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Lara Grobler, Wayne Derman, Sebastien Racinais, Aston Seng Huey Ngai, Peter van de Vliet
BACKGROUND: Heat related illness, including heat exhaustion and heat stroke, is seen as a major risk for athletes with a physical impairment. With the anticipation of hot and humid conditions at the Para Athletic World Championships 2015, the incidence rate of illness was determined. OBJECTIVE: Primary: To survey the illness statistics during the 2015 Para Athletic World Championships and report on any cases of significant heat related illnesses. Secondary: To document the heat countermeasures taken on behalf of the organzing committee...
January 28, 2019: PM & R: the Journal of Injury, Function, and Rehabilitation
Aguinaldo S Garcez, Selly S Suzuki, Camilla J Storto, Karla G Cusmanich, Islam Elkenawy, Won Moon
The aim of this case report was to demonstrate the effects of the Maxillary Skeletal Expander (MSE) used to orthopedically correct a maxillary constriction, on the respiratory functions and swimming performance of a Para-athlete. Cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) images taken before and after MSE activation were used to demonstrate the disarticulation of midpalatal suture, and the changes involved in dental and nasomaxillary structures, nasal cavity and pharyngeal airway. Respiratory tests included: maximum inspiratory and expiratory pressure, oral peak expiratory flow and inspiratory nasal flow...
January 14, 2019: Physical Therapy in Sport
Emily M Brook, Adam S Tenforde, Elizabeth M Broad, Elizabeth G Matzkin, Heidi Y Yang, Jamie E Collins, Cheri A Blauwet
INTRODUCTION: The Female Athlete Triad (Triad) is a syndrome describing three interrelated conditions: low energy availability (LEA), menstrual dysfunction, and low bone mineral density (BMD). Relative Energy Deficiency in Sport (RED-S) expands the Triad to include multiple physiologic consequences of LEA in both sexes. The purpose of this study is to determine the prevalence of factors associated with the Triad/RED-S in an elite para athlete population. METHODS: Athletes were United States elite para athletes training to qualify for the 2016 or the 2018 Paralympic games...
January 15, 2019: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
Luke Hogarth, Carl Payton, Vaughan Nicholson, Jemima Spathis, Sean Tweedy, Mark Connick, Emma Beckman, Peter Van de Vliet, Brendan Burkett
OBJECTIVES: The International Paralympic Committee has mandated that International Sport Federations develop sport-specific classification systems that are evidence-based. This study examined the predictive and convergent validity of instrumented tapping tasks to classify motor coordination impairments in Para swimming. DESIGN: Cross-sectional. METHODS: Thirty non-disabled participants and twenty-one Para swimmers with brain injury completed several instrumented tapping tasks as an assessment of upper and lower limb motor coordination...
November 22, 2018: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport
Greg Ungerer
Classification of athletes for para sport is a complex process, and provides the necessary structure for competition. Classification systems aim to ensure that para athletes achieve sporting excellence. By minimizing the effect of the impairment on sports performance, classification systems ensure para sport is not dominated by those athletes with the least impairment, but rather athletic excellence is the key determinant of success. For athletes with cervical spinal cord injuries, assessment of manual muscle power is most commonly used as the starting point for athlete evaluation...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
Gregor Wolbring, Brian Martin
From recreational to elite levels, sport has many benefits for disabled people. At the same time, it is acknowledged that there is a trickle-down problem from para-elite sport to sport participation of disabled people, in general. Newspapers are one form of media that sets agendas and influences public opinion. Many studies have highlighted problematic aspects of parasport and para-athlete coverage in newspapers. Paratriathlon was one of two new events added to the Paralympics in Rio 2016, which increased its visibility in the public domain...
August 29, 2018: Sports
Katherine Figel, Kelly Pritchett, Robert Pritchett, Elizabeth Broad
Low energy availability (LEA) and nutrient intake have been well studied in able-bodied athletes, but there is a lack of research examining these issues amongst athletes with spinal cord injury (SCI). To date, there have been no studies that have examined energy availability (EA) amongst this population. Furthermore, athletes with SCI may experience unique challenges around nutrition that may increase their risk of LEA. This review will evaluate the literature and assess whether this population is at risk for LEA...
