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Clinical optics

Samaresh Sau, Alex Petrovici, Hashem O Alsaab, Ketki Bhise, Arun K Iyer
Targeting immune checkpoint molecules such as programmed death ligand-1 (PDL1) is an emerging strategy for anti-cancer therapy. However, transient expression of PDL1 and difficulty in tumor stroma penetration has limited the utility of anti-PDL1 therapy. To overcome these limitations, we report a new conjugate between the clinically approved PDL1 antibody (PDL1 AB) and drug Doxorubicin (Dox), named PDL1-Dox. We conjugated PDL1-Dox through a hydrazone linker containing a polyethylene glycol (PEG) spacer, which allows it to dissociate in a tumor environment and improves solubility...
February 16, 2019: Cancers
Orna Geyer, Nurit Mathalone, Alvit Wolf, Alina Melamud
"Childhood glaucoma" is a heterogenic group of diseases, characterized by elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) associated with optic-disc damage and other ocular comorbidities. Diagnosis requires two or more of the following: elevated IOP, optic nerve damage, enlarged cornea or Descemet's membrane ruptures, enlarged eye, high myopia and visual field defects. Childhood glaucoma is classified as primary if it occurs as an isolated ocular disease, and secondary, when the disease occurs along with other ocular anomalies or systemic diseases such as Neurofibromatosis and Sturge-Weber, or with acquired conditions such as uveitis complications, ocular trauma, cataract surgery, as well as from systemic and ocular steroid use...
February 2019: Harefuah
Eyal Aloni, Majd Arow, Moris Harstein, Zina Almer, Galina Sholohov
Fulminant intracranial hypertension is a rare, acute presentation of idiopathic intracranial hypertension with rapid and devastating visual loss that can lead to blindness. As vision deteriorates quickly and often irreversibly, prevention of further visual loss requires emergent treatment to decrease intracranial pressure. The case presented is that of an 18 years old male with new symptoms of headaches and visual obscurations that had rapid progressive visual loss with findings of severe bilateral swollen discs...
February 2019: Harefuah
I Knaup, Y Wagner, J Wego, U Fritz, A Jäger, M Wolf
PURPOSE: To evaluate the impact of a novel computer-fabricated lingual nitinol retainer compared to a conventional lingual flexible spiral wire twistflex retainer on oral health. METHODS: The study was based on a retrospective controlled clinical study with pilot character, an in vitro investigation of material-dependent biofilm formation and an analysis of biofilm formation after intraoral incubation. Sixty-one patients with completed fixed orthodontic treatment and retention phase for at least 6 months with twistflex retainers (group 1, n = 31) or computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) nitinol retainers (group 2, n = 30) were included and examined regarding plaque index (PI), gingival index (GI), probing depths, bleeding on probing (BOP) and marginal recessions (MR)...
February 18, 2019: Journal of Orofacial Orthopedics, Fortschritte der Kieferorthopädie
Zahra Turani, Emad Fatemizadeh, Tatiana Blumetti, Steven Daveluy, Ana Flavia Moraes, Wei Chen, Darius Mehregan, Peter E Andersen, Mohammadreza Nasiriavanaki
The current gold standard for the clinical diagnosis of melanoma is excisional biopsy and histopathologic analysis. Approximately 15-30 benign lesions are biopsied to diagnose each melanoma. Additionally, biopsies are invasive and result in pain, anxiety, scarring and disfigurement of patients which can add an additional burden to the health care system. Among several imaging techniques developed to enhance melanoma diagnosis, optical coherence tomography (OCT), with its high-resolution and intermediate penetration depth, can potentially provide required diagnostic information noninvasively...
February 18, 2019: Cancer Research
Qi Tian, Mengzhou Liu, Lingtong Min, Jiye An, Xudong Lu, Huilong Duan
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The quality of data is crucial for clinical registry studies as it impacts credibility. In the regular practice of most such studies, a vulnerability arises from researchers recording data on paper-based case report forms (CRFs) and further transcribing them onto registry databases. To ensure the quality of data, verifying data in the registry is necessary. However, traditional manual data verification methods are time-consuming, labor-intensive and of limited-effect...
January 31, 2019: Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine
Jane Macnaughton, Keziah Latham, Marta Vianya-Estopa
PURPOSE: To evaluate outcome measures of the Participation and Activity Inventory (PAI) in a sample of adults with acquired visual impairment entering vision rehabilitation. Both Priority Scores, indicating level of rehabilitative need, and Person Measures, indicating goal difficulty, were considered. METHODS: Participants were newly registered adults with visual impairment within Leicestershire, United Kingdom. The importance and difficulty of 48 goals of the PAI were assessed, as were demographic factors, clinical visual function (visual acuity, contrast sensitivity, reading function) and psychosocial function (adjustment to visual loss, depression, anxiety and fear of falling)...
