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Liver fat

Geum-Hwa Lee, Hwa-Young Lee, Sun-Ah Park, Tai-Sun Shin, Han-Jung Chae
The recent discovery that the impairment of autophagic flux in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) might be a strong determining factor in steatosis suggests the potential of therapeutic control of autophagic flux with natural agents in restoring NAFLD. We investigated the potential of Eucommia ulmoides leaf extract (EUL) to control dyslipidemia in NAFLD. EUL supplementation (200 mg/kg) promoted recovery from high fat diet (HFD)-induced lipid dysmetabolism. This hepatoprotective efficacy was accompanied by suppression of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, enhancing lysosomal functions, and thereby increasing autophagic flux...
February 18, 2019: Nutrients
Faegheh Zaefarian, Mohammad Reza Abdollahi, Aaron Cowieson, Velmurugu Ravindran
Despite having huge responsibilities in avian species, published reports on the influence of dietary factors and other possible constraints on the size, development and function of liver are limited. Consideration of the factors that could influence and alter liver function is therefore of critical relevance. In the current review, aspects of liver structure and function, and the influence of feed restriction, anti-nutritional factors, structural components and feed additives on liver are discussed. Effects of feed technology techniques such as thermal treatment and pelleting, feed particle size and whole grain feeding on the liver are also reviewed...
February 15, 2019: Animals: An Open Access Journal From MDPI
Shizuka Saito-Shida, Nao Kashiwabara, Satoru Nemoto, Hiroshi Akiyama
A reliable and accurate liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS)-based method was developed to quantify total tulathromycin residues in bovine tissues. Specifically, the above method relied on the quantification of CP-60,300, a marker produced by tulathromycin hydrolysis, for which maximum residue limits (MRLs) were established by the European Union and several other countries. Sample preparation and LC-MS/MS conditions were thoroughly optimized to allow for accurate quantification. The optimized procedure involved sample homogenization with 2 mol/L hydrochloric acid and ethyl acetate, heating of the resulting aqueous layer to convert tulathromycin and its metabolites into the marker residue, cleanup by a polymer-based cation-exchange cartridge, and subsequent analysis by LC-MS/MS...
February 12, 2019: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
Yueyue Lei, Leilei Gong, Fanggen Tan, Yixiao Liu, Shuangshuang Li, Houwang Shen, Min Zhu, Weiwei Cai, Fei Xu, Bao Hou, Yuetao Zhou, Hongxiu Han, Liying Qiu, Haijian Sun
Destructive glucose and lipid metabolism in the liver is a crucial characteristic of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), eventually leading to insulin resistance and subsequent hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia. Vaccarin is an active flavonoid glycoside associated with various biological functions, but its effects on glucose and lipid metabolic disorder in T2DM are still unclear. In this study, glucosamine (GlcN) and free fatty acids (FFAs, oleate/palmitate, 2:1 ratio) were applied to mimic insulin resistance and lipid deposition in HepG2 cells, respectively...
February 16, 2019: European Journal of Pharmacology
Tian Yang, Yue Shi, Chengjiang Lin, Chengda Yan, Donghu Zhang, Jianyang Lin
JCC-02, N-(3,5-dimethyladamantan-1-yl)-N'-(3-chlorophenyl) urea, has been developed as a novel N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor inhibitor for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD). In this study, a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method was developed to determine the concentration of JCC-02 in rat plasma and different tissues to investigate its pharmacokinetic behavior in vivo and distribution character in organs. The matrix samples were prepared by protein precipitation method with acetonitrile using gliclazide as the internal standard (IS)...
February 15, 2019: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Zhi-Xing Li, Hai-Hua Zhang, Dan-Chun Lan, Hong-Tao Zhang, Jian Sun
OBJECTIVE: To observe the effect of eletroacupuncture (EA) intervention on lipid metabolism and expression of AMP-activated kinase (AMPK), p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) protein in the liver in rats with insulin resistance (IR), so as to reveal its mechanisms underlying improvement of IR. METHODS: Forty male SD rats were randomly divided into blank control, model, medication, and EA groups ( n =8 in each)...
