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Gianluca Malavasi, Roberta Salvatori, Alfonso Zambon, Gigliola Lusvardi, Luca Rigamonti, Luigi Chiarini, Alexandre Anesi
The cytocompatibility of potential bioactive cerium-containing (Ce3+ /Ce4+ ) glasses is here investigated by preparing three different glasses with increasing amount of doping CeO₂ (1.2, 3.6 and 5.3 mol% of CeO₂, called BG_1.2, BG_3.6 and BG_5.3, respectively) based on 45S5 Bioglass® (called BG). These materials were characterized by Environmental Scanning Electron Microscopy (ESEM) and infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) after performing bioactivity tests in Dulbecco's Modified Eagle Medium (DMEM) solution, and the ions released in solution were determined by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) and Optical Emission Spectrometry (ICP-OES)...
February 16, 2019: Materials
Łukasz Janus, Marek Piątkowski, Julia Radwan-Pragłowska, Dariusz Bogdał, Dalibor Matysek
Rapid development in medicine and pharmacy has created a need for novel biomaterials with advanced properties such as photoluminescence, biocompability and long-term stability. The following research deals with the preparation of novel types of N -doped chitosan-based carbon quantum dots. Nanomaterials were obtained with simultaneous nitrogen-doping using biocompatible amino acids according to Green Chemistry principles. For the carbon quantum dots synthesis chitosan was used as a raw material known for its biocompability...
February 16, 2019: Nanomaterials
Valeria Cordone, Alessandra Pecorelli, Mascia Benedusi, Silvano Santini, Stefano Falone, Joussef Hayek, Fernanda Amicarelli, Giuseppe Valacchi
Rett syndrome (RTT) is a human neurodevelopmental disorder, whose pathogenesis has been linked to both oxidative stress and subclinical inflammatory status (OxInflammation). Methylglyoxal (MG), a glycolytic by-product with cytotoxic and pro-oxidant power, is the major precursor in vivo of advanced glycation end products (AGEs), which are known to exert their detrimental effect via receptor- (e.g., RAGE) or non-receptor-mediated mechanisms in several neurological diseases. On this basis, we aimed to compare fibroblasts from healthy subjects (CTR) with fibroblasts from RTT patients (N = 6 per group), by evaluating gene/protein expression patterns, and enzymatic activities of glyoxalases (GLOs), along with the levels of MG-dependent damage in both basal and MG-challenged conditions...
February 15, 2019: Cells
Catarina Roma-Rodrigues, Rita Mendes, Pedro V Baptista, Alexandra R Fernandes
Cancer development is highly associated to the physiological state of the tumor microenvironment (TME). Despite the existing heterogeneity of tumors from the same or from different anatomical locations, common features can be found in the TME maturation of epithelial-derived tumors. Genetic alterations in tumor cells result in hyperplasia, uncontrolled growth, resistance to apoptosis, and metabolic shift towards anaerobic glycolysis (Warburg effect). These events create hypoxia, oxidative stress and acidosis within the TME triggering an adjustment of the extracellular matrix (ECM), a response from neighbor stromal cells (e...
February 15, 2019: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Chengxu Ma, Zhaoyuan Fu, Huan Guo, Huiping Wei, Xinke Zhao, Yingdong Li
Radix Angelica Sinensis and Radix Hedysari are traditional Chinese medicines that are used for preventing and treating various diseases. This study aimed to investigate the effect and possible underlying mechanisms of Radix Angelica Sinensis and Radix Hedysari ultrafiltration extract (RAS-RH) on X-irradiation-induced cardiac fibrosis in rats. Our data demonstrated that (a) a single dose of total body irradiation (TBI) at 8 Gy resulted in cardiac fibrosis, whereas the control hearts exhibited less collagen and fibrosis...
February 16, 2019: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Yash Chhabra, Caroline N Nelson, Monika Plescher, Johanna L Barclay, Aaron G Smith, Sof Andrikopoulos, Salvatore Mangiafico, David J Waxman, Andrew J Brooks, Michael J Waters
Growth hormone (GH) has an important function as an insulin antagonist with elevated insulin sensitivity evident in humans and mice lacking a functional GH receptor (GHR). We sought the molecular basis for this sensitivity by utilizing a panel of mice possessing specific deletions of GHR signaling pathways. Metabolic clamps and glucose homeostasis tests were undertaken in these obese adult C57BL/6 male mice, which indicated impaired hepatic gluconeogenesis. Insulin sensitivity and glucose disappearance rate were enhanced in muscle and adipose of mice lacking the ability to activate the signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT)5 via the GHR ( Ghr-391 -/- ) as for GHR-null ( GHR-/- ) mice...
