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premature coronary arterial disease

Himali Gandhi, Navid Ahmed, Daniel M Spevack
Antiphospholipid antibody syndrome (APLS) is well known to cause thrombotic events and premature atherosclerosis leading to coronary artery occlusion. The association of non-thrombotic acute myocardial infarctions (AMI) with APLS is not as clearly delineated. The objective of this study was to determine the relative prevalence of myocardial infarction with non obstructive coronary arteries (MINOCA) compared to MI from vaso-occlusive disease amongst patients with known APLS at our institution. Out of 575 patients with positive antiphospholipid antibodies, cardiac catheterizations were performed in 40 patients presented with AMI and had cardiac catheterizations...
March 2019: IJC Heart & Vasculature
Ashish Sarraju, Joshua W Knowles
Familial Hypercholesterolemia (FH) is an inherited lipid disorder affecting 1 in 220 individuals resulting in highly elevated low-density lipoprotein levels and risk of premature coronary disease. Pathogenic variants causing FH typically involve the LDL receptor ( LDLR ), apolipoprotein B-100 ( APOB ), and proprotein convertase subtulisin/kexin type 9 genes ( PCSK9 ) and if identified convey a risk of early onset coronary artery disease (ASCVD) of 3- to 10-fold vs. the general population depending on the severity of the mutation...
2019: Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine
Ewa Konduracka, Grażyna Cieślik, Maciej T Małecki, Grzegorz Gajos, Aleksander Siniarski, Krzysztof P Malinowski, Magdalena Kostkiewicz, Lucyna Mastalerz, Jadwiga Nessler, Wiesława Piwowarska
INTRODUCTION It is widely believed that patients with diabetes are at increased risk of severe and premature coronary artery disease (CAD) when compared to non-diabetic individuals. OBJECTIVES To evaluate the prevalence, 7-year incidence, predictors, and outcomes of obstructive and non-obstructive CAD in patients with long-lasting type 1 diabetes. PATIENTS AND METHODS We enrolled 2330 patients at a median age of 50 years with a median diabetes duration of 32 years. All study participants underwent diagnostic work-up for CAD with an exercise treadmill test (ETT) and/or single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)...
February 13, 2019: Polish Archives of Internal Medicine
Julien Higny, Michaël Dupont, Antoine Guédès
A strong family history of early-onset coronary artery disease (CAD) may represent a substantial predictor of enhanced development of subclinical atherosclerosis in a sibling population. In this population, standard cardiovascular (CV) risk assessment could be underrated with the predictive capacity of the Framingham Risk Score. At present, cardiac computed tomography (CT) provides a high diagnostic performance for the detection of coronary atherosclerosis. Nevertheless, there is a paucity of data concerning the prognostic value of this technology in apparently healthy relatives of patients with premature coronary events...
February 11, 2019: Acta Cardiologica
James J Jang, Manjushri Bhapkar, Adrian Coles, Sreekanth Vemulapalli, Christopher B Fordyce, Kerry L Lee, James E Udelson, Udo Hoffmann, Jean-Claude Tardif, W Schuyler Jones, Daniel B Mark, Vincent L Sorrell, Andrey Espinoza, Pamela S Douglas, Manesh R Patel
BACKGROUND: Patients with high-risk coronary artery disease (CAD) may be difficult to identify. METHODS: Using the PROMISE (Prospective Multicenter Imaging Study for Evaluation of Chest Pain) cohort randomized to coronary computed tomographic angiography (n=4589), 2 predictive models were developed for high-risk CAD, defined as left main stenosis (≥50% stenosis) or either (1) ≥50% stenosis [50] or (2) ≥70% stenosis [70] of 3 vessels or 2-vessel CAD involving the proximal left anterior descending artery...
February 2019: Circulation. Cardiovascular Imaging
Ghufran Babar, Mark Clements, Hongying Dai, Geetha Raghuveer
Background Type-1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) causes endothelial dysfunction and early atherosclerosis, which can result in premature coronary artery disease. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of glycemic control, vascular oxidative stress and inflammation on vascular health in adolescents with T1DM. Methods This was a cross-sectional study in adolescents with age- and sex-matched T1DM who were ≥12 years and were at least 2 years post-diagnosis. Recruitment was balanced to include individuals with hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) ≤8...
February 25, 2019: Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism: JPEM
Maria Donata Di Taranto, Renato de Falco, Ornella Guardamagna, Giulia Massini, Carola Giacobbe, Renata Auricchio, Basilio Malamisura, Michela Proto, Daniela Palma, Luigi Greco, Giuliana Fortunato
Background Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is a genetic disorder caused by mutations in genes involved in low-density lipoprotein (LDL) uptake (LDLR, APOB and PCSK9). Genetic diagnosis is particularly useful in asymptomatic children allowing for the detection of definite FH patients. Furthermore, defining their genetic status may be of considerable importance as the compound heterozygous status is much more severe than the heterozygous one. Our study aims at depicting the genetic background of an Italian pediatric population with FH focusing on the correlation between lipid profile and genetic status...
