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Urgent prevention

Roberto Ferrari, Ian Ford, Kim Fox, Mario Marzilli, Michal Tendera, Petr Widimský, Jean-Pascal Challeton, Nicolas Danchin
BACKGROUND: About 30% of angina patients have persisting symptoms despite successful revascularization and antianginal therapy. Moreover, in stable patients, percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) does not improve survival as compared with medical therapy alone. Trimetazidine, an antianginal agent devoid of hemodynamic effect, may help reducing symptoms and improving outcomes after PCI. The ATPCI study is investigating the efficacy and safety of adding trimetazidine to standard-of-care in angina patients who had a recent PCI...
January 15, 2019: American Heart Journal
Caroline Kuo, Catherine Mathews, Ashleigh LoVette, Abigail Harrison, Lindsay Orchowski, Jennifer A Pellowski, Millicent Atujuna, Dan J Stein, Larry K Brown
INTRODUCTION: In South Africa, one in three men have reported perpetrating rape. Adolescence presents a unique developmental period for primary prevention of violence. However, few studies characterize the epidemiology of sexual violence among adolescents in South Africa. METHOD: We evaluated rates of sexual violence behaviors using a baseline survey of N = 200 South African adolescents, age 13-15, recruited for participation in an intervention trial. The intervention focused on preventing onset of depression and sexual risk behavior among adolescents...
February 13, 2019: Journal of Adolescence
Shimiao Zhu, Hao Tian, Xiaodan Niu, Jiang Wang, Xing Li, Ning Jiang, Simeng Wen, Xuanrong Chen, Shancheng Ren, Chuanliang Xu, Chawnshang Chang, Amilcar Flores-Morelas, Zhiqun Shang, Yinghao Sun, Yuanjie Niu
Castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) with neuroendocrine differentiation (NED) is a lethal disease for which effective therapies are urgently needed. The mechanism underlying development of CRPC with NED, however, remains largely uncharacterized. In this study, we explored and characterized the functional role of neurotensin (NTS) in cell line and animal models of CRPC with NED. NTS was acutely induced by androgen deprivation in animal models of prostate cancer (PCa) and activated downstream signaling leading to NED through activation of neurotensin receptor 1 (NTSR1) and neurotensin receptor 3 (NTSR3), but not neurotensin receptor 2 (NTSR2)...
February 15, 2019: Oncogene
Melissa O'Donnell, Stephanie Taplin, Rhonda Marriott, Fernando Lima, Fiona J Stanley
OBJECTIVES: The removal of a child from their parents is traumatising, particularly in Aboriginal communities where a history of child removals has led to intergenerational trauma. This study will determine where disparities in child protection involvement exist among Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal children and characteristics associated with infant removals. Challenges faced by child protection and other agencies, and opportunities for overcoming these, are discussed. METHODS: Data from both the Australian Institute of Health and Welfare and linked Western Australian government data was used to examine disparities between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal children in the child protection and out-of-home care system...
February 12, 2019: Child Abuse & Neglect
Ottavia Borghese, Giorgio Sbenaglia, Rocco Giudice
Spinal cord ischemia is one of the most unpredictable and feared complication following open surgical or endovascular thoracic aortic repair. Protection of collateral network branches that contribute blood supply to spinal cord is fundamental in the prevention of this catastrophic condition. We report the case of a patient who underwent emergent endovascular treatment for a type B aortic dissection complicated by rupture of the false lumen, with intentional coverage of the left subclavian artery without revascularization...
February 12, 2019: Annals of Vascular Surgery
Wei Gao, Hiroki Ota, Daisuke Kiriya, Kuniharu Takei, Ali Javey
Wearable sensors play a crucial role in realizing personalized medicine, as they can continuously collect data from the human body to capture meaningful health status changes in time for preventive intervention. However, motion artifacts and mechanical mismatches between conventional rigid electronic materials and soft skin often lead to substantial sensor errors during epidermal measurement. Because of its unique properties such as high flexibility and conformability, flexible electronics enables a natural interaction between electronics and the human body...
February 15, 2019: Accounts of Chemical Research
Tesfaye Hambisa Mekonnen, Dawit Getachew Yenealem, Beyene Mindaye Tolosa
BACKGROUND: Occupational skin diseases are the second most common occupational diseases and are responsible for an estimated 25% of all lost work days. Occupational contact dermatitis (OCD) comprises 70-90% of all occupational skin diseases. In Ethiopia, information about the prevalence and factors which determine developments of contact dermatitis is not recognized. The objective of this study was to investigate prevalence and factors influencing the occurrences of occupational-related contact dermatitis among healthcare workers in Gondar town, Northwest Ethiopia...
