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Cognition Sleep Insomnia Osa

Bjørn Bjorvatn, Thomas Berge, Sverre Lehmann, Ståle Pallesen, Ingvild W Saxvig
Objective: To compare the effects of a self-help book for insomnia to that of sleep hygiene advice in a randomized controlled trial with follow-up after about 3 months among patients who were diagnosed with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and comorbid chronic insomnia, and who were concurrently initiating treatment with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP). Methods: In all, 164 patients were included. OSA was diagnosed and categorized based on a standard respiratory polygraphic sleep study using a type 3 portable monitor...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Peter J Colvonen, Laura D Straus, Carl Stepnowsky, Michael J McCarthy, Lizabeth A Goldstein, Sonya B Norman
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Comorbidity of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and insomnia, nightmares, and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is high. We review recent research on psychotherapeutic and pharmacological interventions for sleep disorders in PTSD. RECENT FINDINGS: PTSD treatments decrease PTSD severity and nightmare frequency, but do not resolve OSA or insomnia. Research on whether insomnia hinders PTSD treatment shows mixed results; untreated OSA does interfere with PTSD treatment...
June 21, 2018: Current Psychiatry Reports
Ali A El-Solh, Usman Riaz, Jasmine Roberts
A growing body of evidence supports a bidirectional relationship between posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and sleep disturbances. Fragmented sleep induced by sleep-related breathing disorders, insomnia, and nightmares impacts recovery and treatment outcomes and worsens PTSD symptoms. Despite recent attention, management of these disorders has been unrewarding in the setting of PTSD. This review summarizes the evidence for empirically supported treatments of these sleep ailments, including psychotherapeutic and pharmacologic interventions, as it relates to PTSD...
August 2018: Chest
Maria E Pushpanathan, Andrea M Loftus, Natalie Gasson, Meghan G Thomas, Caitlin F Timms, Michelle Olaithe, Romola S Bucks
Many studies have sought to describe the relationship between sleep disturbance and cognition in Parkinson's disease (PD). The Parkinson's Disease Sleep Scale (PDSS) and its variants (the Parkinson's disease Sleep Scale-Revised; PDSS-R, and the Parkinson's Disease Sleep Scale-2; PDSS-2) quantify a range of symptoms impacting sleep in only 15 items. However, data from these scales may be problematic as included items have considerable conceptual breadth, and there may be overlap in the constructs assessed. Multidimensional measurement models, accounting for the tendency for items to measure multiple constructs, may be useful more accurately to model variance than traditional confirmatory factor analysis...
2018: PloS One
Carlos Alberto Nigro, Eduardo Dibur, Eduardo Borsini, Silvana Malnis, Glenda Ernst, Ignacio Bledel, Sergio González, Anabella Arce, Facundo Nogueira
BACKGROUND: It has been reported that the clinical expression of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) may differ in women and men. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of gender on reported OSA-related symptoms in a large clinical population of patients. METHODS: The database from the sleep laboratory of a tertiary care center was examined. Adult patients who had undergone a diagnostic polysomnography and completed the Berlin questionnaire, a sleep questionnaire, and the Epworth sleepiness scale were selected...
September 2018: Sleep & Breathing, Schlaf & Atmung
Alexander Sweetman, Leon Lack, Sky Lambert, Michael Gradisar, Jodie Harris
AIMS: Comorbid insomnia and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) represents a highly prevalent and debilitating condition; however, physicians and researchers are still uncertain about the most effective treatment approach. Several research groups have suggested that these patients should initially receive treatment for their insomnia before the sleep apnea is targeted. The current study aims to determine whether Cognitive and Behavioral Therapy for Insomnia (CBT-i) can effectively treat insomnia in patients with comorbid OSA and whether its effectiveness is impaired by the presence of OSA...
November 2017: Sleep Medicine
Xiao Tan, Lieve van Egmond, Colin D Chapman, Jonathan Cedernaes, Christian Benedict
Insomnia and obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) are more prevalent in patients with type 2 diabetes than in the general population. Both insomnia and OSA have been linked to cardiometabolic alterations (eg, hypertension, increased activity of the sympathetic nervous system, and systemic insulin resistance) that can exacerbate the pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes. Improvement of sleep in patients with diabetes could therefore aid the treatment of diabetes. To help health practitioners choose the best clinical tool to improve their patients' sleep without detrimentally affecting glucose regulation, this Review critically analyses the effects of common treatments for insomnia and OSA on both sleep and glucose metabolism in patients with type 2 diabetes...
