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Exosome retinal

Rosa Maisto, María Oltra, Lorena Vidal-Gil, Natalia Martínez-Gil, Javier Sancho-Pellúz, Clara Di Filippo, Settimio Rossi, Michele D Amico, Jorge Miguel Barcia, Francisco Javier Romero
ARPE-19 retinal pigment epithelial cells cultured in a medium containing 35 mM D-glucose led to an augmented ROS formation and release of vascular endothelial factor (VEGF)-containing exosomes compared to ARPE-19 cells cultured in a medium containing 5 mM D-glucose (standard medium). Exposing these cells to the melanocortin 5 receptor agonist (MCR5 ) PG-901 (10-10 M), for 9 d reduced ROS generation, the number of exosomes released and their VEGF content. In contrast, incubating the cells with the melanocortin receptor MCR1 agonist BMS-470539 (10-5  M) or with the mixed MCR3/4 agonist MTII (0...
February 9, 2019: Cell Cycle
Wei Zhang, Yang Wang, Yichun Kong
Purpose: In this study, we aim to investigate whether mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)-derived exosomes (MSC-Exos) could regulate hyperglycemia-induced retinal inflammation by transferring microRNA-126 (miR-126). Methods: MSC-Exos were isolated from the media of human umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hUCMSCs), and this isolation was followed by the transfer of miR-126. MSC-Exos or MSC-Exos overexpressing miR-126 were intravitreally injected into diabetic rats in vivo and were cocultured with high glucose-affected human retinal endothelial cells (HRECs) in vitro...
January 2, 2019: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Dongyan Pan, Xin Chang, Mengqiao Xu, Mingke Zhang, Shoumei Zhang, Yue Wang, Xueting Luo, Jiajun Xu, Xiangqun Yang, Xiaodong Sun
Traumatic optic neuropathy or glaucoma lead to retinal ganglion cells loss and cause blindness, and there is no effective therapy strategy by far. Mesenchymal cells from the Wharton's jelly of the umbilical cord (umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells, UMSCs) and UMSC-derived exosomes (UMSC-Exos) are promising candidates for allogeneic therapy in regenerative medicine, but their effort on optic nerve injury and the underlying mechanism remains undefined. In the present study, we investigated the functions of UMSC-Exos in a rat optic nerve crush (ONC) model...
January 10, 2019: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
Mikael Klingeborn, W Michael Dismuke, Nikolai P Skiba, Una Kelly, W Daniel Stamer, Catherine Bowes Rickman
A correction to this article has been published and is linked from the HTML and PDF versions of this paper. The error has not been fixed in the paper.
November 20, 2018: Scientific Reports
A Safwat, D Sabry, A Ragiae, E Amer, R H Mahmoud, R M Shamardan
This study aimed to evaluate the effect of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs)-derived exosomes in retina regeneration of experimentally induced diabetes mellitus (DM) in a rabbit model. Exosomes are extracellular vesicles that contain many microRNAs (micRNAs), mRNAs, and proteins from their cells of origin. DM was induced by intravenous (IV) injection of streptozotocin in rabbits. MSCs were isolated from adipose tissue of rabbits. Exosomes were extracted from MSCs by ultracentrifugation. Exosomes were injected by different routes (IV, subconjunctival (SC), and intraocular (IO))...
January 2018: Journal of Circulating Biomarkers
Wei Zhang, Yingxue Ma, Yue Zhang, Jing Yang, Guanghui He, Song Chen
PURPOSE: Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a major cause of blindness in the elderly, and the activation of the NACHT, LRR, and PYD domain-containing protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome is involved in AMD pathogenesis. We investigated whether photooxidative blue-light stimulation in retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells promotes exosome secretion and modulates the activity of the NLRP3 inflammasome in vitro. METHODS: Exosomes were isolated from ARPE-19 cultures stimulated or not with blue-light photostimulation (488 nm)...
