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Toxicology, cancer, apoptosis, lung cancer, cell biology

Tanveer A Tabish, Md Zahidul I Pranjol, Hasan Hayat, Alma A M Rahat, Trefa M Abdullah, Jacqueline L Whatmore, Shaowei Zhang
The intriguing properties of reduced graphene oxide (rGO) have paved the way for a number of potential biomedical applications such as drug delivery, tissue engineering, gene delivery and bio-sensing. Over the last decade, there have been escalating concerns regarding the possible toxic effects, behaviour and fate of rGO in living systems and environments. This paper reports on integrative chemical-biological interactions of rGO with lung cancer cells, i.e. A549 and SKMES-1, to determine its potential toxicological impacts on them, as a function of its concentration...
December 15, 2017: Nanotechnology
Ignacio Gonzalez-Suarez, Alain Sewer, Paul Walker, Carole Mathis, Samantha Ellis, Heather Woodhouse, Emmanuel Guedj, Remi Dulize, Diego Marescotti, Stefano Acali, Florian Martin, Nikolai V Ivanov, Julia Hoeng, Manuel C Peitsch
Exposure to cigarette smoke is a leading cause of lung diseases including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and cancer. Cigarette smoke is a complex aerosol containing over 6000 chemicals and thus it is difficult to determine individual contributions to overall toxicity as well as the molecular mechanisms by which smoke constituents exert their effects. We selected three well-known harmful and potentially harmful constituents (HPHCs) in tobacco smoke, acrolein, formaldehyde and catechol, and established a high-content screening method using normal human bronchial epithelial cells, which are the first bronchial cells in contact with cigarette smoke...
March 17, 2014: Chemical Research in Toxicology
Abdelkader Daoud, Jing Song, Feiyang Xiao, Jing Shang
Peganum harmala L is an important medicinal plant that has been used from ancient time due to its alkaloids rich of ß-carbolines. Harmane is a naturally occurring ß-carboline extracted from Peganum harmala L, that exhibits a wide range of biological, psychopharmacological, and toxicological actions. The synthesis of novel derivatives with high anti-cancer activity and less side effects is necessary. In the present study, B-9-3-a semi-synthetic compound that is formed of two harmane molecules bound by a butyl group-showed a strong anti-cancer activity against a human lung cancer cell line, a human breast cancer cell line, and a human colorectal carcinoma cell line...
February 5, 2014: European Journal of Pharmacology
Michelle Rodrigues-Ayres de-Almeida, Ivana Correa Ramos-Leal, Halliny Siqueira Ruela, Maria da-Graça Justo-Araujo, Thiago Martino Martins, Marsen Garcia Pinto-Coelho, Ricardo Machado Kuster, Kátia Costa Carvalho-Sabino
Cancer chemotherapy is an important strategy to treat this leading cause of death worldwide and plants may constitute a source of new antineoplastic agents. This work fractionated the ethanolic extract of Jacaranda puberula leaves and studied the in vitro antitumoral action and some toxicological effects of the most bioactive fraction. Cell lines related to worldwide cancers were used. The Dichloromethane (DCM) and PP fractions were the most bioactive ones. The anti-tumoral action of the DCM fraction was higher than that of the crude EtOH extract while that of PP fraction was higher than the original one (DCM) for both breast (MCF-7), prostate (PC3) and lung (A549) tumor cells, chronic leukemia cells...
September 2013: Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Soo-Jin Choi, Jae-Min Oh, Jin-Ho Choy
Many researches have shown that anionic clays can be used as delivery carriers for drug or gene molecules due to their efficient cellular uptake in vitro, and enhanced permeability and retention effect in vivo. It is, therefore, highly required to establish a guideline on their potential toxicity for practical applications. The toxicity of anionic clay, layered metal hydroxide nanoparticle, was evaluated in two human lung epithelial cells, carcinoma A549 cells and normal L-132 cells, and compared with that in other human cancer cell lines such as cervical adenocarcinoma cells (HeLa) and osteosarcoma cells (HOS)...
March 2009: Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry
James M Antonini, Stephen S Leonard, Jenny R Roberts, Claudia Solano-Lopez, Shih-Houng Young, Xianglin Shi, Michael D Taylor
Questions exist concerning the potential carcinogenic effects after welding fume exposure. Welding processes that use stainless steel (SS) materials can produce fumes that may contain metals (e.g., Cr, Ni) known to be carcinogenic to humans. The objective was to determine the effect of in vitro and in vivo welding fume treatment on free radical generation, DNA damage, cytotoxicity and apoptosis induction, all factors possibly involved with the pathogenesis of lung cancer. SS welding fume was collected during manual metal arc welding (MMA)...
November 2005: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
A Emmendoerffer, M Hecht, T Boeker, M Mueller, U Heinrich
Chemical-induced carcinogenesis has been in the focus of toxicological research for many decades. However, the mechanisms leading to tumor formation are only understood with certain substances. The intake of potential carcinogens by inhalation is a major route of exposure. Chemical-induced lung tumors are the final manifestation of a multistep pathway, resulting in an imbalance between cell proliferation and cell death by apoptosis. The impact of certain confounding factors e.g. extent of inflammatory response, type of genotoxic event, antagonizing principles and genetic background are discussed in this article...
March 15, 2000: Toxicology Letters
J Singh, D L Carlisle, D E Pritchard, S R Patierno
The adverse health effects linked with chromium (Cr) exposure, the role of solubility and chemical speciation of Cr compounds, and the diverse cellular and molecular effects of Cr make the study of Cr carcinogenesis and toxicology very interesting and complex. Certain Cr compounds are prominent metal carcinogens in both occupational and environmental settings. Inhaled particulate forms of hexavalent Cr [Cr(VI)] cause lung cancer as well as lung toxicity. Some of the important factors in determining the biological outcome of Cr exposure include the bioavailability, chemical speciation and solubility of Cr compounds, intracellular reduction, and interaction of Cr with DNA...
November 1998: Oncology Reports
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