February 14, 2019: Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine
Oliver Ombeva Malande, Deogratias Munube, Rachel Nakatugga Afaayo, Kisakye Annet, Bongomin Bodo, Andrew Bakainaga, Elizabeth Ayebare, Sam Njunwamukama, Edison Arwanire Mworozi, Andrew Munyalo Musyoki
INTRODUCTION: Hoima, one of the largest districts in mid- western Uganda, has persistently performed poorly with low immunization coverage, high immunization drop outs rates and repeated outbreaks of vaccine preventable diseases especially measles. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the state of immunization services and to identify the gaps in immunization health systems that contribute to low uptake and completion of immunization schedules in Hoima District. METHODS: This was a cross sectional mixed methods study, utilizing both qualitative and quantitative approaches...
2019: PloS One
Susan L Baldwin, Sasha E Larsen, Diane Ordway, Gail Cassell, Rhea N Coler
Seemingly innocuous nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) species, classified by their slow or rapid growth rates, can cause a wide range of illnesses, from skin ulceration to severe pulmonary and disseminated disease. Despite their worldwide prevalence and significant disease burden, NTM do not garner the same financial or research focus as Mycobacterium tuberculosis. In this review, we outline the most abundant of over 170 NTM species and inadequacies of diagnostics and treatments and weigh the advantages and disadvantages of currently available in vivo animal models of NTM...
February 2019: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Alexander A Boucher, J Michael Taylor, Lori Luchtman-Jones
Aspirin is the most commonly prescribed antiplatelet agent worldwide, but evidence supporting its use varies by age and disease process. Despite its frequent use in childhood acute ischemic stroke prevention and management, major knowledge gaps exist about optimal pediatric aspirin use, particularly in this setting, where high-quality clinical trials are urgently needed. This review focuses upon the evidence for aspirin use in childhood acute ischemic stroke, includes a summary of aspirin pharmacology to highlight misconceptions and common clinical situations which may limit its efficacy, and discusses the techniques and potential role of laboratory monitoring of aspirin efficacy in children...
February 14, 2019: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
Hao Wen, Lucine Vuitton, Tuerhongjiang Tuxun, Jun Li, Dominique A Vuitton, Wenbao Zhang, Donald P McManus
SUMMARYEchinococcosis is a zoonosis caused by cestodes of the genus Echinococcus (family Taeniidae). This serious and near-cosmopolitan disease continues to be a significant public health issue, with western China being the area of highest endemicity for both the cystic (CE) and alveolar (AE) forms of echinococcosis. Considerable advances have been made in the 21st century on the genetics, genomics, and molecular epidemiology of the causative parasites, on diagnostic tools, and on treatment techniques and control strategies, including the development and deployment of vaccines...
March 20, 2019: Clinical Microbiology Reviews
Albert Persaud, Geraint Day, Susham Gupta, Antonio Ventriglio, Roxanna Ruiz, Egor Chumakov, Geetha Desai, Joao Castaldelli-Maia, Julio Torales, Edgardo Juan Tolentino, Kamaldeep Bhui, Dinesh Bhugra
Natural and man-made disasters carry with them major burden and very often the focus is on immediate survival and management of resulting infectious diseases. The impact of disasters directly and indirectly on the well-being and mental health of those affected often gets ignored. The reasons are often stigma and lack of attention to mental health consequences. In addition, often the focus is on preventing the spread of infectious diseases such as waterborne or airborne diseases. This is further complicated by the fact that often aid agencies in offering aid tend to focus on communicable diseases and not on mental health of populations...
December 2018: International Journal of Social Psychiatry
Emilie Venables, Ilse Casteels, Elysée Manziasi Sumbi, Eric Goemaere
INTRODUCTION: HIV prevalence in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) is estimated to be 1.2%, and access to HIV testing and treatment remains low across the country. Despite advances in treatment, HIV continues to be one of the main reasons for hospitalisation and death in low- and middle-income countries, including DRC, but the reasons why people delay seeking health-care when they are extremely sick remain little understood. People in Kinshasa, DRC, continue to present to health-care facilities in an advanced stage of HIV when they are close to death and needing intensive treatment...