September 10, 2018: Current Eye Research
Sandra Atienzar-Aroca, Gemma Serrano-Heras, Aida Freire Valls, Carmen Ruiz de Almodovar, Maria Muriach, Jorge M Barcia, Jose M Garcia-Verdugo, Francisco J Romero, Javier Sancho-Pelluz
Autophagy and exosome secretion play important roles in a variety of physiological and disease states, including the development of age-related macular degeneration. Previous studies have demonstrated that these cellular mechanisms share common pathways of activation. Low oxidative damage in ARPE-19 cells, alters both autophagy and exosome biogenesis. Moreover, oxidative stress modifies the protein and genetic cargo of exosomes, possibly affecting the fate of surrounding cells. In order to understand the connection between these two mechanisms and their impact on angiogenesis, stressed ARPE-19 cells were treated with a siRNA-targeting Atg7, a key protein for the formation of autophagosomes...
November 2018: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
Jeffrey N Weiss, Steven Levy
Background: Seventeen patients with bilateral visual loss due to Retinitis Pigmentosa (RP) underwent autologous bone marrow derived stem cell (BMSC) treatment within the Stem Cell Ophthalmology Treatment Study (SCOTS and SCOTS 2). Both are National Institutes of Health (NIH) and Office of Human Research Protection (OHRP) compliant Institutional Review Board (IRB) approved clinical studies utilizing using autologous BMSC in the treatment of retinal and optic nerve diseases that meet inclusion criteria...
2018: Stem Cell Investigation
Ana I Arroba, Antonio Campos-Caro, Manuel Aguilar-Diosdado, Ángela M Valverde
Retinal degenerative diseases are a group of heterogeneous diseases that include age-related macular degeneration (AMD), retinitis pigmentosa (RP), and diabetic retinopathy (DR). The progressive degeneration of the retinal neurons results in a severe deterioration of the visual function. Neuroinflammation is an early hallmark of many neurodegenerative disorders of the retina including AMD, RP and DR. Microglial cells, key components of the retinal immune defense system, are activated in retinal degenerative diseases...
2018: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Chao Huang, Kiera P Fisher, Sandra S Hammer, Svetlana Navitskaya, Gary J Blanchard, Julia V Busik
Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a microvascular complication of diabetes and is the leading cause of vision loss in working-age adults. Recent studies have implicated the complement system as a player in the development of vascular damage and progression of DR. However, the role and activation of the complement system in DR are not well understood. Exosomes, small vesicles that are secreted into the extracellular environment, have a cargo of complement proteins in plasma, suggesting that they can participate in causing the vascular damage associated with DR...
August 2018: Diabetes
C Randall Harrell, Bojana Simovic Markovic, Crissy Fellabaum, Aleksandar Arsenijevic, Valentin Djonov, Nebojsa Arsenijevic, Vladislav Volarevic
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) were, due to their immunomodulatory and pro-angiogenic characteristics, extensively explored as new therapeutic agents in cell-based therapy of uveitis, glaucoma, retinal and ocular surface diseases.Since it was recently revealed that exosomes play an important role in biological functions of MSCs, herewith we summarized current knowledge about the morphology, structure, phenotype and functional characteristics of MSC-derived exosomes emphasizing their therapeutic potential in the treatment of eye diseases...
May 18, 2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Yuanjun Zhao, Sarah R Weber, Joshua Lease, Mariano Russo, Christopher A Siedlecki, Li-Chong Xu, Han Chen, Weiwei Wang, Michael Ford, Rafael Simó, Jeffrey M Sundstrom
Purpose: To investigate the molecular components of the vitreous in order to better understand retinal physiology and disease. Methods: Vitreous was acquired from patients undergoing vitrectomy for macular hole and/or epiretinal membrane, postmortem donors, and C57BL/6J mice. Unbiased proteomic analysis was performed via electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). Gene ontology analysis was performed and results were confirmed with transmission electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and nanoparticle tracking analysis (NTA)...
May 2018: Translational Vision Science & Technology
Mikael Klingeborn, W Daniel Stamer, Catherine Bowes Rickman
The retinal pigmented epithelium (RPE) forms the outer blood-retinal barrier and provides nutrients and recycling of visual pigment to the photoreceptors, among many other functions. The RPE is also a key site of pathophysiological changes in age-related macular degeneration, making it an important focus of study in both visual health and disease. Exosomes are nanometer-sized vesicles that are released by cells in a controlled fashion and mediate a range of extra- and intercellular activities. Some key exosome actions include cell-cell communication, immune modulation, extracellular matrix turnover, stem cell division/differentiation, neovascularization, and cellular waste removal...
