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blood brain barrie MRI

Robert Zivadinov, Paul Polak, Ferdinand Schweser, Niels Bergsland, Jesper Hagemeier, Michael G Dwyer, Deepa P Ramasamy, John G Baker, John J Leddy, Barry S Willer
BACKGROUND: Long-term consequences of playing professional football and hockey on brain function and structural neuronal integrity are unknown. OBJECTIVES: To investigate multimodal metabolic and structural brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) differences in retired professional contact sport athletes compared with noncontact sport athletes. METHODS: Twenty-one male contact sport athletes and 21 age-matched noncontact sport athletes were scanned on a 3 tesla (3T) MRI using a multimodal imaging approach...
September 2018: Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation
Benjamin N Conrad, Robert L Barry, Baxter P Rogers, Satoshi Maki, Arabinda Mishra, Saakshi Thukral, Subramaniam Sriram, Aashim Bhatia, Siddharama Pawate, John C Gore, Seth A Smith
Patients with multiple sclerosis present with focal lesions throughout the spinal cord. There is a clinical need for non-invasive measurements of spinal cord activity and functional organization in multiple sclerosis, given the cord's critical role in the disease. Recent reports of spontaneous blood oxygenation level-dependent fluctuations in the spinal cord using functional MRI suggest that, like the brain, cord activity at rest is organized into distinct, synchronized functional networks among grey matter regions, likely related to motor and sensory systems...
June 1, 2018: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
Erik Barry Erhardt, John C Pesko, Jillian Prestopnik, Jeffrey Thompson, Arvind Caprihan, Gary A Rosenberg
Binswanger's disease is a form of subcortical ischemic vascular disease (SIVD-BD) with extensive white matter changes. To test the hypothesis that biomarkers could improve classification of SIVD-BD, we recruited 62 vascular cognitive impairment and dementia (VCID) patients. Multimodal biomarkers were collected at entry into the study based on clinical and neuropsychological testing, multimodal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis. The patients' diagnoses were confirmed by long-term follow-up, and they formed a "training set" to test classification methods, including (1) subcortical ischemic vascular disease score (SIVDS), (2) exploratory factor analysis (EFA), (3) logistic regression (LR), and (4) random forest (RF)...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
Julie H Harreld, Mikhail Doubrovin, Elizabeth R Butch, Angela Edwards, Barry Shulkin
Elevated relative cerebral blood volume on perfusion MRI and increased uptake on C-methionine PET can be used to diagnose and guide biopsy of brain tumors but are not specific. We report increased uptake on C-methionine PET associated with 4 developmental venous anomalies (DVAs) in 3 children with brain tumors, which could potentially mimic tumor and misdirect biopsy. Because DVAs are not readily visible on CT, prevention of misdirected biopsy in patients with focally elevated C-methionine uptake and relative cerebral blood volume relies on close correlation with contrast-enhanced anatomic MRI to exclude DVA or other nonneoplastic etiology...
May 2017: Clinical Nuclear Medicine
Barry I Freedman, Crystal A Gadegbeku, R Nick Bryan, Nicholette D Palmer, Pamela J Hicks, Lijun Ma, Michael V Rocco, S Carrie Smith, Jianzhao Xu, Christopher T Whitlow, Benjamin C Wagner, Carl D Langefeld, Amret T Hawfield, Jeffrey T Bates, Alan J Lerner, Dominic S Raj, Mohammad S Sadaghiani, Robert D Toto, Jackson T Wright, Donald W Bowden, Jeff D Williamson, Kaycee M Sink, Joseph A Maldjian, Nicholas M Pajewski, Jasmin Divers
To assess apolipoprotein L1 gene (APOL1) renal-risk-variant effects on the brain, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based cerebral volumes and cognitive function were assessed in 517 African American-Diabetes Heart Study (AA-DHS) Memory IN Diabetes (MIND) and 2568 hypertensive African American Systolic Blood Pressure Intervention Trial (SPRINT) participants without diabetes. Within these cohorts, 483 and 197 had cerebral MRI, respectively. AA-DHS participants were characterized as follows: 60.9% female, mean age of 58...
August 2016: Kidney International
Rishma Vidyasagar, Laurence Abernethy, Barry Pizer, Shivaram Avula, Laura M Parkes
OBJECTIVE: Arterial spin-labelling (ASL) MRI uses intrinsic blood water to quantify the cerebral blood flow (CBF), removing the need for the injection of a gadolinium-based contrast agent used for conventional perfusion imaging such as dynamic susceptibility contrast (DSC). Owing to the non-invasive nature of the technique, ASL is an attractive option for use in paediatric patients. This work compared DSC and multi-timepoint ASL measures of CBF in paediatric brain tumours. METHODS: Patients (n = 23; 20 low-grade tumours and 3 high-grade tumours) had DSC and multi-timepoint ASL with and without vascular crushers (VC)...