February 2, 2019: Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine: CCLM
Huijuan Zhu, Meijuan Liu, Tianshu Zhai, Hui Pan, Linjie Wang, Hongbo Yang, Kemin Yan, Fengying Gong, Yong Zeng
BACKGROUND: Clusterin plays an important role in the cardiovascular system, and serum levels of clusterin are higher in coronary artery disease (CAD) patients. Here, we measured serum clusterin levels in premature CAD (PCAD) patients and explored the association of these levels with PCAD risk. METHODS: Serum samples and general clinical information were obtained from 672 subjects including 364 PCAD subjects, 126 non-PCAD (NPCAD) subjects and 182 controls. RESULTS: Serum clusterin levels were higher in PCAD patients than in controls, particularly in males with body mass index (BMI)<25 kg/m2 (P<0...
January 18, 2019: Diabetes/metabolism Research and Reviews
Eyal Cohen, Erzsébet Horváth-Puhó, Joel G Ray, Lars Pedersen, Vera Ehrenstein, Nancy Adler, Simone Vigod, Arnold Milstein, Henrik Toft Sørensen
Importance: Having a child with a major birth defect can be a life-changing and stressful event that may be associated with higher cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk, yet the long-term burden of CVD for the child's mother is unknown. Objective: To assess whether mothers of an infant born with a major congenital anomaly are at higher risk of CVD compared with a comparison cohort. Design, Setting, and Participants: A population-based cohort study using individual-level linked registry data in Denmark included 42 943 women who gave birth to an infant with a major congenital anomaly between January 1, 1979, and December 31, 2013; and follow-up was conducted until 2015...
September 7, 2018: JAMA network open
Nara Thaisa Tenório Martins Braga, Adriana Banhos Carneiro, Kathia Liliane da Cunha Ribeiro Zuntini, Flávio Bezerra de Araújo, Elizabeth De Francesco Daher
Takayasu arteritis (TA) is a chronic granulomatous inflammatory condition of unknown cause that involves large vessels - particularly the aorta and its branches - such as the carotid, coronary, pulmonary, and renal arteries. The left subclavian artery is the most frequently involved vessel. Stenosis of the renal artery has been reported in 23-31% of the cases and may result in malignant hypertension, ischemic renal disease, decompensated heart failure, and premature death. Involvement of both renal arteries is uncommon...
January 10, 2019: Jornal Brasileiro de Nefrologia: ʹorgão Oficial de Sociedades Brasileira e Latino-Americana de Nefrologia
E Yu Andreenko, I S Yavelov, М М Loukianov, A N Vernohaeva, O M Drapkina, S A Boytsov
In addition to conventional risk factors in young patients with ischemic heart disease (IHD) numerous other risk factors including genetics play an important role in its causation. Molecular genetic testing is recommended for the detection of monogenic diseases with a high risk of developing IHD, such as familial hypercholesterolemia. In majority ofyoung patients, the first manifestation of IHD is an acute coronary syndrome. Young patients with IHD more often have normal coronary arteries or single-vessel coronary disease, and in up to 20% of them cause of myocardial ischemia is not related to atherosclerosis...
November 24, 2018: Kardiologiia
Aparna A Bhanushali, Gayatri Pradhan, A Contractor, Bibhu R Das
Genome wide association study has identified rs7025486 G>A polymorphism within DAB2IP (Disabled homolog 2-interacting protein) gene with increased risk of coronary heart disease (CAD). In this study we have determined the frequency and association of rs7025486 with CAD in Indians. The study was performed on 214 patients with CAD and 125 controls. The 'AA' genotype was associated with an increased risk in the CAD age group <50 yrs as compared to CAD age group>50 yrs (OR 3.149; P 0.034) and controls >50 yrs (OR 3...
December 2018: Indian Heart Journal
Yukiko Matsumura-Nakano, Satoshi Shizuta, Akihiro Komasa, Takeshi Morimoto, Hisaki Masuda, Hiroki Shiomi, Koji Goto, Kentaro Nakai, Hisashi Ogawa, Atsushi Kobori, Yutaka Kono, Kazuaki Kaitani, Satoru Suwa, Takeshi Aoyama, Mamoru Takahashi, Yasuhiro Sasaki, Yuko Onishi, Toshiaki Mano, Mitsuo Matsuda, Makoto Motooka, Hirofumi Tomita, Moriaki Inoko, Takatoshi Wakeyama, Nobuhisa Hagiwara, Kengo Tanabe, Masaharu Akao, Katsumi Miyauchi, Junji Yajima, Keiichi Hanaoka, Yoshihiro Morino, Kenji Ando, Yutaka Furukawa, Yoshihisa Nakagawa, Koichi Nakao, Ken Kozuma, Kazushige Kadota, Kazuo Kimura, Kazuya Kawai, Takafumi Ueno, Ken Okumura, Takeshi Kimura
BACKGROUND: Despite recommendations in the guidelines and consensus documents, there has been no randomized controlled trial evaluating oral anticoagulation (OAC) alone without antiplatelet therapy (APT) in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) and stable coronary artery disease (CAD) beyond 1 year after coronary stenting. METHODS: This study was a prospective, multicenter, open-label, non-inferiority trial, comparing OAC alone to combined OAC and single APT among AF patients beyond 1 year after stenting in a 1:1 randomization fashion...
