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Gait Components

Takeshi Yamaguchi, Kei Masani
BACKGROUND: Slipping is one of the leading causes of falls among older adults. Older adults are considered to walk with a small anteroposterior (AP) component and a large mediolateral (ML) component of the required coefficient of friction (RCOF) owing to a short step length and a wide step width, respectively. However, limited information is available. RESEARCH QUESTION: What are the effects of aging on the resultant RCOF (RCOFres ) and its ML (RCOFML ) and AP (RCOFAP ) components during straight walking? METHODS: We used the kinetic and kinematic data of 188 participants aged 20-77 years from a publicly available database (National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology Gait Database 2015)...
February 8, 2019: Gait & Posture
Kwan Kyu Park, Yong-Gon Koh, Kyoung-Mi Park, Joon-Hee Park, Kyoung-Tak Kang
BACKGROUND: Component malalignment in unicompartmental knee arthroplasty (UKA) has been related to the concentration in tibiofemoral joint of contact stress and to poor post-operative outcomes. Few studies investigated a biomechanical effect of femur component position in sagittal plane. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the biomechanical effect of the femoral components on the sagittal alignment under flexion and extension conditions using computational simulations. METHODS: The flexion and extension conditions of the femoral component were analyzed from 10° extension to 10° flexion in 1° increments...
February 5, 2019: Bio-medical Materials and Engineering
Denise Anastasi, Ilaria Carpinella, Elisa Gervasoni, Patricia N Matsuda, Gabriele Bovi, Maurizio Ferrarin, Davide Cattaneo
BACKGROUND: Gait instability is common in adults with neurological disorders and the modified Dynamic Gait Index (mDGI) was recently introduced to assess dynamic balance. However, instrumental assessment is needed to provide quantitative measures. OBJECTIVE: to develop and validate an instrumented version of the mDGI. DESIGN: cross sectional study. SETTING: clinical setting PARTICIPANTS: 30 adults with neurological disorders (10 with multiple sclerosis, 10 with Parkinson disease and 10 with stroke) and 20 healthy volunteers...
February 8, 2019: PM & R: the Journal of Injury, Function, and Rehabilitation
Sanish Sathyan, Tao Wang, Emmeline Ayers, Joe Verghese
OBJECTIVE: To examine polygenic inheritance of motoric cognitive risk syndrome (MCR), a predementia syndrome characterized by the presence of subjective cognitive complaints and slow gait. METHODS: We analyzed 4,915 individuals, age 65 years and above, with European ancestry (mean age 75.0 ± 6.8 years, 56.6% women) in the Health and Retirement Study. Polygenic scores (PGS) were calculated as weighted sums of the effect of single nucleotide polymorphisms, with effect sizes derived from genome-wide association studies...
February 8, 2019: Neurology
Angelos Karatsidis, Moonki Jung, H Martin Schepers, Giovanni Bellusci, Mark de Zee, Peter H Veltink, Michael Skipper Andersen
Inverse dynamic analysis using musculoskeletal modeling is a powerful tool, which is utilized in a range of applications to estimate forces in ligaments, muscles, and joints, non-invasively. To date, the conventional input used in this analysis is derived from optical motion capture (OMC) and force plate (FP) systems, which restrict the application of musculoskeletal models to gait laboratories. To address this problem, we propose the use of inertial motion capture to perform musculoskeletal model-based inverse dynamics by utilizing a universally applicable ground reaction force and moment (GRF&M) prediction method...
February 5, 2019: Medical Engineering & Physics
Slawomir Winiarski, Jadwiga Pietraszewska, Bogdan Pietraszewski
Normal gait pattern is the key component in the investigation of pathological gait patterns. In computer motion analysis there is a need to include data from participants with different somatic structures to develop a normative database or to limit the database results to a specific population. The aim of this study was to determine kinematic gait patterns for young, active women walking with low, preferred, and self-selected speeds with regard to their somatic characteristics. Laboratory-based gait analysis was performed on 1320 gait cycles taken from 20 young, active women walking with three different speeds...
2019: BioMed Research International
Noah J Rosenblatt, Christopher P Hurt
The uncontrolled manifold (UCM) analysis quantifies the extent to which co-variation among a set of variables facilitates consistent performance by partitioning variance in those variables into two components then calculating their normalized difference (i.e., the synergy index). Although UCM-derived measures are thought to depend on the number of data points analyzed, the minimum number needed to reasonably approximate true values of these measures is unknown. For each of two performance variables related to mechanical stability of gait, we evaluated changes in UCM-derived measures when increasing the number of analyzed points, here steps...
