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Nan Yao, Zi-Gang Huang, Hai-Peng Ren, Celso Grebogi, Ying-Cheng Lai
Chimera states in spatiotemporal dynamical systems have been investigated in physical, chemical, and biological systems, and have been shown to be robust against random perturbations. How do chimera states achieve their robustness? We uncover a self-adaptation behavior by which, upon a spatially localized perturbation, the coherent component of the chimera state spontaneously drifts to an optimal location as far away from the perturbation as possible, exposing only its incoherent component to the perturbation to minimize the disturbance...
January 2019: Physical Review. E
Amanda Vandyk, Andrea Bentz, Sarah Bissonette, Caitlyn Cater
Through this qualitative study, we explored frequent emergency department use by persons with borderline personality disorder from their perspective. Interpretive description guided the study design, and data were collected through interviews with six individuals diagnosed with borderline personality disorder who had at least 12 emergency department visits for reasons related to their mental illness within a 1-year timeframe. Using thematic data analysis, we articulate the participants' experiences through two broad themes: cyclic nature of emergency department use and coping skills and strategies...
February 18, 2019: International Journal of Mental Health Nursing
Wubing Fang, Fei Chao, Chih-Min Lin, Longzhi Yang, Changjing Shang, Changle Zhou
The brain emotional learning (BEL) system was inspired by the biological amygdala-orbitofrontal model to mimic the high speed of the emotional learning mechanism in the mammalian brain, which has been successfully applied in many real-world applications. Despite of its success, such system often suffers from slow convergence for online humanoid robotic control. This paper presents an improved fuzzy BEL model (iFBEL) neural network by integrating a fuzzy neural network (FNN) to a conventional BEL, in an effort to better support humanoid robots...
2019: Frontiers in Neurorobotics
A Borjali, K Monson, B Raeymaekers
The longevity of metal-on-polyethylene prosthetic hip implant bearings, in which a polished CoCrMo femoral head articulates with a polyethylene liner, is limited by mechanical instability or inflammation resulting from osteolysis caused by polyethylene wear debris. We use pin-on-disc experiments to measure friction and wear of a polyethylene pin that articulates with different microtextured CoCrMo surfaces, covering a wide range of operating conditions including sliding velocity and contact pressure. We determine how the lubrication regime changes as a function of operating conditions, and show that the microtexture accelerates the transition from boundary to elastohydrodynamic lubrication...
November 2018: Tribology International
J Langhorn, A Borjali, E Hippensteel, W Nelson, B Raeymaekers
The longevity of metal-on-polyethylene (MoP) prosthetic hip joint bearings, in which a polished CoCrMo femoral head articulates with a polyethylene liner, may be limited by mechanical instability or inflammation resulting from osteolysis caused by polyethylene wear debris. This study uses laser surface texturing to manufacture a pattern of shallow spherical microtexture features on a polished CoCrMo surface. Gravimetric wear measurements of a highly-crosslinked polyethylene pin articulating with a CoCrMo disc under multi-directional shear demonstrate that polyethylene wear is reduced by more 50% when articulating with a microtextured as opposed to a polished CoCrMo disc...
August 2018: Tribology International
Emma F France, Isabelle Uny, Nicola Ring, Ruth L Turley, Margaret Maxwell, Edward A S Duncan, Ruth G Jepson, Rachel J Roberts, Jane Noyes
BACKGROUND: Decision making in health and social care requires robust syntheses of both quantitative and qualitative evidence. Meta-ethnography is a seven-phase methodology for synthesising qualitative studies. Developed in 1988 by sociologists in education Noblit and Hare, meta-ethnography has evolved since its inception; it is now widely used in healthcare research and is gaining popularity in education research. The aim of this article is to provide up-to-date, in-depth guidance on conducting the complex analytic synthesis phases 4 to 6 of meta-ethnography through analysis of the latest methodological evidence...
