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Luis Quiel, Ilais Moreno Velásquez, Beatriz Gómez, Jorge Motta, Víctor Herrera-Ballesteros
BACKGROUND: The aims of this study were to determine the geographic and time variation of social determinants of health (SDH) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality in Panama from 2012 to 2016, and to identify which of the SDH has the strongest correlation with a socioeconomic index (SEI). METHODS: We conducted an ecological study obtaining mortality from the National Mortality Register and socioeconomic variables derived from the National Household Survey (NHS)...
February 15, 2019: BMC Public Health
Nicholas Williams, Karon MacLean, Ling Guan, Jean Paul Collet, Liisa Holsti
Optimizing neurodevelopment is a key goal of neonatal occupational therapy. In preterm infants, repeated procedural pain is associated with adverse effects on neurodevelopment long term. Calmer is a robot designed to reduce infant pain. The objective of this study was to examine the effects of Calmer on heart rate variability (HRV) during routine blood collection in preterm infants. In a randomized controlled pilot trial, 10 infants were assigned to either standard care ( n = 5, facilitated tucking [FT]) or Calmer treatment ( n = 5)...
February 15, 2019: OTJR: Occupation, Participation and Health
Pietro Cipresso, Desirée Colombo, Giuseppe Riva
The goal of this study was to provide reliable quantitative analyses of psycho-physiological measures during acute mental stress. Acute, time-limited stressors are used extensively as experimental stimuli in psychophysiological research. In particular, the Stroop Color Word Task and the Arithmetical Task have been widely used in several settings as effective mental stressors. We collected psychophysiological data on blood volume pulse, thoracic respiration, and skin conductance from 60 participants at rest and during stressful situations...
February 14, 2019: Sensors
Marike H F Deutz, Steven Woltering, Helen Vossen, Maja Deković, Anneloes L van Baar, Peter Prinzie
OBJECTIVE: High co-occurrence of externalizing and internalizing problems may underlie inconsistent findings regarding the relation between heart rate and psychopathology. In this study, heart rate measures are examined in relation to a general dysregulation profile, studied from both a variable- and person-centered approach. METHOD: The sample (N = 182) consisted of 8-12-year-old children referred for externalizing behaviors and typically-developing children (Mage = 9...
October 30, 2018: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
Olusola A Orimoloye, Mohammadhassan Mirbolouk, S M Iftekhar Uddin, Zeina A Dardari, Michael D Miedema, Mouaz H Al-Mallah, Joseph Yeboah, Ron Blankstein, Khurram Nasir, Michael J Blaha
Importance: The interplay of self-rated health (SRH), coronary artery calcium (CAC) scores, and cardiovascular risk is poorly described. Objectives: To assess the degree of correlation between SRH and CAC, to determine whether these measures are complementary for risk prediction, and to assess the incremental value of the addition of SRH to established risk tools. Design, Setting, and Participants: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) is a large population-based prospective cohort study of adults aged 45 to 84 years who were recruited from 6 US communities...
February 1, 2019: JAMA network open
Valentina Zeffiro, Gianfranco Sanson, Luigia Carboni, Anna Malatesta, Ercole Vellone, Rosaria Alvaro, Fabio D'Agostino
Chronic diseases require continuous healthcare that is not fully guaranteed by the Italian Health System which is more oriented towards acute care. In the Lazio region (city of Palombara Sabina), a Nursing-Led in-patient unit is present with the aim to care for patients affected by chronic diseases. The aim of this study was to describe the type of healthcare delivered by this unit. A descriptive-comparative design was used. All 290 patients admitted to the Nursing-Led Unit, during 2014 and 2015 participated in the study...
July 2018: Igiene e Sanità Pubblica
Ka Hou Christien Li, Francesca Anne White, Timothy Tipoe, Tong Liu, Martin Cs Wong, Aaron Jesuthasan, Adrian Baranchuk, Gary Tse, Bryan P Yan
BACKGROUND: Mobile phone apps capable of monitoring arrhythmias and heart rate (HR) are increasingly used for screening, diagnosis, and monitoring of HR and rhythm disorders such as atrial fibrillation (AF). These apps involve either the use of (1) photoplethysmographic recording or (2) a handheld external electrocardiographic recording device attached to the mobile phone or wristband. OBJECTIVE: This review seeks to explore the current state of mobile phone apps in cardiac rhythmology while highlighting shortcomings for further research...
