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Congenital hydrocephalus treated by Ventriculoperitoneal shunt

Gabriele Gradner, Rose Kaefinger, Gilles Dupré
BACKGROUND: Several case series and case reports have been published about idiopathic hydrocephalus treatment in dogs and cats using ventriculoperitoneal shunts (VPS). OBJECTIVES: To determine the risk and type of complications in dogs and cats after VPS placement. ANIMALS: Sixteen papers were included. Sixty dogs and 13 cats with idiopathic hydrocephalus treated by VPS placement were identified. METHODS: The databases CAB, Scopus, and Medline were used...
February 12, 2019: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
Won Kyoung Cho, Moon-Bae Ahn, Woori Jang, Hyojin Chae, Myungshin Kim, Byung-Kyu Suh
Most cases of congenital hyperthyroidism are autoimmune forms caused by maternal thyroid stimulating antibodies. Nonautoimmune forms of congenital hyperthyroidism caused by activating mutations of the thyrotropin receptor (TSHR) gene are rare. A woman gave birth to a boy during an emergency cesarean section at 33 weeks of gestation due to fetal tachycardia. On the 24th day of life, thyroid function tests were performed due to persistent tachycardia, and hyperthyroidism was confirmed. Auto-antibodies to TSHR, thyroid peroxidase, and thyroglobulin were not found...
December 2018: Annals of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism
Daniel Levy-Bercowski, Amara Abreu, Jimmy Londono, C Brent Haeberle
Stable occlusion and a pleasing esthetic appearance are often difficult to achieve in patients with congenital defects and severe midfacial deficiencies. Conventional therapy, such as orthodontic treatment followed by orthognathic surgery, is often not sufficient to fully correct the dental and esthetic problems. An interdisciplinary approach for these patients should include prosthodontic treatment that will assist in establishing a harmonious occlusion and improve facial appearance. This clinical report describes the interdisciplinary approach for a young patient with a history of bilateral cleft lip and palate, spina bifida, hydrocephalus, and ventriculoperitoneal shunt...
July 13, 2018: Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry
Andreas Leidinger, Jose Piquer, Eliana E Kim, Hadia Nahonda, Mahmood M Qureshi, Paul H Young
BACKGROUND: Pediatric hydrocephalus is a health burden for East African countries, with an estimated incidence of 6000 new cases per year. The objective of this study is to describe the epidemiology and surgical outcomes of patients treated for pediatric hydrocephalus in the single neurosurgical center of Zanzibar. METHODS: From December 2016 to December 2017, we prospectively collected data on all patients admitted with the diagnosis of hydrocephalus. Information was gathered regarding demographics, maternal health, preoperative imaging, surgical procedures, and postsurgical complications...
September 2018: World Neurosurgery
Nurhayat Yakut, Ahmet Soysal, Eda Kepenekli Kadayifci, Nazan Dalgic, Dilek Yılmaz Ciftdogan, Ayse Karaaslan, Gulsen Akkoc, Sevliya Ocal Demir, Eren Cagan, Ezgi Celikboya, Ali Kanik, Adnan Dagcinar, Adem Yilmaz, Fusun Ozer, Mahmut Camlar, Ozden Turel, Mustafa Bakir
PURPOSE: Ventriculoperitoneal shunt (VPS) is the most common treatment modality for hydrocephalus. However, VPS infection is a common and serious complication with high rates of mortality and morbidity. The objective of this study was to investigate causative agents and the management of VPS infections and to identify risk factors for re-infection in children. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Retrospective, multicentre study on patients with VPS infection at paediatric and neurosurgery departments in four tertiary medical centres in Turkey between January 2011 and September 2014...
April 2018: British Journal of Neurosurgery
Michael C Dewan, Jaims Lim, Stephen R Gannon, David Heaner, Matthew C Davis, Brandy Vaughn, Joshua J Chern, Brandon G Rocque, Paul Klimo, John C Wellons, Robert P Naftel
OBJECTIVE It has been suggested that the treatment of infant hydrocephalus results in different craniometric changes depending upon whether ventriculoperitoneal shunt (VPS) placement or endoscopic third ventriculostomy with choroid plexus cauterization (ETV/CPC) is performed. Without an objective and quantitative description of expected changes to the infant cranium and ventricles following ETV/CPC, asserting successful treatment of hydrocephalus is difficult. By comparing infants successfully treated via ETV/CPC or VPS surgery, the authors of this study aimed to define the expected postoperative cranial and ventricular alterations at the time of clinical follow-up...