February 19, 2019: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
Njabulo Ngwenyama, Ane M Salvador, Francisco Velázquez, Tania Nevers, Alexander Levy, Mark J Aronovitz, Andrew D Luster, Gordon S Huggins, Pilar Alcaide
Heart failure (HF) is associated in humans and mice with increased circulating levels of CXCL9 and CXCL10, chemokine ligands of the CXCR3 receptor, predominantly expressed on CD4+ T helper type 1 (Th1) cells. Chemokine engagement of receptors is required for T cell integrin activation and recruitment to sites of inflammation. Th1 cells drive adverse cardiac remodeling in pressure overload induced cardiac dysfunction, and mice lacking the integrin ligand ICAM-1 show defective T cell recruitment to the heart...
February 19, 2019: JCI Insight
Ana Patricia Ayala-Cuellar, Cho-Won Kim, Kyung-A Hwang, Ji-Houn Kang, Gabsang Lee, Jaejin Cho, Kyung-Chul Choi
Canine mesenchymal stem cells (cMSCs) are gaining popularity in the veterinary field as a regenerative therapy. But, their limited culture lifespan makes it an obstacle for preclinical investigation and therapeutic use. In this study, primary canine adipose tissue-derived MSCs (PCAT-MSCs) were isolated from adipose tissue and were transfected with the SV40-T retrovirus resulting in a life-extended immortalized canine adipose tissue-derived MSCs (ICAT-MSCs). A comparison was made through the characterization of both PCAT-MSCs and ICAT-MSCs...
February 19, 2019: Journal of Cellular Physiology
Bethany R Mordhorst, Joshua A Benne, Raissa F Cecil, Kristin M Whitworth, Melissa S Samuel, Lee D Spate, Clifton N Murphy, Kevin D Wells, Jonathan A Green, Randall S Prather
Genetically engineered pigs serve as excellent biomedical and agricultural models. To date, the most reliable way to generate genetically engineered pigs is via somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT), however, the efficiency of cloning in pigs is low (1-3%). Somatic cells such as fibroblasts frequently used in nuclear transfer utilize the tricarboxylic acid cycle and mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation for efficient energy production. The metabolism of somatic cells contrasts with cells within the early embryo, which predominately use glycolysis...
February 19, 2019: Molecular Reproduction and Development
Yu-Lun Liao, Chi-Chung Chou, Ya-Jane Lee
BACKGROUND: Indoxyl sulfate (IS) has been reported not only to increase with the severity of impaired renal function, but also possibly to be a factor associated with bone abnormalities linked to fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF-23) in humans with chronic kidney disease (CKD). It is not yet known whether this correlation between IS and FGF-23 holds true for cats with CKD. HYPOTHESIS: Accumulation of IS is related to FGF-23 secretion in cats with CKD. ANIMALS: Twenty clinically healthy cats and 73 cats with CKD cases were evaluated retrospectively...
February 18, 2019: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
Taro Koike, Susumu Tanaka, Yukie Hirahara, Souichi Oe, Kiyoshi Kurokawa, Mitsuyo Maeda, Mitsuo Suga, Yosky Kataoka, Hisao Yamada
In the dorsal root ganglia (DRG), two types of glial cells (Schwann cells and satellite glial cells) have been identified based on cell morphology and expression of specific markers. In the present study, we observed unknown glial cells that were positive for p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75NTR), and therefore were immunohistochemically and ultrastructurally characterized for the first time. These cells exhibited stronger immunoreactivity against an anti-p75NTR antibody than the DRG neurons (hereafter referred to as p75NTR++ cells)...
February 18, 2019: Journal of Comparative Neurology
Chen Ling, Zunpeng Liu, Moshi Song, Weiqi Zhang, Si Wang, Xiaoqian Liu, Shuai Ma, Shuhui Sun, Lina Fu, Qun Chu, Juan Carlos Izpisua Belmonte, Zhaoxia Wang, Jing Qu, Yun Yuan, Guang-Hui Liu
Cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL) is a rare hereditary cerebrovascular disease caused by a NOTCH3 mutation. However, the underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms remain unidentified. Here, we generated non-integrative induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) from fibroblasts of a CADASIL patient harboring a heterozygous NOTCH3 mutation (c.3226C>T, p.R1076C). Vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) differentiated from CADASIL-specific iPSCs showed gene expression changes associated with disease phenotypes, including activation of the NOTCH and NF-κB signaling pathway, cytoskeleton disorganization, and excessive cell proliferation...
February 18, 2019: Protein & Cell
Sophie Chagnon-Lessard, Michel Godin, Andrew E Pelling
Exposing cells to an unconventional sequence of physical cues can reveal subtleties of cellular sensing and response mechanisms. We investigated the mechanoresponse of cyclically stretched fibroblasts under a spatially non-uniform strain field which was subjected to repeated changes in stretching directions over 55 h. A polydimethylsiloxane microfluidic stretcher array optimized for complex staining procedures and imaging was developed to generate biologically relevant strain and strain gradient amplitudes...