January 19, 2019: Journal of Biomechanics
Yong-Hao Pua, David B Matchar
OBJECTIVES: Identifying strong predictors for falls and mobility limitations in older adults with a falls-related emergency department visit is crucial. This study aimed to compare, in this clinical population, the incremental predictive value of the Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB) component tests for incident falls, injurious falls, and mobility limitations. DESIGN AND MEASURES: Prospective cohort study. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: A total of 323 community-dwelling older adults with a falls-related emergency department visit participated...
January 30, 2019: Journal of the American Medical Directors Association
Johnny D Farah, Natalie Baddour, Edward D Lemaire
BACKGROUND: Functionality and versatility of microprocessor-controlled stance-control knee-ankle-foot orthoses (M-SCKAFO) are dictated by their embedded control systems. Proper gait phase recognition (GPR) is required to enable these devices to provide sufficient knee-control at the appropriate time, thereby reducing the incidence of knee-collapse and fall events. Ideally, the M-SCKAFO sensor system would be local to the thigh and knee, to facilitate innovative orthosis designs that allow more flexibility for ankle joint selection and other orthosis components...
February 1, 2019: Journal of Neuroengineering and Rehabilitation
Shraddha Srivastava, Carolynn Patten, Steven A Kautz
BACKGROUND: Stroke survivors often have lower extremity sensorimotor impairments, resulting in an inability to sufficiently recruit muscle activity at appropriate times in a gait cycle. Currently there is a lack of a standardized method that allows comparison of muscle activation in hemiparetic gait post-stroke to a normative profile. METHODS: We developed a new tool to quantify altered muscle activation patterns (AMAP). AMAP accounts for spatiotemporal asymmetries in stroke gait by evaluating the deviations of muscle activation specific to each gait sub-phase...
January 31, 2019: Journal of Neuroengineering and Rehabilitation
Anjali Sharma, Qiuhu Shi, Donald R Hoover, Phyllis C Tien, Michael W Plankey, Mardge H Cohen, Elizabeth T Golub, Deborah Gustafson, Michael T Yin
OBJECTIVE: To determine associations between frailty and fracture in women with and without HIV infection. DESIGN: Prospective longitudinal cohort study evaluating associations between baseline frailty status and frailty components, with first and second incident fractures. METHODS: We evaluated associations of frailty with fracture among 1332 women with HIV and 532 uninfected women without HIV. Frailty was defined as at least three of five Fried Frailty Index components: slow gait, reduced grip strength, exhaustion, unintentional weight loss, and low physical activity...
March 1, 2019: AIDS
Peter Rudge, Zane Jaunmuktane, Harpreet Hyare, Matthew Ellis, Martin Koltzenburg, John Collinge, Sebastian Brandner, Simon Mead
A common presentation of inherited prion disease is Gerstmann-Sträussler-Scheinker syndrome, typically presenting with gait ataxia and painful dysaesthesiae in the legs evolving over 2-5 years. The most frequent molecular genetic diagnosis is a P102L mutation of the prion protein gene (PRNP). There is no explanation for why this clinical syndrome is so distinct from Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, and biomarkers of the early stages of disease have not been developed. Here we aimed, first, at determining if quantitative neurophysiological assessments could predict clinical diagnosis or disability and monitor progression and, second, to determine the neuropathological basis of the initial clinical and neurophysiological findings...
January 28, 2019: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
B İlhan, G Bahat, T Erdoğan, C Kılıç, M A Karan
OBJECTIVES: We aimed to investigate the association between anorexia and sarcopenia in community dwelling older adults. METHOD: Anorexia was assessed by Simplified Nutritional Appetite Questionnaire (SNAQ) and sarcopenia defined by EWSGOP criteria. Study participants consisted of 442 patients from Turkish validation study of the SNAQ. Study is designed as cross-sectional in community dwelling outpatients. MEASUREMENTS: Muscle mass was determined by using bioimpedance analysis...
2019: Journal of Nutrition, Health & Aging
Q Chen, Q Hao, Y Ding, B Dong
OBJECTIVES: The goal of the present study was to assess the relationship between sarcopenia and prealbumin levels among hospitalized patients ages 60 and older. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: The geriatric wards in Guizhou Provincial People's Hospital, Guiyang. Guizhou, China. MEASUREMENTS: Sarcopenia was defined according to the Asian Working Group for Sarcopenia (AWGS) criteria, which consist of three components: low muscle mass, assessed based on an index of appendicular skeletal mass/height2 <7...
