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Abhishek Ghosh, Debasish Basu, Niranjan Khandelwal, Chirag Kamal Ahuja, Subodh Bn, Devender Rana
BACKGROUND: Drug addiction is linked with micro-structural changes in the fronto-striatal white matter (WM) tracts. However, little is known regarding causality (risk factor for subsequent drug use vs. effect of chronic drug use) and reversibility of such changes. METHODS: In this study, 30-direction diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) was used to examine WM integrity of selected fronto-striatal circuitries: the orbito-frontal circuit (OFC), anterior cingulate (AC), inferior frontal circuit (IFC), and genu of corpus callosum (CC-G)...
February 13, 2019: Asian Journal of Psychiatry
Xueqiu Zhao, Zhengjun Du, Jingjing Chen, Rongfu Wang, Yu Zhou, Ren Lai
Several studies indicated that Odorrana grahami (O. grahami) skin contains abundant antimicrobial peptides, and the skin was recognized as hostile habitat for microorganisms. In this study, the microbial community was evaluated by 16S rRNA gene sequencing, and two associated bacterial isolates were obtained and characterized from the skin of O. grahami. Sixteen bacterial genera were identified from the O. grahami skin by uncultured clone sequences. The dominant groups were Comamonas, Bacillus and Morganella, and the genus Comamonas was the most abundant group (41...
February 19, 2019: Current Microbiology
Virginie Tardif, Roshell Muir, Rafael Cubas, Marita Chakhtoura, Peter Wilkinson, Talibah Metcalf, Rana Herro, Elias K Haddad
Follicular helper T cells (Tfh) play critical roles instructing, and initiating T-cell dependent antibody responses. The underlying mechanisms that enhance their function is therefore critical for vaccine development. Here we apply gene array analysis identifying adenosine deaminase (ADA) as a key molecule that delineates a human Tfh helper program in proliferating circulating Tfh (cTfh) cells and Germinal Centers Tfh (GC-Tfh). ADA-1 expression and enzymatic activity are increased in efficient cTfh2-17/GC-Tfh cells...
February 18, 2019: Nature Communications
Ashutosh Kumar Arya, Sanjay Kumar Bhadada, Soham Mukherjee, Priyanka Singh, Surinder S Rana, Divya Dahiya, Ashwani Sood, Uma Nahar Saikia, Mahesh Prakash, Deepak Kumar Bhasin, Arunanshu Behera, Rama Walia, Anil Bhansali
Background & objectives: The frequency and predictors of pancreatitis in primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) are not well understood. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the frequency of pancreatitis in patients with PHPT and its association with clinical and biochemical parameters of the disease. Methods: In this retrospective study all consecutive patients with PHPT registered in the PHPT registry ( from the year 2004 to 2013 were included...
December 2018: Indian Journal of Medical Research
Max R Lambert, Tien Tran, Andrzej Kilian, Tariq Ezaz, David K Skelly
In vertebrates, sex determination occurs along a continuum from strictly genotypic (GSD), where sex is entirely guided by genes, to strictly environmental (ESD), where rearing conditions, like temperature, determine phenotypic sex. Along this continuum are taxa which have combined genetic and environmental contributions to sex determination (GSD + EE), where some individuals experience environmental effects which cause them to sex reverse and develop their phenotypic sex opposite their genotypic sex. Amphibians are often assumed to be strictly GSD with sex reversal typically considered abnormal...
2019: PeerJ
Harpreet Singh, Prashant Singh Rana, Urvinder Singh
Prediction of drug synergy score is an ill-posed problem. It plays an efficient role in the medical field for inhibiting specific cancer agents. An efficient regression-based machine learning technique has an ability to minimise the drug synergy prediction errors. Therefore, in this study, an efficient machine learning technique for drug synergy prediction technique is designed by using ensemble based differential evolution (DE) for optimising the support vector machine (SVM). Because the tuning of the attributes of SVM kernel regulates the prediction precision...
February 2019: IET Systems Biology
Aditi MohanKrishnan, Hardik Patel, Vishakha Bhurani, Rajesh Parmar, Naveen Yadav, Niyam Dave, Sonal Rana, Somnath Gupta, Jagdish Madariya, Prerak Vyas, Sarat Kumar Dalai
Inducing long-lived memory T cells by sub-unit vaccines has been a challenge. Subunit vaccines containing single immunogenic target antigen from a given pathogen have been designed with the presumption of mimicking the condition associated with natural infection, but fail to induce quality memory responses. In this study, we have included non-target antigens with vaccine candidate, OVA, in the inoculum containing TLR ligands to suffice the minimal condition of pathogen to provoke immune response. We found that inclusion of immunogenic HEL (hen egg lysozyme) or poorly immunogenic MBP (Myelin Basic protein) non-target antigen enhances the OVA specific CD4 T cell responses...
