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Zidovudine

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https://read.qxmd.com/read/30871487/hiv-1-drug-resistance-testing-is-essential-for-heavily-treated-patients-switching-from-first-to-second-line-regimens-in-resource-limited-settings-evidence-from-routine-clinical-practice-in-cameroon
#1
Desire Takou, Joseph Fokam, Georges Teto, Maria-Mercedes Santoro, Francesca Ceccherini-Silberstein, Aubin Joseph Nanfack, Samuel Martin Sosso, Béatrice Dambaya, Romina Salpini, Serge Clotaire Billong, Caterina Gori, Charles Ntungwen Fokunang, Giulia Cappelli, Vittorio Colizzi, Carlo-Federico Perno, Alexis Ndjolo
BACKGROUND: With the phase-out of stavudine (d4T), change to first-line regimens with zidovudine (AZT) or tenofovir (TDF) in resource-limited settings (RLS) might increase risks of cross-resistance to nucleos(t) ide reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTI). This would restrict the scope of switching to the World Health Organisation (WHO)-recommended standard second-line combinations (SLC) without HIV drug resistance (HIVDR)-testing in routine clinical practice. METHODS: An observational study was conducted among 101 Cameroonian patients (55...
March 12, 2019: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30865646/identifying-high-or-low-risk-of-mother-to-child-transmission-of-hiv-how-harare-city-zimbabwe-is-doing
#2
Brian Komtenza, Srinath Satyanarayana, Kudakwashe C Takarinda, Solomon H Mukungunugwa, Owen Mugurungi, Prosper Chonzi, Ngwarai Sithole, Talent Bvochora, Angela Mushavi
BACKGROUND: Despite high antiretroviral (ARV) treatment coverage among pregnant women for prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) in Zimbabwe, the MTCT rate is still high. Therefore in 2016, the country adopted World Health Organization recommendations of stratifying pregnant women into "High" or"Low" MTCT risk for subsequent provision of HIV exposed infant (HEI) with appropriate follow-up care according to risk status...
2019: PloS One
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30808298/rate-of-viral-load-change-and-adherence-of-hiv-adult-patients-treated-with-efavirenz-or-nevirapine-antiretroviral-regimens-at-24-and-48-weeks-in-yaound%C3%A3-cameroon-a-longitudinal-cohort-study
#3
Bih Hycenta Chendi, Marie Claire Okomo Assoumou, Graeme Brendon Jacobs, Elsie Laban Yekwa, Emilia Lyonga, Martha Mesembe, Agnes Eyoh, George Mondinde Ikomey
BACKGROUND: HIV-load decrease and suppression over time is associated with consistent adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART). Our study aimed to evaluate the difference in viral load and adherence of patients treated with a combination of either Tenofovir (TDF), Lamivudine (3TC) and Efavirenz (EFV) or TDF / Zidovudine (AZT), 3TC and Nevirapine (NVP) regimens at 24 and 48 weeks. METHODS: A longitudinal study was conducted from May 2016 to June 2017 among 256 HIV infected adult patients who were enrolled at two approved treatment hospitals in Yaoundé, before the start of first-line ART...
February 26, 2019: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30746143/pattern-of-and-reasons-for-antiretroviral-therapy-regimen-change-among-adult-hiv-aids-patients-at-regional-hospital-in-eastern-ethiopia-a-10-year-retrospective-study
#4
Mekonnen Sisay, Dumessa Edessa, Yohanes Ayele, Mesay Getachew
Objectives: Despite the successes of treatment with antiretroviral therapy in reducing morbidity and mortality among HIV-infected patients, long-term sustainability of the initial regimen has become challenging. Therefore, this study is aimed to address pattern of and reasons for change of antiretroviral therapy regimens among HIV/AIDS patients at Jugel Hospital, Eastern Ethiopia. Methods: A retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted to review medical records of 220 patients who had been on treatment and experienced regimen change at least once from September 2006 to August 2016...
2019: SAGE Open Medicine
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30735677/the-inhibitory-effect-of-antiretroviral-drugs-on-the-l-carnitine-uptake-in-human-placenta
#5
R Karahoda, M Ceckova, F Staud
In spite of remarkable reduction in the number of children born with HIV due to antiretroviral therapy, concerns remain on the short- and long-term effects of antiretroviral drugs at the feto-placental unit. Cardio- and skeletal myopathies have been reported in children exposed to antiretroviral drugs prenatally. These conditions have also been described in perturbed placental transfer of l-carnitine, an essential co-factor in fatty acid oxidation. Due to limited fetal and placental synthesis, carnitine supply is maintained through the placental carnitine uptake from maternal blood by the organic cation/carnitine transporters OCTN1 and OCTN2 (SLC22A4 and SLC22A5, respectively)...
