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Hilal Ozkan, Nilgün Köksal, Bayram Ali Dorum, Fatma Kocael, Yesim Ozarda, Pelin Doğan, Ipek Guney Varal, Onur Bagci
BACKGROUND: Parenteral nutrition (PN) has been widely used in preterm infants. Lipid solutions used for PN were reported to be associated with oxidative stress and related morbidities. The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of new generation lipid emulsion (SMOFLipid) and olive-oil based lipid emulsion for prevention of PN associated oxidative damage. METHODS: Preterm infants <32 gestational age were included to this prospective randomized study...
February 10, 2019: Pediatrics International: Official Journal of the Japan Pediatric Society
K Michael Hambidge, Jamie E Westcott, Ana Garcés, Lester Figueroa, Shivaprasad S Goudar, Sangappa M Dhaded, Omrana Pasha, Sumera A Ali, Antoinette Tshefu, Adrien Lokangaka, Richard J Derman, Robert L Goldenberg, Carl L Bose, Melissa Bauserman, Marion Koso-Thomas, Vanessa R Thorsten, Amaanti Sridhar, Kristen Stolka, Abhik Das, Elizabeth M McClure, Nancy F Krebs
Background: Reported benefits of maternal nutrition supplements commenced during pregnancy in low-resource populations have typically been quite limited. Objectives: This study tested the effects on newborn size, especially length, of commencing nutrition supplements for women in low-resource populations ≥3 mo before conception (Arm 1), compared with the same supplement commenced late in the first trimester of pregnancy (Arm 2) or not at all (control Arm 3). Methods: Women First was a 3-arm individualized randomized controlled trial (RCT)...
February 5, 2019: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Sara E Rostas, Christopher McPherson
Parenteral nutrition (PN) is frequently required by extremely preterm infants due to gastrointestinal immaturity and complications of prematurity. Parenteral nutrition-associated cholestasis (PNAC) and intestinal failure-associated liver disease (IFALD) are common complications of prolonged PN. Plant-based intravenous lipid emulsions, containing proinflammatory omega-6 fatty acids and phytosterols, may contribute to these conditions as well as other comorbidities such as bronchopulmonary dysplasia and retinopathy of prematurity...
January 2019: Neonatal Network: NN
E C Stoicănescu, F Popescu, A Zavate
INTRODUCTION: The nutritional balance between the nutritional requirements of the organism and the intake is a very delicate thing to adjust especially when it comes to the premature new-born in whom often the oral feeding is very challenging and the need for parenteral feeding is very pressing. PURPOSE: The goal of this article is to present a simple method of calculation for the amino acid parenteral intake in preterm infants using the Excel spreadsheet platform as a platform...
July 2018: Current Health Sciences Journal
Yair Kasirer, Alona Bin-Nun, Ateret Raveh, Irina Schorrs, Francis B Mimouni, Cathy Hammerman
BACKGROUND:  Intravenous lipid infusions improve both short- and long-term outcomes of premature neonates. However, prolonged infusion of lipids has been implicated in the development of parenteral nutrition-associated cholestasis (PNAC). We speculated that the multicomponent SMOFlipid would be hepatoprotective against PNAC. STUDY DESIGN:  This is a retrospective review comparing the incidence and severity of direct hyperbilirubinemia in preterm infants <1,500 g who were hospitalized for a minimum of 2 weeks during a 20-month period in which all preterm infants on total parenteral nutrition (TPN) received fat as Lipofundin with the following 20-month period in which all preterm infants on TPN received SMOFlipid...
January 8, 2019: American Journal of Perinatology
Julia Suikkanen, Hanna-Maria Matinolli, Johan G Eriksson, Anna-Liisa Järvenpää, Sture Andersson, Eero Kajantie, Petteri Hovi
OBJECTIVES: Adults born preterm at very low birthweight (VLBW; <1500 g) have a non-optimal cardiometabolic risk factor profile. Since higher protein intake during the first weeks of life predicted a healthier body composition in adulthood in our previous studies, we hypothesized that it would also predict a favorable cardiometabolic profile. STUDY DESIGN: The Helsinki Study of VLBW Adults includes 166 VLBW and preterm infants born between 1978 and 1985. We collected postnatal nutrition data among 125 unimpaired subjects, who attended two study visits at the mean ages of 22...
2018: PloS One
Ruth Sinclair, Tim Schindler, Kei Lui, Srinivas Bolisetty
BACKGROUND: Lipid emulsions (LE) are routinely administered as part of parenteral nutrition in neonates. There is a wide variation in clinical practice of plasma triglyceride monitoring during LE therapy. Our aim was to evaluate the incidence of hypertriglyceridaemia (Plasma triglyceride > 2.8 mmol/L) and its association with mortality and major morbidities in extremely preterm infants on parenteral nutrition. METHODS: A retrospective review of 195 infants < 29 weeks gestation...