April 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics
Naïma Diesner, Florian Freimann, Christin Clajus, Kai Kallenberg, Veit Rohde, Florian Stockhammer
BACKGROUND: Gravitational valves (GVs) prevent overdrainage in ventriculoperitoneal shunting (VPS). However, there are no data available on the appropriate opening pressure in the shunt system when implementing a GV. We performed a retrospective analysis of hydrocephalic patients who were successfully treated with VPS which included one or more GV. METHOD: In this retrospective study in adult VPS patients with GVs, we analysed all available data, including the most recent computed tomography (CT) scans, to determine the best adjustments for alleviating any symptoms of overdrainage and underdrainage...
July 2016: Acta Neurochirurgica
M Preuss, A Kutscher, R Wachowiak, A Merkenschlager, M K Bernhard, M Reiss-Zimmermann, J Meixensberger, U Nestler
INTRODUCTION: Even though shunt surgery has been an established and widely accepted treatment for congenital hydrocephalus for five decades, long-term follow-up and functional outcome data is rare. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Sixty-nine patients were examined after congenital hydrocephalus had been treated between 1971 and 1987 at the Department of Pediatric Surgery (University of Leipzig) within the first 12 months of life. Median age of patients was 32 years (range 25-42 years)...
January 2015: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
Mihoko Okazaki, Toru Fukuhara, Yoichiro Namba
Germinal matrix hemorrhages (GMHs) are typically seen in preterm neonates during the first 4 days of life. The authors encountered 2 children with late-onset GMH subsequent to ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt insertion for congenital hydrocephalus. Both children were delivered at full term with normal body weight, although they were compromised with the preceding hypoxic events prior to shunt insertion. The first case involved a female infant with severe craniofacial deformities. Because of aspiration pneumonia related to the comorbid upper airway stenosis, endotracheal intubation with intermittent mechanical ventilation was necessary...
July 2013: Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics
Florian Baptist Freimann, Christian Sprung
OBJECT: Overdrainage of CSF remains an unsolved problem in shunt therapy. The aim of the present study was to evaluate treatment options on overdrainage-related events enabled by the new generation of adjustable gravity-assisted valves. METHODS: The authors retrospectively studied the clinical course of 250 consecutive adult patients with various etiologies of hydrocephalus after shunt insertion for different signs and symptoms of overdrainage. Primary and secondary overdrainage were differentiated...
December 2012: Journal of Neurosurgery
Iwona Zak, Tomasz Jagielski, Stanisław Kwiatkowski, Jacek Bielecki
This report describes a rare case of neuroinfection due to Prototheca wickerhamii in a child with severe, congenital hydrocephalus. The infection resolved completely after the patient was treated with oral ketoconazole, followed by intravenous fluconazole and amphotericin B. A probable source of infection was contamination during ventriculoperitoneal drain care procedures.
October 2012: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
Enrico Danzer, Alan W Flake
Myelomeningocele (MMC), one of the most common congenital malformations, can result in severe lifelong disabilities, including paraplegia, hydrocephalus, Arnold-Chiari II malformation, incontinence, sexual dysfunction, skeletal deformations, and mental impairment. MMC was the first nonlethal anomaly to be treated by fetal surgery. Studies in animals provide compelling evidence that the primary cause of the neurological deficit associated with MMC is not simply incomplete neurulation but rather chronic mechanical injury and amniotic-fluid-induced chemical trauma that progressively damage the exposed neural tissue during gestation...
March 2008: Neuroembryology and Aging
David Paulson, Steven W Hwang, William E Whitehead, Daniel J Curry, Thomas G Luerssen, Andrew Jea
INTRODUCTION: Aqueductal stenosis may be caused by a number of etiologies including congenital stenosis, tumor, inflammation, and, very rarely, vascular malformation. However, aqueductal stenosis caused by a developmental venous anomaly presenting as congenital hydrocephalus is even more rare, and, to the best of our knowledge, has not yet been reported in the literature. In this study, we review the literature and report the first case of congenital hydrocephalus associated with aqueductal stenosis from a developmental venous anomaly...