June 2016: British Journal of Radiology
Russell E Ware, Barry R Davis, William H Schultz, R Clark Brown, Banu Aygun, Sharada Sarnaik, Isaac Odame, Beng Fuh, Alex George, William Owen, Lori Luchtman-Jones, Zora R Rogers, Lee Hilliard, Cynthia Gauger, Connie Piccone, Margaret T Lee, Janet L Kwiatkowski, Sherron Jackson, Scott T Miller, Carla Roberts, Matthew M Heeney, Theodosia A Kalfa, Stephen Nelson, Hamayun Imran, Kerri Nottage, Ofelia Alvarez, Melissa Rhodes, Alexis A Thompson, Jennifer A Rothman, Kathleen J Helton, Donna Roberts, Jamie Coleman, Melanie J Bonner, Abdullah Kutlar, Niren Patel, John Wood, Linda Piller, Peng Wei, Judy Luden, Nicole A Mortier, Susan E Stuber, Naomi L C Luban, Alan R Cohen, Sara Pressel, Robert J Adams
BACKGROUND: For children with sickle cell anaemia and high transcranial doppler (TCD) flow velocities, regular blood transfusions can effectively prevent primary stroke, but must be continued indefinitely. The efficacy of hydroxycarbamide (hydroxyurea) in this setting is unknown; we performed the TWiTCH trial to compare hydroxyurea with standard transfusions. METHODS: TWiTCH was a multicentre, phase 3, randomised, open-label, non-inferiority trial done at 26 paediatric hospitals and health centres in the USA and Canada...
February 13, 2016: Lancet
Laura M Raffield, Amanda J Cox, Barry I Freedman, Christina E Hugenschmidt, Fang-Chi Hsu, Benjamin C Wagner, Jianzhao Xu, Joseph A Maldjian, Donald W Bowden
AIMS: To examine the relationships between type 2 diabetes (T2D) status, glycemic control, and T2D duration with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-derived neuroimaging measures in European Americans from the Diabetes Heart Study (DHS) Mind cohort. METHODS: Relationships were examined using marginal models with generalized estimating equations in 784 participants from 514 DHS Mind families. Fasting plasma glucose, glycated hemoglobin, and diabetes duration were analyzed in 682 participants with T2D...
June 2016: Acta Diabetologica
Ernesto Caballero-Garrido, Juan Carlos Pena-Philippides, Tamar Lordkipanidze, Denis Bragin, Yirong Yang, Erik Barry Erhardt, Tamara Roitbak
A multifunctional microRNA, miR-155, has been recently recognized as an important modulator of numerous biological processes. In our previous in vitro studies, miR-155 was identified as a potential regulator of the endothelial morphogenesis. The present study demonstrates that in vivo inhibition of miR-155 supports cerebral vasculature after experimental stroke. Intravenous injections of a specific miR-155 inhibitor were initiated at 48 h after mouse distal middle cerebral artery occlusion (dMCAO). Microvasculature in peri-infarct area, infarct size, and animal functional recovery were assessed at 1, 2, and 3 weeks after dMCAO...
September 9, 2015: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Kaycee M Sink, Jasmin Divers, Christopher T Whitlow, Nicholette D Palmer, S Carrie Smith, Jianzhao Xu, Christina E Hugenschmidt, Benjamin C Wagner, Jeff D Williamson, Donald W Bowden, Joseph A Maldjian, Barry I Freedman
OBJECTIVE: Albuminuria and reduced kidney function are associated with cognitive impairment. Relationships between nephropathy and cerebral structural changes remain poorly defined, particularly in African Americans (AAs), a population at higher risk for both cognitive impairment and diabetes than European Americans. We examined the relationship between urine albumin:creatinine ratio (UACR), estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), and cerebral MRI volumes in 263 AAs with type 2 diabetes...
February 2015: Diabetes Care
Michael L Meier, Sabina Hotz-Boendermaker, Bart Boendermaker, Roger Luechinger, Barry Kim Humphreys
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to develop and test a clinically relevant method to mechanically stimulate lumbar functional spinal units while recording brain activity by means of functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). METHODS: Subjects were investigated in the prone position with their face lying on a modified stabilization pillow. To minimize head motion, the pillow was fixed to the MRI headrest, and supporting straps were attached around the shoulders...
January 2014: Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics
Vardit Rubovitch, Meital Ten-Bosch, Ofer Zohar, Catherine R Harrison, Catherine Tempel-Brami, Elliot Stein, Barry J Hoffer, Carey D Balaban, Shaul Schreiber, Wen-Ta Chiu, Chaim G Pick
Improvised explosive devices (IEDs) are one of the main causes for casualties among civilians and military personnel in the present war against terror. Mild traumatic brain injury from IEDs induces various degrees of cognitive, emotional and behavioral disturbances but knowledge of the exact brain pathophysiology following exposure to blast is poorly understood. The study was aimed at establishing a murine model for a mild BI-TBI that isolates low-level blast pressure effects to the brain without systemic injuries...