2019: PloS One
Sujata Sinha, Tulika Seth, Roshan B Colah, Alan H Bittles
The Government of India is presently engaged in the implementation of a prevention and control programme for two major forms of haemoglobinopathies, thalassaemia major and sickle cell disease, with guidelines for their prevention and management formulated under the National Health Mission. Based on projections for the population up to the year 2026, the annual blood requirement for treatment will increase to 9.24 million units, together with an 86% increase in budgetary requirements which then would account for over 19% of the current National Health Budget...
February 12, 2019: Journal of Community Genetics
Miao Qiu, Keqing Huang, Yanzhuo Liu, Yuqing Yang, Honglin Tang, Xiaoxiao Liu, Chenlong Wang, Honglei Chen, Yu Xiong, Jing Zhang, Jing Yang
High-fat diet (HFD) promotes lung pre-metastatic niche formation and metastasis. Thus, there is an urgent need to identify the underlying mechanisms and develop strategies to overcome them. Here we demonstrate that glycyrrhizic acid (GA) prevents HFD-enhanced pre-metastatic niche formation and metastasis through gut microbiota. GA reduced HFD-enhanced myeloid-derived suppressor cell recruitment, pro-metastatic protein S100A8/A9 expression and metastasis burden of 4T1 breast cancer and B16F10 melanoma, accompanied by gut microbiota alteration and colonic macrophage polarization far away the M1-like phenotype...
February 12, 2019: Mucosal Immunology
Xianjun Xue, Jing Kan, Jun-Jie Zhang, Nailiang Tian, Fei Ye, Song Yang, Hong Qu, Shao-Liang Chen
BACKGROUND: Differences in the predictors between ventricular septal rupture (VSR) and free wall rupture (FWR) have not been fully studied. Data on the prevalence and clinical outcome of heart rupture are limited. HYPOTHESIS: This study aimed to investigate heart rupture incidence and clinical results in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI). METHODS: Of 9265 AMI patients in the MOODY registry between March 1999 and October 2016, a total of 146 were studied...
January 23, 2019: Cardiovascular Revascularization Medicine: Including Molecular Interventions
Thomas Schmitz, Corinne Alberti, Moreno Ursino, Olivier Baud, Camille Aupiais
BACKGROUND: Although antenatal betamethasone is recommended worldwide for women at risk of preterm delivery, concerns persist regarding the long-term effects associated with this treatment. Indeed, adverse events, mainly dose-related, have been reported. The current recommended dose of antenatal betamethasone directly derives from sheep experiments performed in the late 60's and has not been challenged in 45 years. Therefore, randomized trials evaluating novel dose regimens are urgently needed...
February 12, 2019: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
Guilherme Borges, Ricardo Orozco, Jorge Villatoro, Maria Elena Medina-Mora, Clara Fleiz, Jessica Díaz-Salazar
OBJECTIVE: To provide updated information regarding the 12-month prevalence and associated sociodemographic factors for suicide ideation and behavior (plan and attempts) to substantiate preventive programs in Mexico. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Cross-sectional nationally representative survey, conducted during 2016 (n=56 877) among those 12-65 years old living in rural, urban and metropolitan dwellings. RESULTS: The prevalence of suicide ideation in the last 12-months was 2...
2019: Salud Pública de México
Mi-Kyoung Cho, Hee Chong Baek, Gisoo Shin
Verbal bullying among adolescents, which has become increasingly prevalent in recent years, often involves swearing or sexually ridiculing one's family members or peers. Because many factors underlying the initiation of verbal bullying remain unknown, Giorgi's phenomenological method was used to examine the essence and meaning of verbal bullying among adolescents, which is an urgent issue in the field of nursing in South Korea. In this descriptive phenomenological study, researchers examined the behavior of 16 adolescents...
February 8, 2019: Journal of Psychosocial Nursing and Mental Health Services
P Koraka, B Martina
Rabies is probably the deadliest and most severe encephalitis known to humankind. Caused by any lyssavirus, it is recognised as a disease of the poor, the less fortunate and the young. No other known infectious disease can cause 100% mortality, and rabies and the clinical manifestations which precede a death from the disease are often described as excruciating. Animals are not spared this deadly illness either, essentially every mammal can be infected with the virus, resulting in the development of lethal encephalitis...
August 2018: Revue Scientifique et Technique
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