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Julie Brousseau, Amandine Xolin, Louis Barriault
A nine-step stereoselective formal synthesis of (±)-morphine from readily available o-vanillin is presented. The carbocyclic structure of morphine was quickly assembled through an orchestration of the intermolecular Diels-Alder/Claisen/Friedel-Crafts sequential reaction. This approach involves many one-pot procedures and no protecting groups, and only a few chromatographic purifications are required.
February 20, 2019: Organic Letters
Jia-Feng Chen, Xiao-Wei Chen, Jian Guo, Xiao-Quan Yang
Due to the benefits involving brain development and cardiovascular health, algae oil which is rich in omega-3 fatty acids has become a popular dietary supplement in recent years. However, the incompatibility with water and poor oxidative stability limits its addition in foods and beverages. In this work, the formation and characterization of zein-based core-shell microcapsules with tunable shell thicknesses for the potential delivery of algae oil were reported. They were prepared based on the in situ precipitation of zein from the continuous phase onto the surface of oil droplets by self-assembly at a refrigerated temperature without any need for surfactants and cross-linkers...
February 20, 2019: Food & Function
M Sefi, A Elwej, M Chaâbane, S Bejaoui, R Marrekchi, K Jamoussi, N Gouiaa, T Boudawara-Sellemi, M El Cafsi, N Zeghal, N Soudani
Vanillin, a widely used flavoring agent, has antimutagenic and antioxidant properties. The current study was performed to evaluate its beneficial role against hepatotoxicity induced by maneb, a dithiocarbamate fungicide. Mice were divided into four groups of six each: group 1, serving as negative controls which received by intraperitoneal way only distilled water, a solvent of maneb; group 2, received daily, by intraperitoneal way, maneb (30 mg kg-1 body weight (BW)); group 3, received maneb at the same dose of group 2 and 50 mg kg-1 BW of vanillin by intraperitoneal way; and group 4, serving as positive controls, received daily only vanillin...
February 19, 2019: Human & Experimental Toxicology
Enis Nadia Md Yusof, Muhammad A M Latif, Mohamed I M Tahir, Jennette A Sakoff, Michela I Simone, Alister J Page, Abhi Veerakumarasivam, Edward R T Tiekink, Thahira B S A Ravoof
Six new organotin(IV) compounds of Schiff bases derived from S -R-dithiocarbazate [R = benzyl (B), 2- or 4-methylbenzyl (2M and 4M, respectively)] condensed with 2-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzaldehyde (oVa) were synthesised and characterised by elemental analysis, various spectroscopic techniques including infrared, UV-vis, multinuclear (¹H, 13 C, 119 Sn) NMR and mass spectrometry, and single crystal X-ray diffraction. The organotin(IV) compounds were synthesised from the reaction of Ph₂SnCl₂ or Me₂SnCl₂ with the Schiff bases (S2MoVaH/S4MoVaH/SBoVaH) to form a total of six new organotin(IV) compounds that had a general formula of [R₂Sn(L)] (where L = Schiff base; R = Ph or Me)...
February 15, 2019: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Cristina Montserrat Moreno-Ley, Diana Maylet Hernández-Martínez, Guillermo Osorio-Revilla, Adriana Patricia Tapia-Ochoategui, Gloria Dávila-Ortiz, Tzayhri Gallardo-Velázquez
Fourier transform mid-infrared (MID-FTIR) spectroscopy coupled with chemometric analysis was used to identify and quantify coumarin (CMR) and ethyl vanillin (EVA) adulterations in pure vanilla extracts. Forty samples adulterated with CMR (0.25-10 ppm) and forty with EVA (0.25-10%) were prepared from pure vanilla extracts and characterized by MID-FTIR spectroscopy to develop chemometric models. Additionally, six commercial vanilla samples were analyzed. A soft independent modeling of class analogy (SIMCA) model was developed to identify and classify the purity from EVA-adulterated or CMR-adulterated samples...
May 15, 2019: Talanta
Naser Gholizadeh-Moghadam, Bahman Hosseini, Abolfazl Alirezalu
INTRODUCTION: Recently, there has been a growing interest in the use of edible barberry and their extracts as a source of natural antioxidants in food and pharmaceutical industries. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the biochemical constituents of 18 samples of barberry fruits and classification of barberry genotypes by multivariate analysis. METHODS: Total phenolic, total flavonoid, total anthocyanin, total tannin, total carbohydrate contents and antioxidant activity were determined using Folin-Ciocalteu, aluminum chloride, colorimetric, vanillin, anthron and DPPH (2,2'-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) assays, respectively...