September 24, 2018: Circulation
A Kleinsteuber, F Halleck, D Khadzhynov, A Staeck, L Lehner, M Duerr, P Glander, D Schmidt, K Budde, O Staeck
BACKGROUND: Outcomes of patients with end-stage renal disease are mainly affected by their comorbidities. Detailed data evaluating the impact of pre-transplant comorbidities on long-term outcome after kidney transplantation are largely missing. METHODS: In a long-term retrospective analysis, we investigated 839 deceased donor kidney transplant recipients (KTRs) who received transplants between 1999 and 2014. The prevalence and impact of the most relevant comorbidities were studied in detail...
December 2018: Transplantation Proceedings
Lei Chen, Yih-Kai Chan, Lucy Busija, Tone M Norekval, Barbara Riegel, Simon Stewart
BACKGROUND: The impact of different patterns of multimorbidity in heart failure (HF) on health outcomes is unknown. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that, independent of the extent of comorbidity, there are distinctive phenotypes of multimorbidity that convey an increased risk for premature mortality in patients hospitalized with HF. METHODS: We analyzed the clinical profile and health outcomes of 787 patients hospitalized with HF participating in a multidisciplinary HF management program with a minimum 12-month follow-up...
December 17, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing
Junhua Ge, Jian Li, Haichu Yu, Bo Hou
Background: Risk factors of multivessel coronary artery disease (CAD) among young acute coronary syndrome (ACS) patients remain elusive now. Methods: This retrospective study analyzed data from 187 consecutive young (age ≤45 years) ACS patients (75 STEMI, 30 NSTEMI, and 72 unstable angina) hospitalized in our hospital from January 2012 to December 2016. Thirty-six young male patients with normal coronary angiography (CAG) findings (no-CAD), who underwent CAG due to suspected chest pain in this period, served as control group...
2018: International Journal of Hypertension
J Gabriel Juárez-Rojas, Carlos Posadas-Romero, Rocío Martínez-Alvarado, Esteban Jorge-Galarza, Juan Reyes-Barrera, L Gabriela Sánchez-Lozada, Margarita Torres-Tamayo, Aida X Medina-Urrutia
Background: In subjects without a history of coronary heart disease (CHD), type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is associated with carotid artery plaques (CAP), which is a better marker than high carotid intima-media thickness (hCIMT) for predicting first or recurrent cardiovascular events. Objective: The objective of this study is to analyze the association of T2DM with CAP and hCIMT in premature CHD patients. Methods: Premature CHD was considered before the age of 55 years in men and before 65 in women...
2018: Revista de Investigación Clínica; Organo del Hospital de Enfermedades de la Nutrición
Glenmore Lasam, Joshua B Oaks
A case of a 51-year-old female with history of hypertension and a significant family history of premature coronary artery disease presented to the hospital after cardiac arrest. She successfully completed a targeted temperature management therapy with full neurologic recovery. Her hospital course was complicated by several bouts of ventricular fibrillation (VF) arrest which was rescued by timely defibrillation, high quality cardiorespiratory resuscitation, and administration of antiarrhythmic medications and inotropic agents...
September 29, 2018: Curēus
Minoru Tagawa, Shigekazu Takeuchi, Yuichi Nakamura, Makihiko Saeki, Yoshinori Taniguchi, Tsukasa Ohno, Hiroyuki Watanabe, Yukie Ochiai, Kiminori Kato, Masaomi Chinushi, Yoshifusa Aizawa
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the prevalence and outcomes of asymptomatic coronary artery disease (CAD) in patients with the first episode of ischemic stroke. METHODS: Patients admitted to our hospital between November 2001 and January 2009 for the episode of an acute ischemic stroke/transient ischemic attack were included. Stress-Tl-201 scintigraphy was performed and followed by coronary angiography (CAG). The prevalence and risks for asymptomatic CAD, and long-term outcomes were studied...
November 21, 2018: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
Yen-Ling Chiu, Kai-Hsiang Shu, Feng-Jung Yang, Tzu-Ying Chou, Ping-Min Chen, Fang-Yun Lay, Szu-Yu Pan, Cheng-Jui Lin, Nicolle H R Litjens, Michiel G H Betjes, Selma Bermudez, Kung-Chi Kao, Jean-San Chia, George Wang, Yu-Sen Peng, Yi-Fang Chuang
Background: Patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) exhibit a premature aging phenotype of the immune system. Nevertheless, the etiology and impact of these changes in ESRD patients remain unknown. Results: Compared to healthy individuals, ESRD patients exhibit accelerated immunosenescence in both T cell and monocyte compartments, characterized by a dramatic reduction in naïve CD4+ and CD8+ T cell numbers but increase in CD8+ TEMRA cell and proinflammatory monocyte numbers...
2018: Immunity & Ageing: I & A
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