2012: Journal of Medical Case Reports
Enrico Danzer, N Scott Adzick
Myelomeningocele (MMC), one of the most common congenital malformations, can result in severe lifelong disabilities,including paraplegia, hydrocephalus, Chiari II malformation(CM-II), incontinence, sexual dysfunction, skeletal deformations and mental impairment. MMC was the first nonlethal anomaly to be treated by fetal surgery. Experimental and clinical evidence suggests that the primary cause of the neurologic deficit associated with MMC is not simply incomplete neurulation but rather chronic mechanical injury and amniotic fluid-induced chemical trauma that progressively damages the exposed neural tissue during gestation...
2011: Fetal Diagnosis and Therapy
Maria Teresa Escolar Martínez-Berganza, Beatriz Sierra Bergua, Clara del Río Pérez, Susana Monzón Ballarín
Total congenital occlusion of the foramina of Monro in adults is extremely rare. Only 9 cases have been reported. Clinically, this manifest as a biventricular hydrocephalus and the most frequent presenting symptom is headache. The diagnosis can be confirmed by computed tomographic scan or magnetic resonance imaging. Regarding treatment, neuroendoscopy constitutes the procedure of choice. The prognosis is usually good. We describe a 35-year-old woman with a 2-month headache and sudden nausea, vomiting, and syncope...
May 2011: Neurologist
M Preuss, M Heckmann, M Stein, U Nestler
Walker-Warburg syndrome is a very rare autosomal recessive disorder with congenital muscular dystrophy, brain malformations on the basis of a neuronal migration defect and ocular abnormalities. We report our experience in treating two cases of Walker-Warburg syndrome complicated by hydrocephalus with shunting and endoscopic techniques.
2010: Pediatric Neurosurgery
Atiq-Ur Rehman, Tausif-Ur Rehman, Hassaan H Bashir, Vikas Gupta
OBJECT: Postoperative shunt infection is the most common and feared complication of ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt placement for treatment of hydrocephalus. The rate of shunt infection is highest in the 1st postoperative month. The most common organisms responsible for shunt infection include coagulase-negative Staphylococcus and Staphylococcus aureus. This suggests a transfer of patient's skin flora via the surgeons' glove as a possible means of infection. The authors conducted a study to determine if the rate of postoperative shunt infections could be reduced simply by changing gloves before handling the shunt catheter...
June 2010: Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics
Takahiro Murata, Hiroaki Shigeta, Tetsuyoshi Horiuchi, Keiichi Sakai, Kazuhiro Hongo
Subdural hematoma (SDH) is a well-known sequela of ventriculoperitoneal shunt insertion for hydrocephalus, usually spreads out over the cerebral convexity, and appears as a crescent-shaped lesion on imaging. The authors report the rare case of an infant with a globular SDH, which MR imaging revealed as a round mass lesion. A 13-month-old girl with a history of severe congenital hydrocephalus associated with myeloschisis underwent ventriculoperitoneal shunt placement after repair of myeloschisis and developed convulsive seizure...
February 2010: Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics
Deanna Sasaki-Adams, Samer K Elbabaa, Valerie Jewells, Lori Carter, Jeffrey W Campbell, Ann M Ritter
OBJECT: The Dandy-Walker complex is a continuum of aberrant development of the posterior fossa that has been associated with multiple congenital anomalies, radiographic abnormalities, and developmental delay. The Dandy-Walker variant (DWV) is a unique entity believed to represent a milder form of the complex, and is characterized by a specific constellation of radiographic findings. In this retrospective case series, the authors report the association of the DWV with other congenital anomalies, the associated radiographic findings linked with DWV, and the developmental outcome in this population...
September 2008: Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics
Gregory G Heuer, Douglas A Hardesty, Kareem A Zaghloul, Erin M Simon Schwartz, A Reghan Foley, Phillip B Storm
Schizencephaly is a rare congenital cortical brain malformation defined by unilateral or bilateral clefts of the cerebral hemispheres. These malformations are often associated with medically intractable epilepsy. Surgical solutions include lesionectomy, lobectomy, or hemispherectomy. The authors describe the case of an anatomic hemispherectomy for medically intractable epilepsy in an 8-year-old boy with a large schizencephalic cleft. Seven years prior to his epilepsy surgery, the patient underwent placement of a ventriculoperitoneal shunt for communicating hydrocephalus that resulted in severe left-to-right shift...
August 2008: Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics
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