January 25, 2019: Zhen Ci Yan Jiu, Acupuncture Research
Rehab M Badi, Dalia G Mostafa, Eman F Khaleel, Huda H Satti
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is associated with hepatic insulin resistance (IR). Resveratrol (RES) a potent hypolipidemic dietary polyphenol has been identified for its ability to prevent hepatic steatosis and hepatic IR in high-fat diet (HFD)-fed murine models of NAFLD. In the present study, we have carried an in vivo animal experiment to identify a novel mechanism for RES protective action. Sub-chronic (45 days) RES pre-treatment in 3 days HFD-fed adult Wistar rats prevented early hepatic IR through inhibiting PKC/JNK activation; decreasing p-IRS (Ser307 ) and increasing p-IRS(Tyr612 ), p-Akt(Ser473 ) and p-GSK3(Ser9 )...
February 17, 2019: Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology
Zhe Wu, Jun Xu, Jiang Tan, Yang Song, Ling Liu, Feng Zhang, Yifan Zhang, Xia Li, Yujing Chi, Yulan Liu
Mesenteric adipose tissue (MAT) inflammation is associated with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), and immune cells play pivotal roles in the inflammation of adipose tissue. Here, we investigated the roles of MAT B lymphocytes in NAFLD. Mice fed with high-fat diet (HFD) and normal diet (ND) were killed in time gradients (4, 8 and 12 weeks). Compared with ND-fed mice, intra-hepatic CD45+ CD19+ B lymphocytes increased after 4 weeks (P < 0.01) of HFD feeding, and lasted until the 12th week, infiltrated earlier than CD45+ CD3+ T lymphocytes and CD45+ F4/80+ macrophages...
February 17, 2019: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
Vajiheh Khorasani, Sajad Jeddi, Parichehr Yaghmaei, Maryam Tohidi, Asghar Ghasemi
PURPOSE: Anemia is common in patients with type 2 diabetes. This aims at determining long-term effects of nitrate administration on diabetes-induced anemia in obese type 2 diabetic rats. METHODS: Male Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups: Control, control + nitrate, diabetes, and diabetes + nitrate. Type 2 diabetes was induced using high-fat diet followed by injection of streptozotocin (30 mg/kg). Sodium nitrate (100 mg/L in drinking water) was administered for six months...
February 14, 2019: Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry
Jacqueline L Beaudry, Kiran Deep Kaur, Elodie M Varin, Laurie L Baggio, Xiemin Cao, Erin E Mulvihill, Jennifer H Stern, Jonathan E Campbell, Phillip E Scherer, Daniel J Drucker
OBJECTIVE: Administration of glucagon (GCG) or GCG-containing co-agonists reduces body weight and increases energy expenditure. These actions appear to be transduced by multiple direct and indirect GCG receptor (GCGR)-dependent mechanisms. Although the canonical GCGR is expressed in brown adipose tissue (BAT) the importance of BAT GCGR activity for the physiological control of body weight, or the response to GCG agonism, has not been defined. METHODS: We studied the mechanisms linking GCG action to acute increases in oxygen consumption using wildtype (WT), Ucp1-/- and Fgf21-/- mice...
February 5, 2019: Molecular Metabolism
Rafael Calais Gaspar, Camilla Bertuzzo Veiga, Mariana Pereira Bessi, Marcella Neves Dátilo, Marcella Ramos Sant'Ana, Patrícia Brito Rodrigues, Leandro Pereira de Moura, Adelino Sanchez Ramos da Silva, Gustavo Aparecido Santos, Rodrigo Ramos Catharino, Eduardo Rochete Ropelle, José Rodrigo Pauli, Dennys Esper Cintra
GPR120 and GPR40 were recently reported as omega-3 (ω3) receptors with anti-inflammatory properties. Physical exercise could increase the expression of these receptors in the liver, improving hepatic metabolism in obesity and type 2 diabetes. Our aim was to investigate GPR120/40 in the liver of lean and obese mice after acute or chronic physical exercise, with or without the supplementation of ω3 rich flaxseed oil (FS), as well as assess the impact of exercise and FS on insulin signaling and inflammation...