February 19, 2019: Integrative Biology: Quantitative Biosciences From Nano to Macro
JongSeo Kim
BACKGROUND: During aging, facial skin thins, atrophies, and loses elasticity. Subdermal filler injections can volumize and treat wrinkles but cannot directly change dermal thickness. Polycaprolactone (PCL)-fillers can improve skin texture and quality through dermal thickening and inducing neocollagenesis. Through biopsy study, evidence of neocollagenesis will be introduced. OBJECTIVES: In this single clinic prospective-study, 13 patients received a single injection of diluted 0...
February 19, 2019: Aesthetic Surgery Journal
Olivier Reelfs, Vincenzo Abbate, Agostino Cilibrizzi, Mark A Pook, Robert C Hider, Charareh Pourzand
Mitochondrial labile iron (LI) is a major contributor to the susceptibility of skin fibroblasts to ultraviolet A (UVA)-induced oxidative damage leading to necrotic cell death via ATP depletion. Mitochondria iron overload is a key feature of the neurodegenerative disease Friedreich's ataxia (FRDA). Here we show that cultured primary skin fibroblasts from FRDA patients are 4 to 10-fold more sensitive to UVA-induced death than their healthy counterparts. We demonstrate that FRDA cells display higher levels of mitochondrial LI (up to 6-fold on average compared to healthy counterparts) and show higher increase in mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation after UVA irradiation (up to 2-fold on average), consistent with their differential sensitivity to UVA...
February 19, 2019: Metallomics: Integrated Biometal Science
Takechiyo Yamada, Yui Miyabe, Shigeharu Ueki, Shigeharu Fujieda, Takahiro Tokunaga, Masafumi Sakashita, Yukinori Kato, Takahiro Ninomiya, Yohei Kawasaki, Shinsuke Suzuki, Hidekazu Saito
Objective: Chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps exhibits marked eosinophilic infiltration and its mucosal eosinophilia is associated with more severe symptoms. The Japanese epidemiological survey of refractory eosinophilic chronic rhinosinusitis found that patients with nasal polyps required multiple surgeries when there were higher infiltrating eosinophils in the mucosa. In order to identify plasma biomarkers for local eosinophil infiltration in rhinosinusitis for surgery, we examined the levels of molecules in the plasma of patients and compared the number of infiltrating eosinophils in the nasal mucosa...
2019: Frontiers in Immunology
Artem Kaznatcheev, Jeffrey Peacock, David Basanta, Andriy Marusyk, Jacob G Scott
Heterogeneity in strategies for survival and proliferation among the cells that constitute a tumour is a driving force behind the evolution of resistance to cancer therapy. The rules mapping the tumour's strategy distribution to the fitness of individual strategies can be represented as an evolutionary game. We develop a game assay to measure effective evolutionary games in co-cultures of non-small cell lung cancer cells that are sensitive and resistant to the anaplastic lymphoma kinase inhibitor alectinib...
February 18, 2019: Nature Ecology & Evolution
Hiroki Kobayashi, Atsushi Enomoto, Susan L Woods, Alastair D Burt, Masahide Takahashi, Daniel L Worthley
The tumour microenvironment, also termed the tumour stroma or tumour mesenchyme, includes fibroblasts, immune cells, blood vessels and the extracellular matrix and substantially influences the initiation, growth and dissemination of gastrointestinal cancer. Cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) are one of the critical components of the tumour mesenchyme and not only provide physical support for epithelial cells but also are key functional regulators in cancer, promoting and retarding tumorigenesis in a context-dependent manner...
February 18, 2019: Nature Reviews. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
Xiaomei Zhang, Yongxin Guo, Jing Yang, Jianlou Niu, Lina Du, Haiyan Li, Xiaokun Li
BACKGROUND: Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) of a large cohort of subjects with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) have successfully identified multiple risk genes, including fibroblast growth factor 7 (FGF7). However, the underlying molecular mechanism influencing function of FGF7 and risk of COPD remains further study. METHODS: In this study, we replicated the genetic association of variants near the FGF7 gene in 258 Chinese Han patients with COPD and 311 healthy controls...
February 18, 2019: BMC Medical Genetics
D Tolomeo, A Rubegni, M Severino, F Pochiero, C Bruno, D Cassandrini, A Madeo, S Doccini, M Pedemonte, A Rossi, F D'Amore, M A Donati, M Di Rocco, F M Santorelli, C Nesti
Complex I (CI) is the largest component of the mitochondrial respiratory chain (MRC) and it is made up of 7 mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA)-encoded and at least 38 nuclear DNA-encoded subunits. Isolated CI deficiency is the most common single enzyme deficiency in the heterogeneous group of MRC disorders and it is a relatively common etiology of Leigh-like syndrome (LS). With a few exceptions, descriptions of the clinical spectrum of specific mutations in CI are scarce. We here present three unrelated Italian children who harbored the homoplasmic m...
February 6, 2019: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
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