February 18, 2019: BMC Medical Research Methodology
Beatrice Pettersson, Maria Wiklund, Rebecka Janols, Helena Lindgren, Lillemor Lundin-Olsson, Dawn A Skelton, Marlene Sandlund
BACKGROUND: Exercise is effective in order to prevent falls in community-dwelling older people. Self-management programs have the potential to increase access and reduce costs related to exercise-based fall prevention. However, information regarding older people's views of participating in such programs is needed to support implementation. The aim of this study was to explore older people's experiences of a self-management fall prevention exercise routine guided either by a digital program (web-based or mobile) or a paper booklet...
February 18, 2019: BMC Geriatrics
Colin S Yung, Evelyn E Kuong, Wang Chow
BACKGROUND: Atypical triplane fractures are defined as triplane fractures that are intra-articular but affect the non-weight-bearing area of the tibia plafond or extra-articular triplane fractures where the epiphyseal fracture line exits outside the articulating cortex of the medial malleolus. These fractures are scarcely reported in the literature. Here, we study the fracture pattern, mechanisms, and recommendations for management. METHODS: This is a retrospective study of all triplane fractures identified from 2012 to 2016 in a tertiary referral center...
January 2019: Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery
David J Bloom, Hwa-Young Baik, Soo-Yeun Lee
The power of discrimination tests is crucial in determining sample size and resources needed for testing. Although research has been conducted on the power analysis of several discrimination testing methods, much of the previous research has focused on basic taste solutions, which may not be directly applicable to food and beverage systems. The objective of the current study was to compare the power of seven discrimination tests: Panelist-Articulated-2-Alternative Forced Choice (PA-2-AFC), triangle, triangle with partial presentation, duo-trio, duo-trio with partial presentation, 4-category rating methods for R-index measure, and same-different pairwise comparison for R-index measure using commercial-type beverage products...
February 18, 2019: Journal of Food Science
Fateme Badie, Hamid Reza Katouzian, Mostafa Rostami
Varus misalignment of the hip-knee-ankle angle causes greater loads on the medial compartment of the knee and increases the risk of developing knee osteoarthritis. High tibial osteotomy is a surgical method where the load-bearing axis is shifted laterally. The purpose of this study is to define a subject-specific three-dimensional multibody model of the knee to investigate the effect of osteotomy on cartilages and menisci during the stance phase of gait. It is assumed that osteotomy transfers load-bearing to the lateral parts of the knee...
February 14, 2019: Medical Engineering & Physics
Alan Jurgens, Michael D Kirchhoff
This paper targets the constitutive basis of social cognition. It begins by describing the traditional and still dominant cognitivist view. Cognitivism assumes internalism about the realisers of social cognition; thus, the embodied and embedded elements of intersubjective engagement are ruled out from playing anything but a basic causal role in an account of social cognition. It then goes on to advance and clarify an alternative to the cognitivist view; namely, an enactive account of social cognition. It does so first by articulating a diachronic constitutive account for how embodied engagement can play a constitutive role in social cognition...
February 14, 2019: Consciousness and Cognition
Camille Cronin, Caroline Hawthorne
BACKGROUND: Non-traditional students entering nursing programmes at university often experience difficulties with the academic literacy requirements of their courses, in particular academic and reflective writing. Levels of student anxiety may also be affected by other issues including the pressures of managing work, family and study commitments. OBJECTIVES: To explore how classroom-based poetry writing activities might support students in developing their skills as student-writers and reflective practitioners...
February 6, 2019: Nurse Education Today
Stephanie Melillo, Philipp Gunz, Hélène Coqueugniot, Stefan Reske, Jean-Jacques Hublin
OBJECTIVES: Purported evolutionary shifts in shoulder structure have been linked to changes in hominin behavior and adaptation. Researchers use clavicle morphology to infer these shifts. However, there is a lack of empirical data underlying such predictive relationships. This study investigates how clavicle morphology affects articulated shoulder girdle and upper thorax configuration in humans. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Landmarks and scalar measurements on the clavicle, scapula, and ribs 1-3 were collected from three-dimensional computed tomographic scans of living humans...