2019: Journal of Nutrition, Health & Aging
Shigeki Asada, Shinji Inoue, Ichiro Tsukamoto, Shigeshi Mori, Masao Akagi
BACKGROUND: The native knee joint line is varus relative to the tibia and remains parallel to the floor during gait even with varus lower-limb alignment. We investigated the desired degree of frontal obliquity for positioning the tibial component during unicompartmental knee arthroplasty (UKA). METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed full-leg, standing, hip to ankle digital radiographs from 107 osteoarthritic knees. We measured the hip-knee-ankle (HKA) angle, the tibial joint-line orientation angle (JLOA), which indicates the angle of the joint line (tibial component) relative to the floor, and the medial proximal tibial angle (MPTA), which is the angle of the joint line (tibial component) relative to the tibial mechanical axis, before and after UKA in the coronal plane...
January 25, 2019: Knee
Jakub Mesinovic, Lachlan B McMillan, Catherine Shore-Lorenti, Barbora De Courten, Peter R Ebeling, David Scott
Ageing, obesity and the metabolic syndrome (MetS) may all contribute to poor muscle health (sarcopenia). This study aimed to determine the cross-sectional associations between MetS (International Diabetes Federation classification) and sarcopenia (revised European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People definition) in 84 overweight and obese older adults. Components of sarcopenia included muscle strength (hand grip and leg extension), physical performance (stair climb test and short physical performance battery (SPPB), including gait speed and repeated chair stands time), muscle mass (appendicular lean mass (ALM), dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry), muscle size (peripheral quantitative computed tomography-determined calf and forearm cross-sectional area (CSA)) and muscle quality (muscle density and strength normalised to lean mass)...
January 27, 2019: Journal of Clinical Medicine
Sakkadech Limmahakhun, Hayden N Box, Paul Arauz, David W Hennessy, Christian Klemt, Young-Min Kwon
Anterior instability after total hip arthroplasty (THA) has been described in patients with thoracolumbar kyphotic deformity. Although compensatory posterior pelvic tilt with subsequent increased functional anteversion has been described as the mechanism, there is a paucity of in-vivo data. The purpose of our study was to compare pelvic tilt, anteversion, inclination, and position of head-cup contact points in patients with lumbar degenerative disc disease (DDD) and a matched patient cohort without DDD. A total of 50 THA, 18 hips with lumbar DDD and 32 hips without DDD, underwent CT imaging for 3D hip reconstruction...
January 28, 2019: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
Yogev Koren, Yisrael Parmet, Simona Bar-Haim
BACKGROUND: Complex walking conditions (e.g. dual tasking) have been associated with increased prefrontal (PFC) activity. However, most paradigms include a predictable environment, specifically, a predictable walking terrain. In the present study we investigate PFC activity under an unusual walking condition where each foot placement was on unexpected terrain, thus causing a mismatch between visuospatial perception and lower-extremity proprioception. RESEARCH OBJECTIVE: To assess whether PFC activity increases under unstable unpredictable conditions compared to unstable but predictable conditions...
January 21, 2019: Gait & Posture
Alexandre Carneiro Bitar, Caio Oliveira D'Elia, Breno Schor, Jefferson Bertoni, Zan Mustacchi, Patricia Moreno Grangeiro
Introduction: We attended three skeletally immature patients with Down syndrome (DS) with complaints of severe patellofemoral instability and dislocated patella (preoperatively, Dugdale classification IV or V), in addition to low functional capacity, with falls during gait. The technique (lateral release, medial capsulectomy, reconstruction of the medial patellofemoral ligament (MPFL) with the patellar ligament and associated techniques, and some knees) and results in three children with DS and bilaterally dislocated patella were revealed...
July 2018: Journal of Orthopaedic Case Reports
Masatsune Ishikawa, Shigeki Yamada, Kazuo Yamamoto, Yukihiko Aoyagi
BACKGROUND: The timed-up-and-go test (TUG) is a popular test for mobility, but it only measures the total time to complete tasks. Recent advances in smartphone technology enables measuring respective times of 6 components in the test (Stand, Go, Turn1, Come, Turns and Sit). We examined availability of these data for assessing different gait patterns. METHODS: This study enrolled 32 patients with probable idiopathic normal-pressure hydrocephalus and 87 age-matched active participants as controls...
January 16, 2019: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
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