March 2019: Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics: the Journal of the British College of Ophthalmic Opticians (Optometrists)
Matthew J Duggan, Jennifer Rose-Nussbaumer, Charles C Lin, Ariana Austin, Paula C Labadzinzki, Winston D Chamberlain
PURPOSE: To compare corneal higher-order aberrations (HOA) following ultrathin Descemet stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty (UT-DSAEK) and Descemet membrane endothelial keratoplasty (DMEK). DESIGN: Patient and outcome-masked, randomized controlled clinical trial. PARTICIPANTS: Patients with damaged or diseased endothelium from Fuchs endothelial dystrophy or pseudophakic bullous keratopathy who were considered good candidates for DMEK or UT-DSAEK...
February 15, 2019: Ophthalmology
Wen Di Lee, Kavya Devarajan, Jacqueline Chua, Leopold Schmetterer, Jodhbir S Mehta, Marcus Ang
Optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) is a rapid and non-invasive technique for imaging vasculature in the eye. As OCTA can produce high-resolution cross-sectional images and allow depth-resolved analysis for accurate localization of pathology of interest, it has become a promising method for anterior segment imaging. Furthermore, OCTA offers a more patient-friendly alternative to the conventional invasive dye-based fluorescent angiography. However, conventional OCTA systems are typically designed and optimized for the posterior segment of the eye, and thus using OCTA for anterior segment imaging can present several difficulties and limitations...
2019: Eye and Vision (London, England)
Bingyao Tan, Jacqueline Chua, Veluchamy Amutha Barathi, Mani Baskaran, Anita Chan, Emily Lin, Marcus Ang, Gerd Klose, Leopold Schmetterer
The choriocapillaris is a unique vascular plexus located posterior to the retinal pigment epithelium. In recent years, there is an increasing interest in the examination of the interrelationship between the choriocapillaris and eye diseases. We used several techniques to study choroidal perfusion, including laser Doppler flowmetry, laser speckle flowgraphy, and optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA), but with the latter no standardized algorithm for quantitative analysis has been provided. We analyzed different algorithms to quantify flow voids in non-human primates that can be easily implemented into clinical research...
January 1, 2019: Biomedical Optics Express
Ryan P McNabb, James Polans, Brenton Keller, Moseph Jackson-Atogi, Charlene L James, Robin R Vann, Joseph A Izatt, Anthony N Kuo
Current conventional clinical OCT systems image either only the anterior or the posterior eye during a single acquisition. This localized imaging limits conventional OCT's use for characterizing global ocular morphometry and biometry, which requires knowledge of spatial relationships across the entire eye. We developed a "whole eye" optical coherence tomography system that simultaneously acquires volumes with a wide field-of-view for both the anterior chamber (14 x 14 mm) and retina (55°) using a single source and detector...
January 1, 2019: Biomedical Optics Express
Brooke Krajancich, Andrea Curatolo, Qi Fang, Renate Zilkens, Benjamin F Dessauvagie, Christobel M Saunders, Brendan F Kennedy
Handheld imaging probes are needed to extend the clinical translation of optical elastography to in vivo applications, yet such probes have received little attention. In this paper, we present the first demonstration of optical palpation using a handheld probe. Optical palpation is a variant of optical elastography that uses three-dimensional optical coherence tomography (3D-OCT) to provide maps of stress at the tissue surface under static compression. Using this technique, stiff features present beneath the surface of turbid tissues are identified, providing mechanical contrast complementary to the optical contrast provided by OCT...
January 1, 2019: Biomedical Optics Express
Arash Dadkhah, Jun Zhou, Nusrat Yeasmin, Shuliang Jiao
Combining different contrast mechanisms to achieve simultaneous multimodal imaging is always desirable but is challenging due to the various optical and hardware requirements for different imaging systems. We developed a multimodal microscopic optical imaging system with the capability of providing comprehensive structural, functional and molecular information of living tissues. This imaging system integrated photoacoustic microscopy (PAM), optical coherence tomography (OCT), optical Doppler tomography (ODT) and confocal fluorescence microscopy in one platform...
January 1, 2019: Biomedical Optics Express
Sarah Walters, Christina Schwarz, Robin Sharma, Ethan A Rossi, William S Fischer, David A DiLoreto, Jennifer Strazzeri, Dasha Nelidova, Botond Roska, Jennifer J Hunter, David R Williams, William H Merigan
Progress is needed in developing animal models of photoreceptor degeneration and evaluating such models with longitudinal, noninvasive techniques. We employ confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopy, optical coherence tomography (OCT) and high-resolution retinal imaging to noninvasively observe the retina of non-human primates with induced photoreceptor degeneration. Photoreceptors were imaged at the single-cell scale in three modalities of adaptive optics scanning light ophthalmoscopy: traditional confocal reflectance, indicative of waveguiding; a non-confocal offset aperture technique visualizing scattered light; and two-photon excited fluorescence, the time-varying signal of which, at 730 nm excitation, is representative of visual cycle function...