February 15, 2019: JMIR MHealth and UHealth
Chuhui Chen, Weimin Wang, Wen Zhou, Jiewen Jin, Wei Chen, Dalong Zhu, Yan Bi
BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy (CAN) is a risk factor for arrhythmias and adverse cardiovascular events, but the relation between the severity of CAN progression and nocturnal arrhythmias needs to be furthermore clarified. The following study aims to evaluate the association between nocturnal arrhythmias and severity of CAN in patients with type 2 diabetes. METHODS: 219 type 2 diabetes patients were recruited from January 2017 to May 2018. Subjects were classified into no CAN (NCAN), early CAN (ECAN), definite CAN (DCAN) or advanced CAN (ACAN) according to cardiovascular autonomic reflex tests (CARTs)...
February 15, 2019: Journal of Diabetes
Obinna Onodugo, Ejikeme Arodiwe, Julius Okoye, Birinus Ezeala, Nkiru Onodugo, Ifeoma Ulasi, Chinwuba Ijoma
Background: Autonomic dysfunction (AD) has been recognized as an important contributor to the poor outcome in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. Several studies have reported abnormalities in heart rate variability (HRV) among these patients. Objectives: To determine the prevalence of Autonomic Dysfunction (AD) in pre-dialysis Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) patients in a tertiary hospital in South East Nigeria. Methods: A cross sectional study of eighty chronic kidney disease patients attending the renal unit out-patient in the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital (UNTH) Enugu was carried out...
December 2018: African Health Sciences
Elizabeth M Annoni, Dusty Van Helden, Yugene Guo, Brett Levac, Imad Libbus, Bruce H KenKnight, John W Osborn, Elena G Tolkacheva
Chronic hypertension (HTN) affects more than 1 billion people worldwide, and is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Despite decades of promising research, effective treatment of HTN remains challenging. This work investigates vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) as a novel, device-based therapy for HTN treatment, and specifically evaluates its effects on long-term survival and HTN-associated adverse effects. HTN was induced in Dahl salt-sensitive rats using a high-salt diet, and the rats were randomly divided into two groups: VNS ( n = 9) and Sham ( n = 8), which were implanted with functional or non-functional VNS stimulators, respectively...
2019: Frontiers in Physiology
Kelsey T Laird, Beatrix Krause, Cynthia Funes, Helen Lavretsky
In contrast to traditional perspectives of resilience as a stable, trait-like characteristic, resilience is now recognized as a multidimentional, dynamic capacity influenced by life-long interactions between internal and environmental resources. We review psychosocial and neurobiological factors associated with resilience to late-life depression (LLD). Recent research has identified both psychosocial characteristics associated with elevated LLD risk (e.g., insecure attachment, neuroticism) and psychosocial processes that may be useful intervention targets (e...
February 14, 2019: Translational Psychiatry
Hikaru Akizuki, Naoyuki Hashiguchi
BACKGROUND: Neurally mediated syncope (NMS) is a disorder of autonomic nervous system (ANS) regulation. Orthostatic stress is one of the most common causative factors seen in clinical practice. Analysis of heart rate variability (HRV) is a non-invasive method that is used to assess ANS regulation. In this study, we investigated the pathophysiology of NMS using HRV in our emergency department. METHODS: The subjects were 19 patients (age 25.8 ± 6.2 years old) who presented with NMS and 20 healthy individuals (age 26...
February 6, 2019: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
Chiara Nardin, Kaisa M. Maki-Petaja, Karen L. Miles, Yasmin, Barry J. McDonnell, John R. Cockcroft, Ian B. Wilkinson, Carmel M. McEniery
Blood pressure (BP) in young adults predicts BP in later life. We aimed to identify metabolic, hemodynamic, and autonomic characteristics associated with raised BP in young adults and whether these differ between males and females. Three thousand one hundred forty-five healthy subjects, aged 18 to 40 years, were grouped according to sex and BP category following the recent reclassification of BP as part of American Heart Association/American College of Cardiology 2017 guidelines. All individuals undertook a lifestyle and medical history questionnaire and detailed metabolic, hemodynamic, and autonomic assessments...