August 13, 2018: Nutrients
Sean M Tweedy, Mark J Connick, Emma M Beckman
Para-sport classification systems define eligibility for Para sport and provide a competition structure that controls for the impact of impairment on the outcome of competition. This article focuses on the classification of para athletes with physical impairments. Development of classification systems based on scientific evidence has only recently been made possible by adoption of a statement of the purpose of classification by the International Paralympic Committee and its member organizations. Rigorous descriptive science can improve extant systems of classification and a recently published study described a data-driven classification structure with validity superior to that of the extant system...
May 2018: Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Clinics of North America
James Kissick, Nick Webborn
Although Para athletes (the International Paralympic Committee term for sportspeople with a disability) are exposed to a risk of concussion just like their able-bodied counterparts, there has been little research into the incidence of concussion in para sport. Existing assessment and management guidelines and tools have been developed for the general sport population but may not be appropriate for use in some para-athletes. This review examines what is currently known about concussion in para sport and identifies challenges and opportunities in moving knowledge on this topic forward...
May 2018: Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Clinics of North America
Jacque Scaramella, Nuwanee Kirihennedige, Elizabeth Broad
Para athletes are a high-risk population for inadequate dietary intake leading to insufficiencies in nutrients important to athletic performance. This is partly due to minimal support and resources, especially in sport nutrition education, combined with limited prior nutrition knowledge and risks associated with different impairment types. Inadequate energy, carbohydrate, protein, iron, and vitamin D status are of particular concern in Para athletes. Assessment of these key nutrients, along with sport nutrition education, is needed to empower Para athletes with the knowledge to understand their individual nutrition needs and maximize athletic performance...
May 2018: Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Clinics of North America
Yetsa A Tuakli-Wosornu, Evgeny Mashkovskiy, Taylor Ottesen, Mark Gentry, Daniel Jensen, Nick Webborn
Sport-related injury patterns among Para athletes have been described with increasing frequency. This review summarizes musculoskeletal injuries in Para athletes. Seated Para athletes sustain upper extremity injuries more commonly; ambulant Para athletes frequently sustain lower extremity injuries. The upper extremity is the most commonly injured anatomic area in all Para athletes, unlike able-bodied athletes. Advanced age and spinal cord injury may increase the risk of upper extremity injury. Injury data for recreational and youth Para athletes are sparse...
May 2018: Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Clinics of North America
Marietta L van der Linden, Sadaf Jahed, Nicola Tennant, Martine H G Verheul
OBJECTIVES: RaceRunning enables athletes with limited or no walking ability to propel themselves independently using a three-wheeled running bike that has a saddle and a chest plate for support but no pedals. For RaceRunning to be included as a Para athletics event, an evidence-based classification system is required. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the association between a range of impairment measures and RaceRunning performance. METHODS: The following impairment measures were recorded: lower limb muscle strength assessed using Manual Muscle Testing (MMT), selective voluntary motor control assessed using the Selective Control Assessment of the Lower Extremity (SCALE), spasticity recorded using both the Australian Spasticity Assessment Score (ASAS) and Modified Ashworth Scale (MAS), passive range of motion (ROM) of the lower extremities and the maximum static step length achieved on a stationary bike (MSSL)...
March 2018: Gait & Posture
Mark J Connick, Emma Beckman, Yves Vanlandewijck, Laurie A Malone, Sven Blomqvist, Sean M Tweedy
BACKGROUND: The Para athletics wheelchair-racing classification system employs best practice to ensure that classes comprise athletes whose impairments cause a comparable degree of activity limitation. However, decision-making is largely subjective and scientific evidence which reduces this subjectivity is required. AIM: To evaluate whether isometric strength tests were valid for the purposes of classifying wheelchair racers and whether cluster analysis of the strength measures produced a valid classification structure...