January 2018: Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology
Michelle Olaithe, Romola S Bucks, David R Hillman, Peter R Eastwood
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a nocturnal breathing disorder that is associated with cognitive impairment. The primary determinants of cognitive deficits in OSA are thought to be sleep disruption and blood gas abnormalities. Cognitive impairment is also seen in other disorders that are characterised primarily by sleep disturbance (e.g., sleep restriction/deprivation, insomnia) or hypoxia/hypercarbia (e.g., chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)). Assessment of the cognitive deficits observed in these other disorders could help better define the mechanisms underlying cognitive deficits in OSA...
April 2018: Sleep Medicine Reviews
Laura Palagini, Mauro Mauri, Tommaso Banfi, Irene Mazzei, Alessia Gronchi, Enrica Bonanni, Michelangelo Maestri, Dieter Riemann, Colleen E Carney, Liliana Dell'Osso
Night-time sleep related cognitions have been shown to play a perpetuating role in insomnia. According to the cognitive model of insomnia day time cognitions (i.e. worry, rumination, etc.) may also contribute to it. The aim of this study was to investigate the possible role of daytime sleep-related rumination in Insomnia Disorder (n= 55, mean age 49.7±16.7 years), Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome (OSAS) (n=33, mean age 58.1±10.2 years) and healthy subjects (n=33, mean age 49.8±13.9), using a set of sleep related variables which included the Daytime Insomnia Symptom Response Scale (DISRS), the Dysfunctional Beliefs about Sleep Scale (DBAS), the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and the Insomnia Severity Index (ISI)...
June 2015: Archives Italiennes de Biologie
Megan R Crawford, Arlener D Turner, James K Wyatt, Louis F Fogg, Jason C Ong
Chronic insomnia disorder is a prevalent condition and a significant proportion of these individuals also have obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). These two sleep disorders have distinct pathophysiology and are managed with different treatment approaches. High comorbidity rates have been a catalyst for emerging studies examining multidisciplinary treatment for OSA comorbid with insomnia disorder. In this article, we describe a randomized clinical trial of cognitive behavioral treatment for insomnia (CBT-I) and positive airway pressure (PAP) for OSA...
March 2016: Contemporary Clinical Trials
Jason C Ong, Megan R Crawford, Allison Kong, Margaret Park, Jamie A Cvengros, M Isabel Crisostomo, Ewa I Alexander, James K Wyatt
The purpose of this study was to examine the process of care in an interdisciplinary sleep clinic for patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and comorbid insomnia. A mixed-methods approach was used to examine clinical and patient-centered measures for 34 patients who received positive-airway pressure for OSA or cognitive-behavior therapy for insomnia. The results revealed baseline-to-follow-up improvements on several self-reported sleep parameters and measures of daytime functioning. Qualitative analyses from patient interviews revealed three themes: conceptual distinctions about each sleep disorder, importance of treating both sleep disorders, and preferences with regard to the sequence of treatment...
May 2017: Behavioral Sleep Medicine
Sally Bailes, Dorrie Rizzo, Marc Baltzan, Roland Grad, Alan Pavilanis, Laura Creti, Catherine S Fichten, Eva Libman
The aims of this study were to examine the presence, type, and severity of insomnia complaints in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) patients and to assess the utility of the Sleep Symptom Checklist (SSC) for case identification in primary care. Participants were 88 OSA patients, 57 cognitive-behavioral therapy for insomnia (CBT-I) patients, and 14 healthy controls (Ctrl). Each completed a sleep questionnaire as well as the SSC, which includes insomnia, daytime functioning, psychological, and sleep disorder subscales...
July 2016: Behavioral Sleep Medicine
Elizabeth A Klingaman, Jessica Palmer-Bacon, Melanie E Bennett, Laura M Rowland
Up to 80 % of individuals with schizophrenia spectrum disorders experience sleep disturbances, which impact physical and mental health, as well as quality of life. In this paper, we review and integrate emerging literature, published between 2012 and 2014, regarding approaches to diagnosis and treatment of major sleep disorders for people with schizophrenia spectrum disorders, including insomnia, obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), circadian rhythm dysfunction, and restless legs syndrome (RLS). We advocate for (1) the need to evaluate the utility of nonpharmacological approaches in people with schizophrenia spectrum disorders; (2) documentation of guidelines to assist providers in clinically tailoring such interventions when their clients experience positive, negative, and/or cognitive symptoms; (3) research on the best ways providers can capitalize on clients' self-identified needs and motivation to engage in sleep treatments through shared decision making; and (4) the importance of investigating whether and how mental health and sleep treatment services should be better connected to facilitate access for people with schizophrenia spectrum disorders...