November 7, 2018: BMC Pediatrics
Clair-Yves Boquien
Human milk is the best food for newborn nutrition. There is no ideal composition of human milk and also no easy way to control the complexity of its nutritional quality and the quantity received by breastfed infants. Pediatricians and nutritionists use charts of infant growth (weight, size, head circumference) and neurodevelopment criteria that reflect the food that these infants receive. These charts reflect first the infant physiology and likely reflect the composition of human milk when infants are breastfed...
2018: Frontiers in Pediatrics
Vanessa S Bomfim, Alceu A Jordão, Larissa G Alves, Francisco E Martinez, José Simon Camelo
BACKGROUND: Human milk, with essential nutrients and long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs) such as the omega 3 and 6 fatty acids is important for development of the central nervous system and the retina in very low birth weight infants (<1,500 g). However, breast milk may not be sufficient to meet these needs. The possibility of supplementing breast milk with a lyophilisate of human milk was explored in this study. The objectives of this study were to determine the total lipid content and the lipid profile of the Human Milk on Baseline (HMB) and that of the Concentrates with the Human Milk + lyophilisate (with lyophilisate of milk in the immediate period (HMCI), at 3 months (HMC3m), and at 6 months (HMC6m) of storage)...
2018: PloS One
Hiromichi Shoji, Toshiaki Shimizu
The metabolic changes that occur during the postnatal weaning period appear to be particularly important for future health, and human breast milk is considered to provide the optimal source of nutrition for infants. Our previous studies examined the effect of feeding type on antioxidative properties, glucose and insulin metabolism, the lipid profile, metabolomics, and prostaglandin (PG) metabolism in term and preterm infants. A urinary marker of oxidative DNA damage (8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine) was significantly lower in breast-fed term and preterm infants than in formula-fed infants...
September 8, 2018: Pediatrics International: Official Journal of the Japan Pediatric Society
Alessio Correani, Azzurra Pignotti, Luisita Marinelli, Chiara Biagetti, Rita D'Ascenzo, Luca Vedovelli, Giovanna Verlato, Paola Cogo, Marco B L Rocchi, Virgilio P Carnielli
Parenteral nutrition-associated cholestasis (PNAC) has been linked to plasma accumulation of phytosterols in infants receiving vegetable-oil-based lipid emulsions (LE). To date, information on the ability of infants with PNAC to metabolize intravenous (IV) phytosterols has been very limited. We characterized plasma phytosterol half-life in very low birth weight (VLBW) preterm infants with PNAC. As part of a prospective cohort study, VLBW infants with PNAC underwent serial blood sample measurements of sitosterol (Sito), campesterol (Camp), and stigmasterol (Stigma)...
July 2018: Lipids
Hacer Yapicioglu Yildizdas, Burak Poyraz, Guluzar Atli, Yasar Sertdemir, Kurthan Mert, Ferda Ozlu, Mehmet Satar
BACKGROUND: Olive oil-soybean oil (OO/SO) based lipid emulsions (LE) lack ω-3 PUFAs eicosapentaenoic acid -EPA and docosahexaenoic acid- DHA, which have clinical benefits on inflammatory processes. Fish oil based LEs are good sources of DHA and EPA. Fish oil, MCT, Olive oil and Soya oil (FMOS) lipid is one of the fish oil containing LEs supplemented with high levels of α-tocopherol and lower levels of phytosterol compared to OO/SO lipid emulsions. We investigated the effects of OO/SO and FMOS lipid preparations on cholestasis, levels of antioxidant enzymes and lipid peroxidation...
August 2, 2018: Pediatrics and Neonatology
Jai K Das, Zahra Hoodbhoy, Rehana A Salam, Afsah Zulfiqar Bhutta, Nancy G Valenzuela-Rubio, Zita Weise Prinzo, Zulfiqar A Bhutta
BACKGROUND: Ready-to-use lipid-based nutrient supplements (LNS) are a highly nutrient-dense supplement, which could be a good source of macro- and micronutrients for pregnant women who need to supplement their nutrient intake. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of LNS for maternal, birth and infant outcomes in pregnant women. Secondary objectives were to explore the most appropriate composition, frequency and duration of LNS administration. SEARCH METHODS: In May 2018, we searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, 22 other databases and two trials registers for any published and ongoing studies...
