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Pathology of esophagus emergency

Kai-Chen Chung, Chih-Hung Lin, Chung-Lin Tsai, Yu-Hsuan Li, Chih-Hsiang Liao
BACKGROUND: and Importance: Esophageal injury is a severe surgical complication of a transsternal approach to the high thoracic vertebral metastasis, which can result in mediastinitis and life-threatening consequences. A covered stent can be placed in the esophagus to prevent mediastinal leakage. However, tracheomalacia is a very rare complication following esophageal stenting. CLINICAL PRESENTATION: A 56-year-old man had a pathologic fracture of the T3 vertebral body with spinal cord compression, myelopathy, and neurogenic bladder...
February 2, 2019: World Neurosurgery
Kelly A Whelan, Amanda B Muir, Hiroshi Nakagawa
The stratified squamous epithelium of the esophagus shows a proliferative basal layer of keratinocytes that undergo terminal differentiation in overlying suprabasal layers. Esophageal pathologies, including eosinophilic esophagitis, gastroesophageal reflux disease, Barrett's esophagus, squamous cell carcinoma, and adenocarcinoma, cause perturbations in the esophageal epithelial proliferation-differentiation gradient. Three-dimensional (3D) culture platforms mimicking in vivo esophageal epithelial tissue architecture ex vivo have emerged as powerful experimental tools for the investigation of esophageal biology in the context of homeostasis and pathology...
2018: Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology
Molly Orosey, Mitual Amin, Mitchell S Cappell
BACKGROUND: An association between inlet patches and proximal esophageal adenocarcinomas is currently suspected because of numerous case reports of simultaneous occurrence of both diseases. AIMS: To analyze whether inlet patches are significantly associated with proximal esophageal adenocarcinomas in a large population. METHODS: Computerized search of pathology and EGD reports revealed 398 cases of esophageal adenocarcinomas among 156,236 EGDs (performed on 106,510 patients) diagnosed by histopathology performed at Royal Oak/Troy, William Beaumont Hospitals, 2003-2016...
February 2018: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
Wu Yuan, Robert Brown, Wayne Mitzner, Lonny Yarmus, Xingde Li
Endoscopic optical coherence tomography (OCT) has emerged as a valuable tool for advancing our understanding of the histomorphology of various internal luminal organs and studying the pathogenesis of relevant diseases. To date, this technology affords limited resolving power for discerning subtle pathological changes associated with early diseases. In addition, it remains challenging to access small luminal organs or pass through narrow luminal sections without potentially causing trauma to tissue with a traditional OCT endoscope of a 1-1...
November 16, 2017: Nature Communications
Benedikte Jacobsen, Danielle Larouche, Olivier Rochette-Drouin, Michael Ploug, Lucie Germain
A multi-LU-domain-containing protein denoted C4.4A exhibits a tightly regulated membrane-associated expression in the suprabasal layers of stratified squamous epithelia such as skin and the esophagus, and the expression of C4.4A is dysregulated in various pathological conditions. However, the biological function of C4.4A remains unknown. To enable further studies, we evaluated the expression of C4.4A in monolayer cultures of normal human keratinocytes and in tissue-engineered skin substitutes (TESs) produced by the self-assembly approach, which allow the formation of a fully differentiated epidermis tissue...
2017: BioMed Research International
David J Wellenstein, Henrieke W Schutte, Henri A M Marres, Jimmie Honings, Peter C Belafsky, Gregory N Postma, Robert P Takes, Guido B van den Broek
BACKGROUND: Diagnostic and therapeutic office-based procedures under topical anesthesia are emerging in the daily practice of laryngologists and head and neck surgeons. Since the introduction of the transnasal esophagoscope, office-based procedures for the esophagus are increasingly performed. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review of literature on office-based procedures under topical anesthesia for the esophagus. RESULTS: Transnasal esophagoscopy is an extensively investigated office-based procedure...
September 2017: Head & Neck
Nicole C Panarelli, Rhonda K Yantiss
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To summarize the literature regarding appropriate endoscopic sampling and surveillance protocols for common inflammatory diseases of the digestive tract. Gastroenterologists increasingly use endoscopy with mucosal biopsy to detect inflammatory diseases, assess response to therapy, and monitor for progression to dysplasia. RECENT FINDINGS: Many diseases show a patchy distribution in the digestive tract and there may be poor correlation between the endoscopic appearance and presence of histologic abnormalities...