February 14, 2019: Phytochemical Analysis: PCA
Morgan N Price, Jayashree Ray, Anthony T Iavarone, Hans K Carlson, Elizabeth M Ryan, Rex R Malmstrom, Adam P Arkin, Adam M Deutschbauer
Using genome-wide mutant fitness assays in diverse bacteria, we identified novel oxidative pathways for the catabolism of 2-deoxy-d-ribose and 2-deoxy-d-ribonate. We propose that deoxyribose is oxidized to deoxyribonate, oxidized to ketodeoxyribonate, and cleaved to acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA) and glyceryl-CoA. We have genetic evidence for this pathway in three genera of bacteria, and we confirmed the oxidation of deoxyribose to ketodeoxyribonate in vitro . In Pseudomonas simiae, the expression of enzymes in the pathway is induced by deoxyribose or deoxyribonate, while in Paraburkholderia bryophila and in Burkholderia phytofirmans, the pathway proceeds in parallel with the known deoxyribose 5-phosphate aldolase pathway...
January 2019: MSystems
Hailong Chen, Jiuqin Zheng, Junjie Ma
BACKGROUND: In the search for treating neurological dysfunctions after spinal cord injury (SCI), methods of neuroprotection are of interest to intervene with the caspase pathway. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the neuroprotective effects of vanillin in a rat model of spinal cord injury (SCI). METHODS: Rats were randomly assigned to one of three groups: a sham-operated group, and two groups where SCI was produced by ischemia/reperfusion which received either saline or vanillin (286 mg/kg, intraperitoneal [i...
February 4, 2019: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience
S Muthukrishnan, T Senthil Kumar, A Gangaprasad, F Maggi, M V Rao
Ceropegia thwaitesii Hook (Asclepiadaceae), an endemic plant species, due to habitat destruction and over exploitation has a very restricted distribution in the Western Ghats of Tamil Nadu, India. The present wrok aimed to determine the chemical composition, the total phenolic (TPC), flavonoid (TFC) and tannin content (TEC), and to assess the antioxidant properties of various extracts of in vivo plants (IVP) and in vitro regenerated plants (IRP) of C. thwaitesii . Some phenolic compounds like gallic acid, cathechol, vanillin and salicylic acid were identified and quantified by HPLC...
December 2018: Journal, Genetic Engineering & Biotechnology
Vahid Rowshan, Sharareh Najafian
Folk medicine sometimes involves the use of salvia species for therapeutic purposes. Polyphenols with the highest amounts included rosmarinic acid (7.358mg/g), catechin (1.5 mg/g), vanillin (1.00 mg/g), chlorogenic acid (0.53 mg/g), quercetin (0.16 mg/g), and p-coumaric acid (0.015). Furthermore, the results showed that S. multicaulis has a high content of total phenol (4.39 mg/g) and DPPH activity (8.44 mg/g). Salvia multicaulis could be potentially used as a medicinal plant because of its antioxidant activity and polyphenol content...
February 6, 2019: Natural Product Research
Jimena Claudia Lopez, María Alicia Zon, Héctor Fernández, Adrian Marcelo Granero, Sebastián Noel Robledo
The oxidation of eugenol, isoeugenol and vanillin natural antioxidants catalyzed by the soybean peroxidase enzyme was studied using uv-vis spectroscopy. An experimental design was used to optimize the different variables. The multivariate curve resolution method was used to obtain the profiles of antioxidant absorbance's as a function of time due to uv-vis absorption bands of both antioxidants and the enzymatic reaction product/s show a strong overlap. From these results, apparent Michaelis-Menten constants as well as the kinetic parameters k1 and k3 involved in the catalytic cycle of peroxidases were calculated...
March 1, 2019: Food Chemistry
Daljeet Kaur, Nishi K Bhardwaj, Rajesh Kumar Lohchab
The pulp and paper industry is highly dependent on forest and water resources. It has more concerns on fair utilization of these resources and their conservation for its further expansion. Present study emphasizes on the use of rice straw (agro waste) in papermaking to protect wood based resources. It further deals with ozone bleaching (Z) prior to elemental chlorine free bleaching that proved to be significant in terms of reducing the effluent load specially the reduction in toxic, recalcitrant and carcinogenic compounds...
February 2, 2019: Journal of Environmental Management
Khan Hashim Ali, Muhammad Mohsin Ansari, Fawad Ali Shah, Fakhar Ud Din, Muhammad Abdul Basit, Jin-Ki Kim, Alam Zeb
The study was aimed to prepare co-amorphous system of valsartan (VAL) with vanillin (VAN) for improving its solubility and dissolution followed by its confinement in mesoporous silica particles (MSPs) to stabilize the co-amorphous system and prevent its recrystallization. Amorphous VAL and VAN were obtained through quench-cooling and VAL/VAN binary co-amorphous system (VAL/VAN-CAS) was prepared through solvent evaporation technique. The particle size and morphology of VAL/VAN-CAS-MSPs were studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and solid-state characterization was performed by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD)...