December 2018: Hypertension
Oxana Palesh, Caroline Scheiber, Shelli Kesler, Richard Gevirtz, Charles Heckler, Joseph J Guido, Michelle Janelsins, Mallory G Cases, Bingjie Tong, Jessica M Miller, Nick G Chrysson, Karen Mustian
OBJECTIVE: Nearly 80% of cancer patients struggle with insomnia, which is associated with decreased heart rate variability (HRV) and quality of life (QOL). The aim of this secondary analysis was to evaluate the possible effects of Brief Behavioral Therapy for Cancer-Related Insomnia (BBT-CI), delivered during chemotherapy visits, on QOL and HRV in patients with breast cancer (BC). METHOD: QOL and HRV data were obtained during a pilot clinical trial assessing the feasibility and effects of BBT-CI on insomnia...
March 2019: Health Psychology: Official Journal of the Division of Health Psychology, American Psychological Association
Lütfi Soylu, Oğuz Uğur Aydın, Mehmet Yıldız, Hacer Serdaroğlu, Murat Kurtoğlu, Sedat Karademir
Background/aim: Acute mesenteric ischemia (AMI), one of the gastrointestinal system complications, which occurs following cardiac surgery, is challenged in the literature with a diminished incidence of AMI by heart surgery without cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) or with pulsatile CPB. This study aims to compare the incidence and mortality rate of mesenteric ischemia in a series of consecutive patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) through on-pump and off-pump techniques...
February 11, 2019: Turkish Journal of Medical Sciences
Jan Biegus, Robert Zymliński, Piotr Gajewski, Mateusz Sokolski, Paweł Siwołowski, Justyna Sokolska, Katarzyna Swoboda, Maciej Banasiak, Waldemar Banasiak, Piotr Ponikowski
BACKGROUND: Although lactate is a well-established marker in intensive care, our understanding of its utility in acute heart failure (AHF) is modest and is based on studies with a single measurement of the marker. AIM: Our aim was to investigate whether persistent elevation of lactate during hospitalisation is related to a higher risk of adverse events. METHODS: We conducted a prospective study to assess AHF patients hospitalised in one cardiac centre...
February 14, 2019: Kardiologia Polska
Wayland Tseh, Hollie M Champion, Susanna Ek, Will R Frazier, Anna E Kinslow, Caroline W McClain, Tiago V Barreira
The primary aim of this investigation was to determine the ergogenic effect of neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) amongst twenty apparently healthy males during submaximal exercise. In Session 1, 20 participants (Age = 35.0 ± 15.0 yrs; Height = 179.9 ± 8.5 cm; Body Mass = 85.4 ± 12.0 kg) were familiarized with all equipment. Sessions 2-4 included the following randomized 5-min trials a) Rest and Rest+NMES, b) Rest, Arms-Only, Arms+NMES, and c) Rest, Arms+Legs, Arms+Legs+NMES. Physiological variables collected during rest and submaximal exercise were volume of oxygen (VO2 ), heart rate (HR), systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP), respiratory exchange ratio (RER), and rate pressure product (RPP)...
2019: International Journal of Exercise Science
Eric V Neufeld, Jeremy Wadowski, David M Boland, Brett A Dolezal, Christopher B Cooper
Exercise intensity is a critical component of the exercise prescription model. However, current research employing various non-specific exercise intensity protocols have reported wide variability in maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max ) improvement after training, suggesting a present lack of consensus regarding optimal heart rate (fC ) training zones for maximal athletic performance. This study examined the relationship between percentage of time (%time) spent training between the metabolic (VO2 θ) and ventilatory thresholds (VE θ), and the resultant change in markers of aerobic performance...
2019: International Journal of Exercise Science
Cory P Poehling, Tamra L Llewellyn
The purpose of this study was to examine heart rate variability (HRV) at rest, and during submaximal (100 bpm) and maximal exercise in collegiate distance runners. We predicted there would be less HRV during exercise. Eight collegiate runners (19-22 yrs) were recruited for participation. The participants were equipped with a standard Lead II EKG to record HRV at rest. The participants then performed an incremental VO2max test while running on a treadmill. EKG was recorded throughout the exercise test and HRV was later calculated during the submaximal and maximal exercise...
2019: International Journal of Exercise Science
Daniel Gromer, Max Reinke, Isabel Christner, Paul Pauli
Virtual reality plays an increasingly important role in research and therapy of pathological fear. However, the mechanisms how virtual environments elicit and modify fear responses are not yet fully understood. Presence, a psychological construct referring to the 'sense of being there' in a virtual environment, is widely assumed to crucially influence the strength of the elicited fear responses, however, causality is still under debate. The present study is the first that experimentally manipulated both variables to unravel the causal link between presence and fear responses...
2019: Frontiers in Psychology
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