September 2016: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology
Ioannis Patoulias, Christos Kaselas, Dimitrios Patoulias, Konstantinos Farmakis, Eleni Papacrivou, Maria Kalogirou, Thomas Feidantsis
Introduction. Button battery ingestion is considered an emergency situation in pediatric patients that needs to be managed promptly; otherwise, it may lead to serious and potentially lethal complications, especially when it is impacted in the esophagus. Less attention has been given in cases where the battery passes into the stomach, with guidelines for emergency intervention being based on the presence of symptoms. Case Report. We present a case of an 18-month-old male patient who presented to our emergency department after button battery ingestion...
2016: Case Reports in Pediatrics
Divyanshoo R Kohli, Rachit D Shah, Daniel J Komorowski, George B Smallfield
A 43-year-old female with history of systemic lupus erythematosus, prior cytomegalovirus esophagitis treated with ganciclovir, and long segment Barrett's esophagus (Prague class C8 M9) with high grade dysplasia treated with radiofrequency ablation presented to the hospital with hematemesis. An upper gastrointestinal endoscopy showed multiple esophageal ulcers with active arterial spurting which could not be controlled with endoscopic interventions including placement of hemostatic clips. An emergent angiogram demonstrated actively bleeding saccular dilations (pseudoaneurysms) in the esophageal branches of the lower thoracic aorta as well as left gastric artery for which gelfoam and coil embolization was initially successful...
2016: Case Reports in Gastrointestinal Medicine
Mineko Oka, Rumi Ueha, Takaharu Nito, Tatsuya Yamasoba
INTRODUCTION: Fibrovascular polyps (FVPs) are benign tumors that commonly occur in the cervical esophagus. Few cases of FVPs of the hypopharynx have been reported, but there has been no English review concerning hypopharyngeal FVPs (hFVPs). Here, we report a case of a vast hFVP, and we also review 13 hFVP cases found in the English literature (PubMed search) including our case. CASE DESCRIPTION: A 41-year-old man with respiratory distress and regurgitation of a mass was referred to our hospital...
2016: SpringerPlus
Patrick J McLaren, James P Dolan
In recent years, a number of endoluminal procedures such as endoscopic resection and thermal ablation have emerged as less invasive treatment options for early esophageal cancer. These therapies have demonstrated excellent oncologic outcomes for dysplasia as well as intramucosal cancers. However, few studies have directly compared long-term outcomes of endoscopic therapy versus traditional esophagectomy. Current esophagectomy techniques now deliver consistently good outcomes in the hands of experienced surgeons at high volume centers, and this option should be considered an important treatment consideration for early esophageal cancer...
October 2016: Journal of Laparoendoscopic & Advanced Surgical Techniques. Part A
Maryam Hemmatzadeh, Hamed Mohammadi, Mohammad Karimi, Mohammad Hossein Musavishenas, Behzad Baradaran
Esophageal cancer (EC) is the most invasive disease associated with inclusive poor prognosis. EC usually is found as either adenocarcinoma (EAC) or squamous cell carcinomas (ESCC). ESCC forms in squamous cells and highly occurs in the upper third of the esophagus. EAC appears in glandular cells and ordinarily develops in the lower one third of the esophagus near the stomach. Barrett's esophagus (BE) is a metaplastic precursor of EAC. There is a persistent need for improving our understanding of the molecular basis of this disease...
August 2016: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy
Ioannis Panagopoulos, Ludmila Gorunova, Marius Lund-Iversen, Ingvild Lobmaier, Bodil Bjerkehagen, Sverre Heim
Leiomyomas of the gastrointestinal tract are mostly found in the esophagus, stomach, and colon. Genetic information about them is very limited and no fusion genes have been described. We present herein cytogenetic and molecular genetic analyses of two gastrointestinal leiomyomas found in the esophagus and small intestine. The esophageal leiomyoma had the karyotype 45,Y,der(X)t(X;6)(p22;p21),inv(2)(p23q35),add(6)(p21),-11[cp6]/46,XY[7]. The intestinal leiomyoma karyotype was 46,X,add(X)(q2?),der(2)add(2)(p23)add(2)(q33),add(4)(p14),add(14)(q22)[10]/47,XX,+12[2]/46,XX[1]...