January 1, 2019: Biomedical Optics Express
Justin V Migacz, Iwona Gorczynska, Mehdi Azimipour, Ravi Jonnal, Robert J Zawadzki, John S Werner
Angiographic imaging of the human eye with optical coherence tomography (OCT) is becoming an increasingly important tool in the scientific investigation and clinical management of several blinding diseases, including age-related macular degeneration and diabetic retinopathy. We have observed that OCT angiography (OCTA) of the human choriocapillaris and choroid with a 1.64 MHz A-scan rate swept-source laser yields higher contrast images as compared to a slower rate system operating at 100 kHz. This result is unexpected because signal sensitivity is reduced when acquisition rates are increased, and the incident illumination power is kept constant...
January 1, 2019: Biomedical Optics Express
Amy Elizabeth Valera, Nathan Taylor Nesbitt, Michelle Archibald, Michael J Naughton, Thomas C Chiles
Rapid diagnosis of infectious disease at the site of the patient is critical for preventing the escalation of an outbreak into an epidemic. Devices suited to point-of-care (POC) diagnosis of cholera must not only demonstrate clinical laboratory levels of sensitivity and specificity, but must do so in a portable and low-cost manner, with a simplistic readout. We report work towards an on-chip electrochemical immunosensor for the detection of cholera toxin subunit B (CTX), based on a dendritic gold architecture biofunctionalized via poly-(2-cyano-ethyl)pyrrole (PCEPy)...
February 18, 2019: ACS Sensors
Jiaming Liu, Chunying Chen, Yuliang Zhao
Graphdiyne is a new member of the family of carbon-based nanomaterials that possess two types of carbon atoms, sp- and sp2 -hybridized carbon atoms. As a novel 2D carbon-based nanomaterial with unique planar structure, such as uniformly distributed nanopores and large conjugated structure, graphdiyne has shown many fascinating properties in mechanics, electronics, and optics since it was first experimentally synthesized in 2010. Up to now, graphdiyne and its derivatives have been reported to be successfully applied in many areas, such as catalysis, energy, environment, and biomedicine, due to these excellent properties...
February 18, 2019: Advanced Materials
Javier Pascual-Prieto, Barbara Burgos-Blasco, Mario Ávila Sánchez-Torija, Jose Ignacio Fernández-Vigo, Pedro Arriola-Villalobos, Maria Aranzazu Barbero Pedraz, Julian García-Feijoo, Jose M Martínez-de-la-Casa
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the potential utility of perfusion density measurements to discriminate patients with arterial hypertension by cardiovascular risk category. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, one eye per subject was evaluated (N = 73). The study cohort was divided into three groups according to the clinical criteria established by the European Guidelines for Arterial Hypertension: 26 controls, 24 patients with low cardiovascular risk, and 23 patients with very high cardiovascular risk...
February 17, 2019: European Journal of Ophthalmology
Anas Bennis, Hicham El Otmani, Nada Benkirane, Ilham Harrizi, Bouchra El Moutawakil, Mohammed Abdoh Rafai, Ilham Slassi
BACKGROUND: Neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD) was suggested to be more frequent and have specific features among populations from Africa or North Africa. However, we could not find any large study about NMOSD in an African population in the medical literature. OBJECTIVES: To describe the characteristics of NMOSD in a Moroccan monocenter population. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A retrospective study was conducted. Patients fromJanuary 1999 to December 2015 fulfilling the 2015 International Consensus Criteria for NMOSD were included...
February 10, 2019: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
Paolo Castelnuovo, Alberto D Arosio, Federico Leone, Arianna Ravasio, Claudio Azzolini, Federico De Maria, Andrea Pistochini, Luca Volpi, Maurizio Bignami
BACKGROUNDS: Cryoprobe devices are used by ophthalmic and orbital surgeons for the extraction of fluid-filled intraorbital lesions. No series described cryo-dissection via an exclusive transnasal approach. The authors describe two cases of purely endoscopic transnasal removal of intraconal orbital hemangiomas with the aid of a dedicated cryoprobe. METHODS: All the transnasal endoscopic intraorbital procedures were collected and analyzed. The cases in which the intraorbital dissection was performed with the use of Optikon® Cryo-line probe were considered, analyzing clinical features, histology, size and location of the lesion, early and late complications, time of the surgical procedures and hospital stay...
February 13, 2019: World Neurosurgery
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