November 19, 2018: Cellular Immunology
Julie Kelman, Lindsay R Pool, Penny Gordon-Larsen, J Jeffrey Carr, James G Terry, Jamal S Rana, Kiarri N Kershaw
Background While prior studies have linked the neighborhood environment and development of subclinical atherosclerosis, it is unknown whether living in neighborhoods with greater availability of "unhealthy" food outlets (fast-food chain restaurants and convenience stores) is associated with risk of developing coronary artery calcification ( CAC ). Methods and Results We included 2706 CARDIA study (Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults) participants who underwent CAC measurement during follow-up years 15 (2000-2001), 20 (2005-2006), and 25 (2010-2011)...
February 19, 2019: Journal of the American Heart Association
Jennifer M Reingle Gonzalez, Rachel E Rana, Katelyn K Jetelina, Madeline H Roberts
The aim of this article was to describe the implementation and qualitative outcomes of peer reentry specialists ("peers") on housing attainment, mental health, and substance use problems, and increased life domain functioning. One-on-one interviews were conducted with peers and clients to understand the program implementation, peer experiences, and progress toward target outcomes. Data were iteratively coded using inductive thematic identification and data reduction. Results suggest that peers' lived experiences were useful in building rapport with clients...
February 17, 2019: International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology
M J Rana, A Gautam, S Goli, Uttamacharya, T Reja, P Nanda, N Datta, R Verma
OBJECTIVES: In an effort to provide recommendation for maximizing synergy between maternal, infant, and young children's nutrition and family planning in India, this study makes a comprehensive assessment of the effects of the planning of births in terms of timing, spacing and limiting childbearing on maternal and child health outcomes. STUDY DESIGN: This study used the latest National Family Health Survey data of India that is globally known as the Demographic and Health Survey...
February 14, 2019: Public Health
Tanmay Majumdar, Shagun Sharma, Manmohan Kumar, Md Arafat Hussain, Namita Chauhan, Inderjeet Kalia, Amit Kumar Sahu, Vipin Singh Rana, Ruchi Bharti, Arun Kumar Haldar, Agam P Singh, Shibnath Mazumder
Recent studies have documented the diverse role of host immunity in infection by the protozoan parasite, Toxoplasma gondii. However, the contribution of the β-catenin pathway in this process has not been explored. Here, we show that AKT-mediated phosphorylated β-catenin supports T. gondii multiplication which is arrested in the deficiency of its phosphorylation domain at S552 position. The β-catenin-TCF4 protein complex binds to the promoter region of IRF3 gene and initiates its transcription, which was also abrogated in β-catenin knockout cells...
February 15, 2019: Cell Death & Disease
Rachel M Goodman, Joseph A Tyler, Dakota M Reinartz, Amber N Wright
Ranaviruses and the fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis are globally important emerging infectious diseases of amphibians. Amphibians on Oahu, the Hawaiian Island with the greatest potential for disease introduction through the movement of goods and people, have never been surveyed for ranaviruses or B. dendrobatidis. We surveyed all five species of frogs on Oahu, Hawaii for these pathogens. Of 325 individuals sampled from six sites, none were positive for ranavirus. However, we found B. dendrobatidis in a total of four individuals of three species, the cane toad ( Bufo marinus), the American bullfrog ( Rana catesbeiana), and the greenhouse frog ( Eleutherodactylus planirostris), but not in the green and black poison dart frog ( Dendrobates auratus) or the Japanese wrinkled frog ( Rana rugosa)...
February 15, 2019: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
Patricia Houston, Edwin Powell, Javed Khan, Shirin Sultana, John Kwagyan, Michael Kharfen, Sohail Rana
Stigma has negatively influenced the lives of people living with HIV since the beginning of the epidemic. It affects every facet of their lives and can cause mental health problems, loss of human rights, and barriers to care. Studies in developing countries have shown a high prevalence of HIV stigma among health care workers. Few studies have been conducted in the United States. We used a validated instrument to survey 330 health care workers in Washington, DC, a high HIV prevalence area. The goal was to obtain data to assess the severity of the problem...
February 13, 2019: Journal of the Association of Nurses in AIDS Care: JANAC
Bushra Rana, Shaun Robinson, Rajeevan Francis, Mark Toshner, Martin J Swaans, Sharad Agarwal, Ravi De Silva, Amer A Rana, Petros Nihoyannopoulos
Tricuspid regurgitation natural history and treatment remain poorly understood. Right ventricular function is a key factor in determining prognosis, timing for intervention and longer-term outcome. The right ventricle is a thin-walled chamber with a predominance of longitudinal fibres and a shared ventricular septum. In health, the low-pressure pulmonary circulation results in a highly compliant RV well equipped to respond to changes in preload but sensitive to even small alterations in afterload. In the first of two articles, discussion focuses on key principles of ventricular function assessment and the importance of right ventricular chamber size, volumes and ejection fraction, particularly in risk stratification in tricuspid regurgitation...
