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Functional development of gastrointestinal tract

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https://read.qxmd.com/read/30707414/current-tracking-on-effectiveness-and-mechanisms-of-acupuncture-therapy-a-literature-review-of-high-quality-studies
#1
REVIEW
Fu-Ming Yang, Lin Yao, Shen-Jun Wang, Yi Guo, Zhi-Fang Xu, Chien-Hung Zhang, Kuo Zhang, Yu-Xin Fang, Yang-Yang Liu
The scientific evidence of acupuncture studies has been improved in recent years, and one of the important manifestations is that more and more acupuncture clinical trials and mechanism researches have been published in the source periodicals of Science Citation Index (SCI). This study summarized the dominant diseases of acupuncture focusing on of acupuncture efficacy and mechanisms, and discussed the existing problems, highlighting the direction of future developments. Most clinical studies were published in journals with journal impact factor (JIF) score of 10 or above, and majority of the basic researches had JIF scores of 5 to 10...
February 1, 2019: Chinese Journal of Integrative Medicine
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30684078/an-operable-portable-and-disposable-ultrathin-endoscope-for-evaluation-of-the-upper-gastrointestinal-tract
#2
Donghoon Kang, Chul-Hyun Lim, Myung-Gyu Choi, Hanhee Lee, Jin Su Kim, Yu Kyung Cho, Jae Myung Park, Young Seok Cho, Bo In Lee, In Seok Lee
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: A prototype of a disposable endoscope (DE) with easy viewing of the esophagus has been developed. The aim of this study was to develop a new version of DE with improved functionality and to assess the feasibility of DE as a screening tool for upper gastrointestinal diseases compared with conventional endoscopes. METHODS: Diagnostic accuracy and maneuverability of DE were evaluated by comparing endoscopy using DE with conventional endoscopy. Different examiners performed DE endoscopy and conventional endoscopy in a randomized order, blinded to the results...
January 25, 2019: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30681424/characterizing-the-natural-history-of-acute-radiation-syndrome-of-the-gastrointestinal-tract-combining-high-mass-and-spatial-resolution-using-maldi-fticr-msi
#3
Claire L Carter, Kim G Hankey, Catherine Booth, Gregory L Tudor, George A Parker, Jace W Jones, Ann M Farese, Thomas J MacVittie, Maureen A Kane
The acute radiation syndrome of the gastrointestinal tract has been histologically characterized, but the molecular and functional mechanisms that lead to these cellular alterations remain enigmatic. Mass spectrometry imaging is the only technique that enables the simultaneous detection and cellular or regional localization of hundreds of biomolecules in a single experiment. This current study utilized matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry imaging for the molecular characterization of the first natural history study of gastrointestinal acute radiation syndrome in the nonhuman primate...
January 23, 2019: Health Physics
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30678622/differentiation-and-proliferation-of-intestinal-stem-cells-and-its-underlying-regulated-mechanisms-during-weaning
#4
Xi Chen, Zehong Yang, Huiling Hu, Wentao Duan, Aiping Wang, Yanbin Dong, Weihang Gao, Song Deng, Bo Cheng, Jiali Li, Nannan Sun, Zhibin Cheng, Wenfeng Guo, Yanwu Li, Yong Gao
Weaning is a stressful event associated with gastrointestinal disorders and increased disease susceptibility. Many studies have reported the changes happened in the gut of various mammals such as pigs and rats after weaning. These findings suggest that the development of intestinal tract mainly is affected at the time of weaning through interfering in the differentiation and proliferation of intestinal stem cells. Weaning stress stimulates the rapid differentiation and proliferation of intestinal stem cells in order to adjust to changes caused by weaning, which are mainly manifested as deeper crypt depth and intestine decreased villus height...
January 24, 2019: Current Protein & Peptide Science
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30669398/application-of-ph-responsive-fucoidan-chitosan-nanoparticles-to-improve-oral-quercetin-delivery
#5
Ana Isabel Barbosa, Sofia A Costa Lima, Salette Reis
Polymeric nanoparticles based on fucoidan and chitosan were developed to deliver quercetin as a novel functional food. Through the polyelectrolyte self-assembly method, fucoidan/chitosan (F/C) nanoparticles were obtained with three different weight ratios (1/1, 3/1, and 5/1). The content of quercetin in the fucoidan/chitosan nanoparticles was in the range 110 ± 3 to 335 ± 4 mg·mL-1 , with the increase of weight ratio of fucoidan to chitosan in the nanoparticle. Physicochemically stable nanoparticles were obtained with a particle size within the 300⁻400 nm range and surface potential higher than +30 mV for the 1F/1C ratio nanoparticle and around -30 mV for the 3F/1C and 5F/1C ratios nanoparticles...