2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Guang-Hui He, Wei Zhang, Ying-Xue Ma, Jing Yang, Li Chen, Jian Song, Song Chen
AIM: To observe the effect of exosomes derived from human umbilical cord blood mesenchymal stem cells (hUCMSCs) on the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A) in blue light injured human retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells and laser-induced choroidal neovascularization (CNV) in rats. METHODS: Exosomes were isolated from hUCMSCs and characterized by transmission electron microscope and Western blot. MSCs-derived exosomes were cultured with RPE cells exposed to blue light...
2018: International Journal of Ophthalmology
Khaled Elmasry, Riyaz Mohamed, Isha Sharma, Nehal M Elsherbiny, Yutao Liu, Mohamed Al-Shabrawey, Amany Tawfik
To study Hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy)-induced epigenetic modifications as potential mechanisms of blood retinal barrier (BRB) dysfunction, retinas isolated from three- week-old mice with elevated level of Homocysteine (Hcy) due to lack of the enzyme cystathionine β-synthase ( cbs-/- , cbs+/- and cbs+/+ ), human retinal endothelial cells (HRECs), and human retinal pigmented epithelial cells (ARPE-19) treated with or without Hcy were evaluated for (1) histone deacetylases (HDAC), (2) DNA methylation (DNMT), and (3) miRNA analysis...
February 27, 2018: Oncotarget
Ben Mead, Stanislav Tomarev
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2018: Neural Regeneration Research
Yingqian Peng, Edouard Baulier, Yifeng Ke, Alejandra Young, Novruz B Ahmedli, Steven D Schwartz, Debora B Farber
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) released by virtually every cell of all organisms are involved in processes of intercellular communication through the delivery of their functional mRNAs, proteins and bioactive lipids. We previously demonstrated that mouse embryonic stem cell-released EVs (mESEVs) are able to transfer their content to different target retinal cells, inducing morphological and biochemical changes in them. The main objective of this paper is to characterize EVs derived from human embryonic stem cells (hESEVs) and investigate the effects that they have on cultured retinal glial, progenitor Müller cells, which are known to give rise to retinal neurons under specific conditions...
2018: PloS One
Shu-Jie Zhang, Xue Chen, Chao-Peng Li, Xiu-Miao Li, Chang Liu, Bai-Hui Liu, Kun Shan, Qin Jiang, Chen Zhao, Biao Yan
Purpose: To reveal the expression profile and clinical significance of circular RNAs (circRNAs) in diabetic retinopathy (DR). Methods: Circular RNA microarrays were performed to identify DR-related circRNAs. Gene ontology (GO) enrichment and KEGG analysis was performed to determine the biologic modules and signaling pathway. TargetScan and miRana program was used to predict circRNA/miRNA interaction. Quantitative PCR assays were performed to detect circRNA expression pattern in clinical samples...
December 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Derrick J Morton, Emily G Kuiper, Stephanie K Jones, Sara W Leung, Anita H Corbett, Milo B Fasken
The RNA exosome is an evolutionarily conserved, ribonuclease complex that is critical for both processing and degradation of a variety of RNAs. Cofactors that associate with the RNA exosome likely dictate substrate specificity for this complex. Recently, mutations in genes encoding both structural subunits of the RNA exosome and its cofactors have been linked to human disease. Mutations in the RNA exosome genes EXOSC3 and EXOSC8 cause pontocerebellar hypoplasia type 1b (PCH1b) and type 1c (PCH1c), respectively, which are similar autosomal-recessive, neurodegenerative diseases...
February 2018: RNA
Shounak Baksi, Neena Singh
Retinal degeneration is prominent in Parkinson's disease (PD), a neuromotor disorder associated with aggregation of α-synuclein (α-syn) in the substantia-nigra (SN). Although α-syn is expressed in the neuroretina, absence of prominent aggregates suggests altered function as the likely cause of retinal pathology. We demonstrate that α-syn impairs ferritinophagy, resulting in the accumulation of iron-rich ferritin in the outer retina in-vivo and retinal-pigment-epithelial (RPE) cells in-vitro. Over-expression of Rab1a restores ferritinophagy, suggesting that α-syn impairs lysosomal function by disrupting the trafficking of lysosomal hydrolases...
October 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
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