February 1, 2019: Echo Research and Practice
Anna E Savage, Carly R Muletz-Wolz, Evan H Campbell Grant, Robert C Fleischer, Kevin P Mulder
Infectious diseases are causing catastrophic losses to global biodiversity. Iridoviruses in the genus Ranavirus are among the leading causes of amphibian disease-related mortality. Polymorphisms in major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes are significantly associated with variation in amphibian pathogen susceptibility. MHC genes encode two classes of polymorphic cell-surface molecules that can recognize and bind to diverse pathogen peptides. While MHC class I genes are the classic mediators of viral-acquired immunity, larval amphibians do not express them...
February 13, 2019: Immunogenetics
Monis J Ahmed, Rasheeqa Mahmood, Roshane S Rana, Muhammad T Pirzada, Jahanzaib Haider, Sheeraz S Siddiqui, Shams N Alam
Background Gallstone disease is a common surgical entity worldwide and accounts for a major portion of hospital admissions and surgeries. Metabolic syndrome is diagnosed when three of the following medical conditions are positive: central obesity, high blood pressure, increased fasting glucose levels, low high-density lipoprotein (HDL) levels and high serum triglycerides. Objective To compare the frequency of metabolic syndrome in patients with uncomplicated gallstone disease and complicated gallstone disease...
November 30, 2018: Curēus
A Z Chowdhury, M H Ali, M A Faisal, I K Kundu, K N Arifeen, C I Mahmood, M M Rana, J H Buyan
Anterior cruciate ligament injury is one of the commonest sports injuries, which often markedly reduces activity and the quality of life. The autologous hamstring double bundle graft and single bundle graft are commonly used for anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. The choice of graft material for ACL reconstruction is believed to play a major role in the outcome but still there are controversies about the graft selection for primary ACL reconstruction. The aim of this study was to compare the clinical and functional outcome of autologous double bundle (DB) hamstring graft and single bundle (SB) hamstring graft reconstruction for the ACL injury...
January 2019: Mymensingh Medical Journal: MMJ
Ornellie Bernadin, Fouzia Amirache, Anais Girard-Gagnepain, Ranjita Devi Moirangthem, Camille Lévy, Kuiying Ma, Caroline Costa, Didier Nègre, Christian Reimann, David Fenard, Agata Cieslak, Vahid Asnafi, Hanem Sadek, Rana Mhaidly, Marina Cavazzana, Chantal Lagresle-Peyrou, François-Loïc Cosset, Isabelle André, Els Verhoeyen
T cells represent a valuable tool for treating cancers and infectious and inherited diseases; however, they are mainly short-lived in vivo. T-cell therapies would strongly benefit from gene transfer into long-lived persisting naive T cells or T-cell progenitors. Here we demonstrate that baboon envelope glycoprotein pseudotyped lentiviral vectors (BaEV-LVs) far outperformed other LV pseudotypes for transduction of naive adult and fetal interleukin-7-stimulated T cells. Remarkably, BaEV-LVs efficiently transduced thymocytes and T-cell progenitors generated by culture of CD34+ cells on Delta-like ligand 4 (Dll4)...
February 12, 2019: Blood Advances
Mohamed F Jalloh, Mohammad B Jalloh, Alison Albert, Brent Wolff, Amy Callis, Aparna Ramakrishnan, Emily Cramer, Paul Sengeh, Samuel Abu Pratt, Lansana Conteh, Rana Hajjeh, Rebecca Bunnell, John T Redd, Anna Mia Ekström, Helena Nordenstedt
INTRODUCTION: Experimental Ebola vaccines were introduced during the 2014-2015 Ebola outbreak in West Africa. Planning for the Sierra Leone Trial to Introduce a Vaccine against Ebola (STRIVE) was underway in late 2014. We examined hypothetical acceptability and perceptions of experimental Ebola vaccines among health care workers (HCWs), frontline workers, and the general public to guide ethical communication of risks and benefits of any experimental Ebola vaccine. METHODS: Between December 2014 and January 2015, we conducted in-depth interviews with public health leaders (N = 31), focus groups with HCWs and frontline workers (N = 20), and focus groups with members of the general public (N = 15) in Western Area Urban, Western Area Rural, Port Loko, Bombali, and Tonkolili districts...
February 9, 2019: Vaccine
Afnan Neyas, Rana Bajaba, Rahaf AlThomali, Rahaf Alturkistani, Baraah AlSawaf, Weaam Alrefai, Lujain Hefni, Lamees Aldoobie, Sherif Desoky, Jameela Kari, Osama Y Safdar
OBJECTIVE: The aim was to establish the reliability of the SWRD score as a predictor of both renal and bladder outcomes in posterior urethral valves. This retrospective study included 67 patients with PUVs at King Abdul-Aziz University Hospital. The score was calculated from voiding cystourethrogram before and after the relief of obstruction, and estimated glomerular filtration rates (eGFRs) were calculated as well. RESULTS: Based on Spearman correlations, both baseline eGFRs and SWRD scores can be possible predictors of long-term renal outcomes, as a significant positive correlation between the baseline eGFRs and the last eGFRs was found (p = 0...
February 12, 2019: BMC Research Notes
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