February 5, 2019: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30683347/risk-of-false-conformity-decisions-of-multicomponent-items-controlled-by-correlated-measurement-results-due-to-the-sharing-of-analytical-steps
#6
Felipe R Lourenço, Ricardo J N Bettencourt da Silva
The assessment of the conformity of some items, such as medicines, food products or drinking waters, with limits set for several of their components, involves the determination of these components using multi-analyte measurement procedures. Since these determinations involve the sharing of relevant analytical steps, such as the sample preparation and analytical instrument run, the measurement results of the various components become correlated (i.e. 'between components metrologically correlated'). The closeness of the values of the components to the respective tolerance limits, the measurements uncertainty and the correlation of the measurements results affects the risk of false conformity decisions of the analysed item...
May 1, 2019: Talanta
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30679928/the-effectiveness-of-pictogram-intervention-in-the-identification-and-reporting-of-adverse-drug-reactions-in-na%C3%A3-ve-hiv-patients-in-ethiopia-a-cross-sectional-study
#7
Eyob Alemayehu Gebreyohannes, Akshaya Srikanth Bhagavathula, Tadesse Melaku Abegaz, Tamrat Befekadu Abebe, Sewunet Admasu Belachew, Henok Getachew Tegegn, Sarab M Mansoor
Purpose: In health communication, pictogram has a comprehensive place to aid attention, memory recall, and promote adherence. This study was conducted to assess whether pictorial intervention would help to identify and improve adverse drug reactions (ADRs) reporting in an antiretroviral therapy (ART) clinic in Northwest Ethiopia. Patients and methods: A cross-sectional study on ART-naïve HIV-positive patients was conducted from July 2015 to January 2016. The patients were randomly categorized into two groups...
2019: HIV/AIDS: Research and Palliative Care
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30670431/novel-polymyxin-combination-with-antiretroviral-zidovudine-exerts-synergistic-killing-against-ndm-producing-mdr-klebsiella-pneumoniae
#8
Yu-Wei Lin, Nusaibah Abdul Rahim, Jinxin Zhao, Mei-Ling Han, Heidi H Yu, Hasini Wickremasinghe, Ke Chen, Jiping Wang, David L Paterson, Yan Zhu, Gauri G Rao, Qi Tony Zhou, Alan Forrest, Tony Velkov, Jian Li
Polymyxins are used as a last-line therapy against multidrug-resistant (MDR) New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase (NDM) producing Klebsiella pneumoniae However, polymyxin resistance can emerge with monotherapy; therefore, novel strategies are urgently needed to minimize the resistance and maintain their clinical utility. This study aimed to investigate the pharmacodynamics of polymyxin B in combination with the antiretroviral drug zidovudine against K. pneumoniae Three isolates were evaluated in static time-kill studies (0 - 64 mg/L) over 48 h...
January 22, 2019: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30664004/minority-and-majority-pre-treatment-hiv-1-drug-resistance-associated-with-failure-of-1st-line-nnrti-art-in-kenyan-women
#9
Ross S Milne, Rachel A Silverman, Ingrid A Beck, Jennifer Mckernan-Mullin, Wenjie Deng, Thomas R Sibley, Sandra Dross, James N Kiarie, Samah R Sakr, Robert W Coombs, Michael H Chung, Lisa M Frenkel
OBJECTIVES: Among women initiating 1-line non-nucleoside-reverse-transcriptase-inhibitor-(NNRTI)-based-ART with-and-without a history of single-dose-nevirapine-(sdNVP)±zidovudine±lamivudine (ZDV±3TC) for prevention-of-mother-to-child-HIV-transmission (PMTCT), we hypothesized that pre-ART HIV-drug-resistance would be associated with virologic failure DESIGN/METHODS:: In a prospectively enrolled study, three genotypic drug-resistance assays (oligonucleotide-ligation-assay (OLA), consensus sequencing, and next-generation-sequencing by Illumina) were retrospectively performed to detect pre-ART drug-resistance...
January 16, 2019: AIDS
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30657944/ctip-brca1-complex-and-mre11-maintain-replication-forks-in-the-presence-of-chain-terminating-nucleoside-analogs
#10
Mohiuddin Mohiuddin, Md Maminur Rahman, Julian E Sale, Christopher E Pearson
Chain-terminating nucleoside analogs (CTNAs), which cannot be extended by DNA polymerases, are widely used as antivirals or anti-cancer agents, and can induce cell death. Processing of blocked DNA ends, like camptothecin-induced trapped-topoisomerase I, can be mediated by TDP1, BRCA1, CtIP and MRE11. Here, we investigated whether the CtIP-BRCA1 complex and MRE11 also contribute to cellular tolerance to CTNAs, including 2',3'-dideoxycytidine (ddC), cytarabine (ara-C) and zidovudine (Azidothymidine, AZT). We show that BRCA1-/-, CtIPS332A/-/- and nuclease-dead MRE11D20A/- mutants display increased sensitivity to CTNAs, accumulate more DNA damage (chromosomal breaks, γ-H2AX and neutral comets) when treated with CTNAs and exhibit significant delays in replication fork progression during exposure to CTNAs...
