of the study is to assess nutrition knowledge of people with eating disorders with consideration to their age, place of living, education, BMI, type of disease, participation in dietary consultations and in therapy...
2019: Roczniki Państwowego Zakładu Higieny
Nada Humayun-Zakaria, Roland Arnold, Anshita Goel, Douglas Ward, Stuart Savill, Richard T Bryan
Despite the incidence and prevalence of urothelial bladder cancer (UBC), few advances in treatment and diagnosis have been made in recent years. In this review, we discuss potential biomarker candidates: the tropomyosin family of genes, encoded by four loci in the human genome. The expression of these genes is tissue-specific. Tropomyosins are responsible for diverse cellular roles, most notably based upon their interplay with actin to maintain cellular processes, integrity and structure. Tropomyosins exhibit a large variety of splice forms, and altered isoform expression levels have been associated with cancer, including UBC...
March 4, 2019: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
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