December 12, 2018: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
Xiang Tao, Yuting Hu, Li Li, Rui Xu, Jing Fu, Qiangsong Tong, Qin Fu
β2 Adrenergic receptors (β2 ARs) are G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) that are expressed in major insulin target tissues. β2 ARs play an important role in the regulation of lipid metabolism during aging; however, little is known about the significance of β2 ARs in the pathogenesis of hepatic fat accumulation in high-fat diet (HFD) mice. This study aims to examine the role of β2 AR in the development of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) induced by HFD and the underlying mechanisms. Surprisingly, we found that genetic deletion of β2 AR significantly increased the liver weight of mice fed a HFD for 20 weeks compared to that of wild-type (WT) mice...
February 12, 2019: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Lin Su, Zhe Wu, Yujing Chi, Yang Song, Jun Xu, Jiang Tan, Xu Cong, Yulan Liu
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is characterized by altered intestinal microbiota and intestinal immune disorder. Here we investigated the role of mesenteric lymph node (MLN) CD4+ T lymphocytes in NAFLD. In high fat diet (HFD)-fed mice, the percentage ratios of Th1 to Th2 cells and Th17 to Treg cells were imbalanced in MLNs. Co-culture assays showed MLN CD4+ T lymphocytes from HFD-fed mice tended to migrate to the liver and promoted hepatic inflammation. Adoptive transfer of MLN CD4+ T lymphocytes from NAFLD mice to HFD-fed mice resulted in higher transaminase, worse hepatic inflammation and lipid accumulation...
January 28, 2019: Cellular Immunology
Jiang Hu, Bingang Shi, Jianpeng Xie, Huitong Zhou, Jiqing Wang, Xiu Liu, Shaobin Li, Zhidong Zhao, Yuzhu Luo
Diacylglycerol acyltransferase-2 ( DGAT2 ) plays a key role in the synthesis of animal triglycerides (TGs). This study investigated the relative expression of the DGAT2 gene in tissues, variation in the gene, and its association with carcass and meat quality traits in yaks ( Bos grunniens ). DGAT2 was found to be expressed in twelve tissues investigated, but the highest expression was detected in subcutaneous fat, and moderate levels were observed in the liver, heart, longissimus dorsi muscle, and abomasum...
February 14, 2019: Animals: An Open Access Journal From MDPI
David Houghton, Paweł Zalewski, Kate Hallsworth, Sophie Cassidy, Christian Thoma, Leah Avery, Joanna Slomko, Timothy Hardy, Alastair D Burt, Dina Tiniakos, Kieren G Hollingsworth, Roy Taylor, Christopher P Day, Steven Masson, Stuart McPherson, Quentin M Anstee, Julia L Newton, Michael I Trenell
BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular disease is the principle cause of death in patients with elevated liver fat unrelated to alcohol consumption, more so than liver related morbidity and mortality. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between liver fat and cardiac and autonomic function. Secondly, how impairment in cardiac and autonomic function is influenced by metabolic risk factors. METHODS: Cardiovascular and autonomic function were assessed in 96 sedentary individuals: 1) NAFLD (n = 46, hepatic steatosis >5% by magnetic resonance spectroscopy), 2) Hepatic steatosis and alcohol (DAFLD) (n = 16, >5%, consuming >20g/day of alcohol) and 3) CONTROLS (n = 34, no cardiac, liver or metabolic disorders, <20g/day of alcohol)...