February 16, 2019: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
Robert A Kaufmann, Jennifer L D'Auria, Johannes Schneppendahl
Total elbow arthroplasty (TEA) has lower revision-free survivorship than other major joint replacement. Despite this, elbow replacement has remained popular. Surgical technique for TEA destabilizes the elbow by removing the medial and lateral collateral ligaments and, frequently, the radiocapitellar articulation. Current semiconstrained implants aim to allow for physiological varus and valgus motion by employing a sloppy hinge; however, over time, these designs fail owing to nonanatomic force transmission. Nonanatomic force transmission results from ligament release, force transmission primarily to the humeral and ulnar shafts, and radial head resection...
February 12, 2019: Journal of Hand Surgery
Kaela Schill, Susana Caxaj
BACKGROUND: There is little scholarship on culturally safe approaches to palliative care, especially for rural Indigenous clients. Thus, it is important to articulate how cultural safety can be enacted to support rural Indigenous Peoples and communities at end of life. We sought to identify strategies described in existing literature that have potential to deepen our understanding of culturally safe approaches to palliative care within rural and small-town settings in Canada. METHODS: We searched for peer-reviewed and grey literature about Indigenous palliative care in rural and small-town settings in Canada, United States, New Zealand, and Australia...
February 14, 2019: BMC Palliative Care
Massimiliano Merola, Saverio Affatato
Replacement surgery of hip joint consists of the substitution of the joint with an implant able to recreate the articulation functionality. This article aims to review the current state of the art of the biomaterials used for hip implants. Hip implants can be realized with different combination of materials, such as metals, ceramics and polymers. In this review, we analyze, from international literature, the specific characteristics required for biomaterials used in hip joint arthroplasty, i.e., being biocompatible, resisting heavy stress, opposing low frictional forces to sliding and having a low wear rate...
February 5, 2019: Materials
Yong Ahn, Han Joong Keum, Sang-Gu Lee, Sheen-Woo Lee
OBJECTIVE: The clinical application of endoscopic technique for lumbar lateral recess stenosis (LRS) is still challenging. This study aimed to describe a transforaminal endoscopic decompression (TED) technique for LRS and to demonstrate its clinical results. METHODS: Two-year follow-up data were collected from 45 consecutive patients who underwent TED for LRS. Full-scale endoscopic decompression can be performed in the dorsal and ventral aspects of the lateral recess with combined partial pediculectomy using an articulating bone burr and endoscopic instruments...
February 11, 2019: World Neurosurgery
Guo Yu, Yaochu Jin, Markus Olhofer
In multiobjective optimization, it is nontrivial for decision makers to articulate preferences without a priori knowledge, which is particularly true when the number of objectives becomes large. Depending on the shape of the Pareto front, optimal solutions such as knee points may be of interest. Although several multi- and many-objective optimization test suites have been proposed, little work has been reported focusing on designing multiobjective problems whose Pareto front contains complex knee regions. Likewise, few performance indicators dedicated to evaluate an algorithm's ability of accurately locating all knee points in high-dimensional objective space have been suggested...
February 11, 2019: IEEE Transactions on Cybernetics
Alison H Norris, Nisha Rao, Sarah Huber-Krum, Sarah Garver, Elly Chemey, Abigail Norris Turner
Poverty has widespread impacts on health. In dealing with resource scarcity, individuals' thoughts are narrowed to address immediate resource limitations, thus crowding out other information, a phenomenon called the scarcity mindset. To assess for indication of a scarcity mindset in sexual and reproductive decision making in rural Malawi, a setting with extreme resource scarcity, we collected qualitative data in the form of eight focus group discussions and 28 semi-structured, in-depth interviews with women and men of varying ages and marital status...
February 14, 2019: Culture, Health & Sexuality
Lorraine M McKelvey, Jennifer E Saccente, Taren M Swindle
BACKGROUND: The Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACEs) study articulated the negative effects of childhood trauma on adult weight and health. The purpose of the current study is to examine the associations between ACEs in infancy and toddlerhood and obesity and related health indicators in middle childhood. METHODS: We used data collected from a sample of low-income families enrolled in the national evaluation of Early Head Start (EHS). Data come from 1335 demographically diverse families collected at or near children's ages 1, 2, 3, and 11...
February 14, 2019: Childhood Obesity
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