September 2018: British Journal of Sports Medicine
Cheri A Blauwet, Emily M Brook, Adam S Tenforde, Elizabeth Broad, Caroline H Hu, Eliza Abdu-Glass, Elizabeth G Matzkin
Low energy availability, functional hypothalamic amenorrhea, and low bone mineral density are three interrelated conditions described in athletic women. Although described as the female athlete triad (Triad), males experience similar health concerns. The literature suggests that individuals with a disability may experience altered physiology related to these three conditions when compared with the able-bodied population. The goal of this review is to describe the unique implications of low energy availability, low bone mineral density, and, in females, menstrual dysfunction in individuals with a disability and their potential impact on the para athlete population...
September 2017: Sports Medicine
Debbie Van Biesen, Jennifer Mactavish, Janne Kerremans, Yves C Vanlandewijck
Evidence-based classification systems in Paralympic sport require knowledge of the underlying effect of impairment in a specific sport. This study investigated the relationship between cognition and tactical proficiency in 88 well-trained table tennis players with intellectual disability (ID; 29 women, 59 men, M ± SD IQ 59.9 ± 9.6). Data were collected at 3 competitions sanctioned by the International Federation for Para-Athletes with Intellectual Disabilities (INAS). A generic cognitive test consisting of 8 neuropsychological subtests was used to assess cognitive abilities relevant to sport (reaction time, processing speed, and decision speed; spatial visualization; fluid reasoning; memory; executive functioning; and visual processing)...
October 2016: Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly: APAQ
E M Beckman, M J Connick, S M Tweedy
OBJECTIVES: Classification in Paralympic Sport aims to minimize the impact of 10 eligible types of impairment on the outcome of competition. Methods for assessing the extent to which a given body structure or function has been impaired are required, but are challenging because it is not possible to directly measure an absence or loss. Rather, impairment must be inferred by measurement of extant body structures or functions. METHODS: This manuscript reviews the literature concerning the assessment of strength with the aim of identifying and describing the most appropriate method for inferring strength impairment in para-athletes...
April 2017: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport
Ann B Kennedy, Jennifer L Trilk
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Evidence suggests that para-athletes are injured more often than able-bodied athletes. The benefits of massage therapy for these disabled athletes are yet to be explored. This paper documents the process followed for creating a massage program for elite paracycling athletes with the goal to assess effects on recovery, rest, performance, and quality of life both on and off the bike. SETTING: Massage therapists' private practices throughout the United States...
September 2015: International Journal of Therapeutic Massage & Bodywork
Hannah Macdougall, Paul O'Halloran, Nora Shields, Emma Sherry
This systematic review included 12 studies that compared the well-being of Para and Olympic sport athletes. Meta-analyses revealed that Para athletes, compared with Olympic sport athletes, had lower levels of self-acceptance, indicated by athletic identity, d = 0.47, 95% confidence interval (CI) [0.77, 0.16], and body-image perceptions, d = 0.33, 95% CI [0.59, 0.07], and differed from Olympic sport athletes in terms of their motivation, indicated by a greater mastery-oriented climate, d = 0.74, 95% CI [0.46, 1...
July 2015: Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly: APAQ
Debbie Van Biesen, Jennifer J Mactavish, Yves C Vanlandewijck
Technical skill proficiency among elite table tennis players with intellectual disabilities (ID) was investigated in this study using two approaches: an off-court simulation testing protocol and an on-court, standardized observational framework during game play. Participants included 24 players with ID (M age = 25 yr., SD = 6; M IQ = 61, SD = 9), the top 16 performers, 13 men and 11 women, at the International Federation for sport for para-athletes with an intellectual disability (Inas) World Championships...
April 2014: Perceptual and Motor Skills
Victoria L Goosey-Tolfrey, Thomas A W Paulson, Keith Tolfrey, Roger G Eston
PURPOSE: To assess the validity of predicting peak oxygen uptake (VO(2peak)) from differentiated ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) obtained during submaximal wheelchair propulsion. METHODS: Three subgroups of elite male wheelchair athletes [nine tetraplegics (TETRA), nine paraplegics (PARA), eight athletes without spinal cord injury (NON-SCI)] performed an incremental speed exercise test followed by graded exercise to exhaustion (VO(2peak) test). Oxygen uptake (VO₂), heart rate (HR) and differentiated RPE (Central RPE(C), Peripheral RPE(P) and Overall RPE(O)) were obtained for each stage...
June 2014: European Journal of Applied Physiology
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