February 5, 2019: Journal of Microencapsulation
Wantong Ma, Xue Li, Peng Song, Qianqian Zhang, Zhengrong Wu, Jianhui Wang, Xiaofeng Li, Ruixiang Xu, Wenbin Zhao, Yuheng Liu, Huanxiang Liu, Xiaojun Yao, Xiaoliang Tang, Peng Chen
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a common malignancy and the leading cause of cancer death worldwide. According to previous studies, vanillin possesses pharmacological and anticancer activities. In this work, we have modified the structure of vanillin to obtain a vanillin derivative called 4-(1H-imidazo [4,5-f][1,10]-phenanthrolin-2-yl)-2-methoxyphenol (IPM711), which has improved anticancer activity. The present study is intended to explore the anti-colorectal cancer activity of IPM711 in HT29 and HCT116 cells. The results of this study suggest that IPM711 can inhibit the growth, invasion and migration of HT29 and HCT116 cells...
January 29, 2019: European Journal of Pharmacology
Haijuan Han, Xiaoxuan Yuan, Zhixin Zhang, Jingbo Zhang
The electrophoretic deposition method is employed to deposit uniform metal organic framework thin films. ZIF-67 particles dispersed in isopropanol move to a cathode as an electric field is applied on two conducting glass electrodes, the uniform ZIF-67 thin film can be formed on the conducting glass substrate. As the deposition time is fixed at 1 min, the prepared film thickness can be adjusted from 1.0 to 7.0 μm by applying different electric fields from 20 to 60 V·cm-1 . The deposited ZIF-67 thin film is further converted into porous Co9 S8 thin films by the vulcanization with S powder...
January 30, 2019: Inorganic Chemistry
Alexander E Kuznetsov, Natalia V Komarova, Evgeniy V Kuznetsov, Maria S Andrianova, Vitaliy P Grudtsov, Elena N Rybachek, Kirill V Puchnin, Dmitriy V Ryazantsev, Alexander N Saurov
A new bioelectronic nose based on a field effect transistor coupled with an aptamer as the sensing element was developed. The gas-to-liquid extraction interface required for appropriate aptamer function was integrated into standard CMOS technology. It was developed with the use of a sacrificial aluminium etching technique combined with surface modifications by silanes for wettability control. As a proof of concept, aptamer Van74 for vanillin was immobilized on the sensitive surface of the ISFET. The developed microsystem can selectively detect vanillin vapor in a concentration range from 2...
January 15, 2019: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
Francisco Cabrera, Antonio Serrano, Álvaro Torres, Guillermo Rodriguez-Gutierrez, David Jeison, Fernando G Fermoso
This work aims to compare the use of olive mill solid waste as substrate in pH-controlled fermentation at acid (pH = 5), neutral (uncontrolled, pH ≈ 7) and alkaline (pH = 9) operating pH levels. The results obtained in this study indicate that operating pH strongly affected the anaerobic microorganisms and, hence, different target compounds could be obtained by adjusting the operating pH. Fermentation at neutral pH resulted in the conversion of 93.5% of the fed chemical oxygen demand to methane...
March 20, 2019: Science of the Total Environment
Thalía I Ramírez-Reyes, Ángel S Aguilar-Colorado, Diana L Murrieta-León, Laura S Licona-Velázquez, Israel Bonilla-Landa, Carlos Duran-Espinosa, Sergio Avendaño-Reyes, Juan L Monribot-Villanueva, José A Guerrero-Analco
Fifteen plant species from a protected cloud forest (CF) in Veracruz, Mexico, were screened for their in vitro capacity to inhibit the growth of the phytopathogenic bacteria Chryseobacterium sp., Pseudomonas cichorii, Pectobacterium carotovorum and Pantoea stewartii, causal agents of damage to crops like "chayote", lettuce, potato and corn. As a result, the bioactivity of Turpinia insignis and Leandra cornoides is reported for the first time against Chryseobacterium sp. and P. cichorii. In addition, 24 and 18 compounds not described for these species were dereplicated by an UPLC-MS-MS method, respectively...
January 18, 2019: Chemistry & Biodiversity
Sadia Fida Ullah, Amanda Araújo Souza, Pedro Ricardo V Hamann, Alonso Roberto P Ticona, Gideane M Oliveira, Joao Alexandre R G Barbosa, Sonia M Freitas, Eliane Ferreira Noronha
Commercial interest in plant cell wall degrading enzymes (PCWDE) is motivated by their potential for energy or bioproduct generation that reduced dependency on non-renewable (fossil-derived) feedstock. Therefore, underlying work analysed the Penicillium chrysogenum isolate for PCWDE production by employing different biomass as a carbon source. Among the produced enzymes, three xylanase isoforms were observed in the culture filtrate containing sugarcane bagasse. Xylanase (PcX1) presenting 35 kDa molecular mass was purified by gel filtration and anion exchange chromatography...
January 14, 2019: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Linda Dykes
Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) contains a wide variety of phenolic compounds and their levels and types depend on the genotype. Sorghums with a pigmented testa contain condensed tannins, which are concentrated in the pigmented testa. In this chapter, three methods of tannin analysis are described: (1) Chlorox bleach test; (2) modified vanillin-HCl assay; and (3) normal-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (NP-HPLC) with fluorescence detection. The Chlorox bleach test is a rapid and inexpensive method that identifies non-tannin and tannin sorghums...
2019: Methods in Molecular Biology
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