August 31, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Simonetta Costa, Rossella Iannotta, Luca Maggio, Giovanni Barone, Francesca Serrao, Giovanni Vento
BACKGROUND: Parenteral nutrition-associated cholestasis (PNAC) is a serious complication in preterm infants receiving prolonged parenteral nutrition. Soybean lipid emulsion (SLE) seems to have a role in its pathogenesis, whereas fish oil-based emulsion (FOLE) seems to be able to reverse cholestasis. This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of a FOLE in reversing PNAC. METHODS: The effectiveness in reversing PNAC was evaluated in prospective cohort study of very preterm infants when compared to historical controls: twenty-six infants (27...
August 23, 2018: Italian Journal of Pediatrics
Marta Cabrera Lafuente, M Teresa Montes Bueno, Natividad Pastrana, Cristina Segovia, Rosario Madero Jarabo, Camilia R Martin, Felix Omeñaca Teres, Miguel Sáenz de Pipaón Marcos
Background Mothers of preterm (PT) infants have difficulty providing adequate quantities of human milk (HM) for their babies during their hospital stay. The macronutrient content in HM changes over time, varying across and within individual mothers. The research aim of the strudy was to describe the intake of mothers' own milk (MOM) and its composition according to gestational (GA) and postnatal age (PNA) in infants born <32 weeks' GA and to correlate them with neonatal weight, length and morbidities. Methods A prospective observational study of 176 premature infants in a unit without a donor milk bank was conducted...
December 19, 2018: Journal of Perinatal Medicine
Alba Salguero Olid, Germán Blanco Sánchez, Almudena Alonso Ojembarrena
OBJECTIVE: Preterm infants with total parenteral nutrition are at particular risk of developing carnitine deficiency with impaired tolerance of parenteral lipids. The  objective was to review the scientific literature on potencial benefits of  prophylactic L-carnitine administration in parenteral nutrition of preterm  newborns. METHODS: Selected scientific articles in MEDLINE/PubMed, Scopus, The Cochrane Library, British Library EThOS and TESEO databases were assessed for this  systematic review...
July 1, 2018: Farmacia Hospitalaria
Chien-Chou Hsiao, Hung-Chih Lin, Yu-Jun Chang, Shih-Pan Yang, Lon-Yen Tsao, Cheng-Han Lee, Hsiao-Neng Chen, Jia-Yuh Chen, Yi-Giien Tsai
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Preterm infants have lower levels of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs). Supplementing very premature infants with intravenous lipid emulsions that fish oil, which is rich in n-3 LC-PUFAs, may decrease bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) by modulating inflammation and neonatal immune function. METHODS: Sixty very low birth weight (VLBW) premature infants requiring ventilator support were randomized in a double-blind manner to 2 groups and received total parenteral nutrition with fish oil containing LE (intervention group, n = 30) or soybean oil containing LE (control group, n = 30) for 7 days...
June 18, 2018: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
Ana Paula Caires Dos Santos, Ricardo David Couto
Several changes occur in lipid metabolism during gestation due to hormonal and metabolic changes, which are essential to satisfy the nutritional demands of the maternal-fetal unit development. The gestation shows two distinct periods that begin with fat accumulation, mainly in maternal adipose tissue, and the late phase, characterized by accelerated catabolism, with the increase of fatty acids in the circulation that causes hyperlipidemia, especially the one characterized as hypertriglyceridemia. Maternal hyperlipidemia may be associated with the development of maternal-fetal complications (preterm birth, preeclampsia, vascular complications) and the development of long-term cardiovascular disease...
May 2018: Revista Brasileira de Ginecologia e Obstetrícia
David A Osborn, Tim Schindler, Lisa J Jones, John Kh Sinn, Srinivas Bolisetty
BACKGROUND: Sick newborn and preterm infants frequently are not able to be fed enterally, necessitating parenteral fluid and nutrition. Potential benefits of higher parenteral amino acid (AA) intake for improved nitrogen balance, growth, and infant health may be outweighed by the infant's ability to utilise high intake of parenteral AA, especially in the days after birth. OBJECTIVES: The primary objective is to determine whether higher versus lower intake of parenteral AA is associated with improved growth and disability-free survival in newborn infants receiving parenteral nutrition...
March 5, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Nalin Choudhary, Kenneth Tan, Atul Malhotra
Neonatal units have started to switch from using conventional soy-based to alternate lipid emulsions, like SMOFlipid. SMOFlipid has been associated with an improvement in biochemical parameters and delays progression of parenteral nutrition-associated liver disease (PNALD). This retrospective epoch study aimed to compare clinically relevant neonatal outcomes in preterm infants (< 32 weeks), receiving SMOFlipid versus Intralipid. We compared clinical outcomes in two epochs-epoch 1 (Intralipid, October 2013-June 2015) versus epoch 2 (SMOFlipid, July 2015-March 2017)...
May 2018: European Journal of Pediatrics
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