January 18, 2019: Nucleic Acids Research
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30654205/stability-behaviour-of-antiretroviral-drugs-and-their-combinations-9-identification-of-incompatible-excipients
#11
Moolchand Kurmi, Archana Sahu, Mayurbhai Kathadbhai Ladumor, Arvind Kumar Bansal, Saranjit Singh
Incompatibility studies of antiretroviral drugs, viz., lamivudine (3TC), emtricitabine (FTC), abacavir sulfate (ABC), tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF), zidovudine (ZDV), efavirenz (EFV) and nevirapine (NVP) were carried out in the presence of ten selected excipients, i.e., microcrystalline cellulose, lactose monohydrate, starch, magnesium stearate, sodium lauryl sulfate, sodium starch glycolate, croscarmellose sodium, colloidal silica, povidone K-30 and hydroxypropyl cellulose. Among all, ABC showed reaction with lactose monohydrate, resulting in the formation of two interaction products, while sodium lauryl sulphate enhanced the degradation of TDF...
January 8, 2019: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30653867/-profile-of-antiretroviral-agents-use-in-colombia
#12
Jorge E Machado-Alba, Miguel A Atehortua-Otero, Diego A Cortés-Mejía
INTRODUCTION: Since the beginning of the epidemic, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has taken more than 36 million lives. OBJECTIVE: To determine the antiretroviral drug prescription patterns in a population of individuals with HIV infection in Colombia. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Cross-sectional study analyzing the profiles of patients treated with antiretroviral drugs between April 1st and September 30th, 2015. The sociodemographic, pharmacological, and comorbidity variables were identified...
December 1, 2018: Biomédica: Revista del Instituto Nacional de Salud
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30649056/hiv-exposed-uninfected-infants-have-increased-inflammation-and-monocyte-activation
#13
Sahera Dirajlal-Fargo, Marisa M Mussi-Pinhata, Adriana Weinberg, Qilu Yu, Rachel Cohen, D Robert Harris, Emily Bowman, Janelle Gabriel, Manjusha Kulkarni, Nicholas Funderburg, Nahida Chakhtoura, Grace A Mccomsey
BACKGROUND: HIV-exposed uninfected (HEU) infants have increased infectious morbidity and mortality; little is known about their levels of inflammation and monocyte activation. METHODS: Plasma samples obtained at birth and 6 months from 86 HEU mother-infant pairs enrolled in the NICHD cohorts in Brazil were compared to 88 HIV-unexposed (HU) mother-infant pairs. HIV-infected mothers received antiretroviral therapy during pregnancy, their infants received zidovudine prophylaxis and were not breastfed...
January 14, 2019: AIDS
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30623177/a-safety-analysis-of-different-drug-regimens-used-in-human-immunodeficiency-virus-positive-patients
#14
Nidhi S Chauhan, Samidh P Shah, Mira K Desai, Asha Shah
Background: Long-term toxicity of antiretroviral agents is rarely addressed in initial clinical trials. Effective pharmacovigilance is essential for long-term safety of antiretroviral therapy (ART). Materials and Methods: All adverse drug reactions (ADRs) reported due to ART between January 2014 and September 2016 were analyzed as per different drug regimens used. ADRs were also analyzed for system organ classification, seriousness, time relationship of ADRs with drug therapy, causality (as per the World Health Organization-Uppsala Monitoring Centre scale and Naranjo algorithm), and severity (Hartwig and Siegel scale)...
July 2018: Indian Journal of Sexually Transmitted Diseases and AIDS
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30594160/association-of-hiv-infection-antiretroviral-treatment-and-metabolic-syndrome-with-large-artery-stiffness-a-cross-sectional-study
#15
Titus F Msoka, Gary P Van Guilder, Yvo M Smulders, Marceline van Furth, John A Bartlett, Michiel A van Agtmael
BACKGROUND: Effective combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) has improved life expectancy among people living with HIV-1 infection. Treated HIV-1infection increases the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MS). Despite sub-Saharan Africa having among the highest rates of HIV-1 infection, the effects of MS in HIV-1-infected individuals on cardiovascular risk is poorly explored. The aim of the study was to assess whether MS and/or HIV-1 treatment correlates with large elastic artery stiffness in HIV-1-infected patients treated with first-line cART...