February 12, 2019: Journal of Hepatology
Meijiao Wang, Dan Zhao, Liangzhi Xu, Wenjing Guo, Li Nie, Yi Lei, Yun Long, Min Liu, Yichen Wang, Xueqin Zhang, Li Zhang, Hanna Li, Jinhu Zhang, Dongzhi Yuan, Limin Yue
BACKGROUND: Proprotein convertase subtilisin / kexin type 9 (PCSK9) plays a critical role in the cholesterol metabolism by negatively regulating the low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR). Lipid metabolic and ovarian disorders are the common clinical manifestation of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Here, we intended to elucidate the role of PCSK9 in the pathogenesis of PCOS conducted on a human population in case-control design and animal part in an interventional study. METHODS: We firstly investigated the serum levels of PCSK9 in 46 PCOS patients compared with 49 healthy women as controls, and then developed a PCOS mouse model induced by dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and a high-fat diet (HFD) to determine the role of PCSK9 in abnormal lipid metabolism and ovarian dysfunction of PCOS in four groups (n = 40 per group): control, PCOS mice, PCOS plus alirocumab group, and PCOS plus vehicle group...
February 12, 2019: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
Ashley Mulcahy Toney, Rong Fan, Yibo Xian, Virginia Chaidez, Amanda E Ramer-Tait, Soonkyu Chung
OBJECTIVE: Urolithin A (UroA) is a major metabolite of ellagic acid produced following microbial catabolism in the gut. Emerging evidence has suggested that UroA modulates energy metabolism in various cells. However, UroA's physiological functions related to obesity and insulin resistance remain unclear. METHODS: Male mice were intraperitoneally administrated either UroA or dimethyl sulfoxide (vehicle) along with a high-fat diet for 12 weeks. Insulin sensitivity was evaluated via glucose and insulin tolerance tests and acute insulin signaling...
February 15, 2019: Obesity
Thais de Castro Barbosa, Petter S Alm, Anna Krook, Romain Barrès, Juleen R Zierath
Paternal preconceptional high-fat diet (HFD) alters whole-body glucose and energy homeostasis over several generations, which may be mediated by altered transcriptomic profiles of metabolic organs. We investigated the effect of paternal HFD on the hepatic transcriptomic and metabolic signatures of female grand-offspring. Paternal HFD strongly impacted the liver transcriptome of the second-generation offspring. Gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) revealed grandpaternal-HFD altered the TNF-α signaling via NFκB pathway, independent of the grand-offspring's diet...
February 15, 2019: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
Ye Bi, Ji-Lan Wang, Ming-Long Li, Jie Zhou, Xiang-Lan Sun
OBJECTIVES: Pancreas steatosis is the description of fat accumulation in the pancreatic gland. The prevalence and development mechanisms of pancreatic steatosis in patients with metabolic disorders still remain unclear. The aim of this study is to systematically review the association between pancreatic steatosis and metabolic co-morbidities. METHODS: We performed a systematic search strategy using three electronic databases (MEDLINE, Scopus, and Embase) for relevant studies concerning the associations of pancreatic steatosis with metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its clinical relevance from inception until September 30, 2018...
February 14, 2019: Diabetes/metabolism Research and Reviews
Christian Kuete Fofie, Shankar Katekhaye, Swapnil Borse, Vipin Sharma, Manish Nivsarkar, Elvine Pami Nguelefack-Mbuyo, Albert Kamanyi, Vijai Singh, Telesphore Benoît Nguelefack
The type 2 diabetes is one of the major global health issues that affects millions of people. This study evaluated the antidiabetic activity of aqueous extracts (AECP) and methanol extracts (MECP) from Ceiba pentandra trunk bark on an experimental model of type 2 diabetes (T2D). This model was induced in rats by the combination of a high-fat diet (HFD) and a single dose of streptozotocin (40 mg/kg, intraperitoneal) at the seventh day of experimentation. Diabetes was confirmed on day 10 by fasting blood glucose more than or equal to 200 mg/dL...
February 14, 2019: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
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