December 2011: Experimental Neurology
Craig A Robertson, Christopher McCabe, Lindsay Gallagher, Maria del Rosario Lopez-Gonzalez, William M Holmes, Barrie Condon, Keith W Muir, Celestine Santosh, I Mhairi Macrae
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with oxygen challenge (T(2)(*) OC) uses oxygen as a metabolic biotracer to define penumbral tissue based on CMRO(2) and oxygen extraction fraction. Penumbra displays a greater T(2)(*) signal change during OC than surrounding tissue. Since timely restoration of cerebral blood flow (CBF) should salvage penumbra, T(2)(*) OC was tested by examining the consequences of reperfusion on T(2)(*) OC-defined penumbra. Transient ischemia (109 ± 20 minutes) was induced in male Sprague-Dawley rats (n=8)...
August 2011: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
Jean Rodgers, Christopher McCabe, George Gettinby, Barbara Bradley, Barrie Condon, Peter G E Kennedy
The ability of trypanosomes to invade the brain and induce an inflammatory reaction is well-recognized. This study uses magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in conjunction with a murine model of central nervous system (CNS) stage trypanosomiasis to investigate this phenomenon at the level of the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Mice were scanned before and after administration of the contrast agent. Signal enhancement maps were generated, and the percentage signal change was calculated. The severity of the neuroinflammation was also assessed...
February 2011: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Michael McCormick, Donald Hadley, John R McLean, Jennifer A Macfarlane, Barrie Condon, Keith W Muir
OBJECTIVE: Poststroke hyperglycemia is common and is associated with increased risk of death and dependence, but appropriate management remains uncertain. Glucose potassium insulin (GKI) infusion did not benefit patients with moderate poststroke hyperglycemia in a recent trial. Using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), previous studies identified a relationship between recruitment of ischemic tissue to the final infarct and hyperglycemia, possibly mediated by brain lactic acidosis. METHODS: We undertook a randomized, placebo-controlled trial of GKI infusion in patients with blood glucose >126mg/dl (7mmol/l) within 24 hours of ischemic stroke...
May 2010: Annals of Neurology
Rosalind J Sadleir, Tracy D Vannorsdall, David J Schretlen, Barry Gordon
Distributions of current produced by transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) in humans were predicted by a finite-element model representing several individual and collective refinements over prior efforts. A model of the entire human head and brain was made using a finely meshed (1.1x1.1x1.4mm(3) voxel) tissue dataset derived from the MRI data set of a normal human brain. The conductivities of ten tissues were simulated (bone, scalp, blood, CSF, muscle, white matter, gray matter, sclera, fat, and cartilage)...
July 15, 2010: NeuroImage
N Duggal, D Rabin, R Bartha, R L Barry, J S Gati, I Kowalczyk, M Fink
OBJECTIVE: This prospective study characterizes the reorganization that occurs within the primary sensorimotor cortices following decompression of cervical spinal stenosis. METHODS: Twelve right-handed patients with cervical myelopathy underwent blood oxygenation level dependent functional MRI (fMRI) prior to decompression and 6 months following surgery. Ten right-handed controls also underwent fMRI. All subjects performed a finger-tapping paradigm with the right hand...
March 30, 2010: Neurology
Tracy D Vannorsdall, H A Jinnah, Barry Gordon, Michael Kraut, David J Schretlen
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: High normal concentrations of serum uric acid (UA) are associated with mild cognitive dysfunction and increased cerebral ischemia as indexed by white matter hyperintensity volumes. We hypothesized that individual differences in white matter hyperintensities mediate the association between UA and mild cognitive dysfunction. METHODS: One hundred eighty community-dwelling adults aged 20 to 96 years completed neuropsychological testing, laboratory blood studies, and a brain MRI scan...
December 2008: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
Adam Denes, Rishma Vidyasagar, Jianghua Feng, Johanna Narvainen, Barry W McColl, Risto A Kauppinen, Stuart M Allan
Cerebral ischaemia usually results in the rapid death of neurons within the immediate territory of the affected artery. Neuronal loss is accompanied by a sequence of events, including brain oedema, blood-brain barrier (BBB) breakdown, and neuroinflammation, all of which contribute to further neuronal death. Although the role of macrophages and mononuclear phagocytes in the expansion of ischaemic injury has been widely studied, the relative contribution of these cells, either of exogenous or intrinsic central nervous system (CNS) origin is still not entirely clear...
December 2007: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
Nader Binesh, Amir Huda, M Albert Thomas, Nathaniel Wyckoff, Mary Bugbee, Steven Han, Natalie Rasgon, Pablo Davanzo, James Sayre, Barry Guze, Paul Martin, Fawzy Fawzy
Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is normally diagnosed by neuropsychological (NP) tests, which are not very specific and do not reveal the underlying pathology. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and spectroscopy (MRS) of the brain offer alternative and possibly more specific markers for HE. These methods were applied in conjunction with NP testing in order to determine their usefulness in the identification of HE and to understand the pathogenesis of HE more clearly. MR imaging and spectroscopy examinations, in addition to a battery of 15 NP tests, were administered to investigate 31 patients awaiting liver transplantation and 23 healthy controls...
2006: Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics
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