December 29, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30577760/rates-of-hbv-hcv-hdv-and-hiv-type-1-among-pregnant-women-and-hiv-type-1-drug-resistance-associated-mutations-in-breastfeeding-women-on-antiretroviral-therapy
#16
Judith N Torimiro, Aubin Nanfack, William Takang, Claude Kalla Keou, Awum Nchenda Joyce, Kevin Njefi, Kimbong Agyingi, Irenee Domkam, Desire Takou, Sylvie Moudourou, Samuel Sosso, Robinson E Mbu
BACKGROUND: HBV, HCV, HDV and HIV are blood borne and can be transmitted from mother-to-child. Reports of HBV infection rates show up to 11.9% in Cameroon while for HCV, the rate is less than 2%. More so, as pregnant women get enrolled in the HIV PMTCT Programme and stay in the care continuum, selection of HIV-1 drug resistant strains is evident. We sought to determine the seroprevalence of HBV, HCV, HDV and HIV among pregnant women, assess their knowledge, attitudes and practices on transmission and prevention of HBV infection, and determine HIV drug resistance profile of breastfeeding women...
December 22, 2018: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30562172/nucleoside-reverse-transcriptase-inhibitor-backbones-and-pregnancy-outcomes
#17
(no author information available yet)
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate whether specific nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) backbones are associated with risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes among pregnant women starting antiretroviral therapy (ART). DESIGN: Seven observational studies across eight European countries of pregnancies in HIV-positive women. METHODS: Individual-level data were pooled on singleton pregnancies conceived off-ART in which a single combination ART regimen was initiated at least 2 weeks before delivery, and ending in a live birth in 2008-2014...
February 1, 2019: AIDS
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30558015/adherence-virological-outcome-and-drug-resistance-in-chinese-hiv-patients-receiving-first-line-antiretroviral-therapy-from-2011-to-2015
#18
Pengtao Liu, Lingjie Liao, Wei Xu, Jing Yan, Zhongbao Zuo, Xuebing Leng, Jing Wang, Wei Kan, Yinghui You, Hui Xing, Yuhua Ruan, Yiming Shao
Stavudine (D4T), zidovudine (AZT), and tenofovir (TDF) along with lamivudine (3TC) are the most widely used HIV treatment regimens in China. China's National Free Antiretroviral Treatment Programme (NFATP) has replaced D4T with AZT or TDF in the standard first-line regimens since 2010. Few studies have evaluated the adherence, virological outcome, and drug resistance in HIV patients receiving first-line antiretroviral therapy (ART) from 2011 to 2015 due to changes in ART regimen.From 2011 to 2015, 2787 HIV patients were examined, with 364, 1453, and 970 patients having initiated D4T-, AZT-, and TDF-based first-line ART regimens, respectively...
December 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30550097/-the-experience-in-the-application-of-nikavir-in-the-schemes-of-perinatal-chemoprophylactics-of-hiv-infection-evaluation-of-the-immunological-and-virusological-effectiveness
#19
E S Ivanova, N N Vorobeva, V S Shelud'ko
OBJECTIVES: The goal of this work was to study the immunological and virological efficacy of the domestic antiretroviral drug nicavir (at the optimal dose, as proven by previous clinical studies) with lamivudine, in comparison with other drugs of the group of nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors in combination with kaletra in perinatal HIV chemoprophylaxis regimens. METHODS: 658 pregnant women aged 16-39 years and children born to them were examined. The first group (281 people) and the third group (66 people) received the nicavir (manufactured by AZT PHARMA KB LLC) with lamivudine in combination with calyx; the second (281 people) and the fourth (30 people) of the comparison group, stag and zidovudine, respectively, with lamivudine in combination with calyx...
2018: Voprosy Virusologii
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30546260/adverse-drug-reaction-onsets-in-uganda-s-vigibase-%C3%A2-delayed-international-visibility-data-quality-and-illustrative-signal-detection-analyses
#20
Ronald Kiguba, Helen B Ndagije, Victoria Nambasa, Sheila M Bird
Introduction: Developing countries can improve their pharmacovigilance systems by analysing their own medication safety data. Objective: The aims of this study were to characterize Uganda's reported adverse drug reaction (ADR) onsets in 2012-2015 that were registered on VigiBase® by 31 December 2017, to document delays in international visibility and the influence of covariates on this delay from ADR onsets in 2013 + 2014, to examine data quality, and to illustrate analytical approaches for safety data, particularly for patients receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART)...
2018: Pharmaceutical Medicine
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