November 2016: Modern Pathology: An Official Journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
Yasushi Yamasaki, Soji Ozawa, Junya Oguma, Akihito Kazuno, Yamato Ninomiya
BACKGROUND: Most of benign esophageal strictures caused by gastroesophageal reflux are short segments and can be treated by an endoscopic dilatation, but cases of long-segment stenosis requiring an esophagectomy are rare. CASE PRESENTATION: A 62-year-old woman had undergone emergency surgery for a giant ovarian tumor rupture at another hospital. A duodenal perforation occurred after surgery but improved with conservative treatment. She had undergone long-term nasogastric tube placement for 4 months because she was on a mechanical ventilator and did not receive proton pump inhibitors (PPIs)...
December 2016: Surgical Case Reports
M Gurgenidze, N Lomidze, K Chelidze, G Nemsadze, Z Manijashvili
Hypo-agenesis of the right lobe of the liver is an extremely rare finding. It is defined as the complete or partial absence of liver tissue on the right side without previous disease or surgery. It is usually an incidental finding. A 32-year-old female patient came to Emergency Department of TSMU the First University Clinic 22.10.2015 with an initial diagnosis of upper gastrointestinal bleeding. Her medical history showed no previous diseases of the liver or episodes of hemorrhage. Dizziness, nausea, vomiting with red blood, melena was presented on admission...
April 2016: Georgian Medical News
Anna Ansaloni, G Brigante, B Madeo
Background. Ultrasound (US) is the most accurate tool in the diagnosis of thyroid nodules if performed by expert physician. Misdiagnosis due to extrathyroidal lesions mimicking thyroid nodules is reported in literature. We describe the first case of an esophageal fibrovascular polyp misdiagnosed as a thyroid nodule on US examination. Patient Findings. A 54-year-old woman presented to emergency department for headache and underwent carotid Doppler extended to neck ultrasound with incidental finding of a nodule in the posterior side of the left thyroid lobe...
2016: Case Reports in Endocrinology
A Straumann, C Blanchard, S Radonjic-Hoesli, Ch Bussmann, P Hruz, E Safroneeva, D Simon, A M Schoepfer, H-U Simon
BACKGROUND: Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is a rapidly emerging, chronic inflammatory, genetically impacted disease of the esophagus, defined clinically by symptoms of esophageal dysfunction and, pathologically, by an eosinophil-predominant tissue infiltration. However, in four EoE families, we have identified patients presenting with EoE-typical and corticosteroid-responsive symptoms, but without tissue eosinophilia. The aim of this study was to clinically and immunologically characterize these patients with EoE-like disease...
June 2016: Allergy
Benjamin P Davis, Marc E Rothenberg
Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is a recently recognized inflammatory disease of the esophagus with clinical symptoms derived from esophageal dysfunction. The etiology of EoE is now being elucidated, and food hypersensitivity is emerging as the central cornerstone of disease pathogenesis. Herein, we present a thorough picture of the current clinical, pathologic, and molecular understanding of the disease with a focus on disease mechanisms.
May 23, 2016: Annual Review of Pathology
Amy Richter, Krupa Mysore, Deb Schady, Binoy Chandy
PURPOSE: To review the literature of congenital hairy polyps and describe the clinical presentation, operative management, and histologic findings of a congenital hairy polyp arising from the palatopharyngeus muscle in a neonate with recurrent choking episodes. METHODS: Chart review of a 2-month-old male referred to a tertiary care pediatric hospital. RESULTS: We present a case of a 2-month-old male who presented to the emergency room with recurrent episodes of choking and vomiting...
January 2016: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
Christina L Greene, Stephanie G Worrell, Stephen E Attwood, Parakrama Chandrasoma, Kenneth Chang, Tom R DeMeester, Reginald V Lord, Elizabeth Montgomery, Oliver Pech, John Vallone, Michael Vieth, Kenneth K Wang, Steven R DeMeester
INTRODUCTION: Endoscopic therapy has revolutionized the treatment of Barrett's esophagus with high-grade dysplasia (HGD) or intramucosal adenocarcinoma by allowing preservation of the esophagus in many patients who would previously have had an esophagectomy. This paradigm shift initially occurred at high-volume centers in North America and Europe but now is becoming mainstream therapy. There is a lack of uniform guidelines and algorithms for the management of these patients. Our aim was to review important concepts and pitfalls in the endoscopic management of superficial esophageal adenocarcinoma...
April 2016: Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery: Official Journal of the Society for Surgery of the Alimentary Tract
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