October 2015: Current Psychiatry Reports
Marie Bruyneel
Sleep deteriorates with age. The menopause is often a turning point for women's sleep, as complaints of insomnia increase significantly thereafter. Insomnia can occur as a secondary disorder to hot flashes, mood disorders, medical conditions, psychosocial factors, underlying intrinsic sleep disorders, such as obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) or restless legs syndrome (RLS), or it can be a primary disorder. Since unrecognized OSA can have dramatic health-related consequences, menopausal women complaining of persisting sleep disturbances suggesting primary insomnia or intrinsic sleep disorders should be referred to a sleep specialist for a comprehensive sleep assessment...
July 2015: Maturitas
Vivien C Abad, Christian Guilleminault
Sleep and wakefulness are regulated by complex brain circuits located in the brain stem, thalamus, subthalamus, hypothalamus, basal forebrain, and cerebral cortex. Wakefulness and NREM and REM sleep are modulated by the interactions between neurotransmitters that promote arousal and neurotransmitters that promote sleep. Various lines of evidence suggest that sleep disorders may negatively affect neuronal plasticity and cognitive function. Pharmacological treatments may alleviate these effects but may also have adverse side effects by themselves...
2015: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
Marcus C Ng, Matt T Bianchi
Being able to confidently ascertain the amount of sleep is critical to the clinical management of epilepsy. Sleep misperception is the phenomenon in which an individual underestimates the amount of time spent asleep. Little is known about sleep misperception in patients with epilepsy. We conducted retrospective chart reviews on individuals who self-identified as having epilepsy in a questionnaire database of patients undergoing polysomnography (PSG) at the Massachusetts General Hospital Sleep Laboratory. Our metric for sleep misperception was the difference between subjective and objective sleep latency (S-O SL) and subjective and objective total sleep time (S-O TST) with subjective values based on questionnaire and objective values based on PSG...
July 2014: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
Diana M Taibi
Up to 70% of persons living with HIV (PLWH) experience sleep disturbances. Insomnia and obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) are common disorders seen in the primary care of PLWH. This paper reviews the current evidence and practice recommendations for treating these conditions. Insomnia is evaluated by clinical interview, questionnaires, and sleep diaries. The recommended first-line treatment is cognitive-behavioral therapy for insomnia (CBT-I) delivered by a trained therapist. Certain sedative medications may be useful, but over-the-counter treatments (particularly those containing antihistamines) are not recommended...
January 2013: Journal of the Association of Nurses in AIDS Care: JANAC
D M Wallace, S S Vargas, S J Schwartz, M S Aloia, S Shafazand
PURPOSE: There are little existing data on continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) adherence in US Hispanic veterans with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Our aim was to describe determinants of 1-month adherence in a sleep clinic cohort of South Florida Hispanic veterans. METHODS: Hispanic veterans referred to the Miami VA sleep clinic were recruited and completed questionnaires about sleep apnea risk, sleep quality, insomnia symptoms, sleepiness, depression/anxiety, acculturation, personality traits, and cognitions about OSA and CPAP...
March 2013: Sleep & Breathing, Schlaf & Atmung
Mark Eric Dyken, Adel K Afifi, Deborah C Lin-Dyken
There is a strong association between sleep-related problems and neurologic diseases. Neurologic diseases of the CNS can directly cause sleep problems when sleep-wake mechanisms associated with the ascending reticular activating system are involved. The major sleep disorders associated with neurologic problems are outlined in the International Classification of Sleep Disorders, 2nd edition, as hypersomnias of central origin, sleep-related breathing disorders, the insomnias, circadian rhythm sleep disorders, sleep-related movement disorders, parasomnias, and sleep-related epilepsy...
February 2012: Chest
Fredric Jaffe, Dimitri Markov, Karl Doghramji
Sleep disorders are becoming more prevalent. There is an overlap of symptoms related to obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) and many psychiatric conditions. Complaints of excessive sleepiness, insomnia, cognitive dysfunction, and depressive symptoms can be related to both disease states. Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome is characterized by repetitive disruption of sleep by cessation of breathing and was first described in the 19th century by bedside observation during sleep. Physicians observed this cessation of breathing while the patient slept and postulated that these episodes were responsible for subsequent complaints of sleepiness...
July 2006: Psychiatry
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