January 18, 2019: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30661148/safety-assessment-of-l-lysine-oral-intake-a-systematic-review
#6
Kohsuke Hayamizu, Ikuyo Oshima, Zesoku Fukuda, Yui Kuramochi, Yuki Nagai, Nobuo Izumo, Makoto Nakano
Currently, the use of amino acids in supplements and functional foods is increasing globally. However, there are no guidelines for the upper limit of ingestion for the safe use of these amino acids. Safety evaluation of chemical substances is generally performed through non-clinical and clinical studies. However, amino acids that have these safety data are limited. Therefore, we used a systematic review approach for evaluating the safety of amino acids. In the present study, we evaluated the safety of L-lysine added to an ordinary diet in humans...
January 19, 2019: Amino Acids
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30660763/the-l-cell-transcriptome-is-unaffected-by-vertical-sleeve-gastrectomy-but-highly-dependent-upon-position-within-the-gastrointestinal-tract
#7
Katherine A Rollins, Lennart Opitz, Myrtha Arnold, Eric Simon, Heike Neubauer, Susanne Wolfrum
Altered GLP-1 secretion from L cells has been implicated in the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus and its resolution following bariatric surgery. However, changes in L cell gene expression, which may form the basis for altered functionality after high fat diet (HFD) or bariatric surgery, have either not been investigated or have given conflicting results. We developed a gcg-DTR-eGFP reporter mouse to isolate ileal and colonic L cells from HFD fed insulin resistant mice and mice showing improved glucose tolerance following vertical sleeve gastrectomy (VSG)...
January 17, 2019: Peptides
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30655829/akr1b10-expression-predicts-response-of-gastric-cancer-to-neoadjuvant-chemotherapy
#8
Syed Minhaj Uddin Ahmed, Zi Nong Jiang, Zhao Hong Zheng, Yulong Li, Xiu Jun Wang, Xiuwen Tang
Effective methods for predicting tumor response to preoperative chemotherapy are required. Aldo-ketoreductase family 1 member B10 (AKR1B10) is predominantly expressed in the gastrointestinal tract and serves an important function in cancer development and progression. The present study investigated whether AKR1B10 expression may predict the therapeutic response of locally advanced gastric cancer. A total of 53 patients with gastric cancer underwent neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by surgery between January 2006 and December 2015...
January 2019: Oncology Letters
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30654495/identification-characterization-and-formulation-of-a-novel-carbapenemase-intended-to-prevent-antibiotic-mediated-gut-dysbiosis
#9
Sheila Connelly, Todd Parsley, Hui Ge, Michael Kaleko
Antibiotics can damage the gut microbiome leading to opportunistic infections and the emergence of antibiotic resistance. Microbiome protection via antibiotic inactivation in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract represents a strategy to limit antibiotic exposure of the colonic microbiota. Proof of concept for this approach was achieved with an orally-administered beta-lactamase enzyme, SYN-004 (ribaxamase), that was demonstrated to degrade ceftriaxone excreted into the GI tract and protect the gut microbiome from antibiotic-mediated dysbiosis...
January 16, 2019: Microorganisms
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30638421/the-role-of-infections-in-multiple-sclerosis
#10
Mariano Marrodan, Lucas Alessandro, Mauricio F Farez, Jorge Correale
Several lines of evidence suggest that multiple sclerosis (MS), like other autoimmune diseases, may be triggered by microbial infections. Pathogens associated with development or exacerbation of MS include bacteria, such as Chlamydia pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus-produced enterotoxins that function as superantigens, and viruses of the Herpesviridae (Epstein-Barr virus and human herpes virus 6) and human endogenous retrovirus families. However, to date, no single pathogen has been accepted as causal agent...
January 14, 2019: Multiple Sclerosis: Clinical and Laboratory Research
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30630330/-bacteria-that-eat-human-lurking-in-the-ariake-sea-vibrio-vulnificus-infection
#11
Zenzo Nagasawa, Kouichi Matsumoto, Hirotaka Oishi
There are currently 76 species of bacteria in the genus Vibrio , which is a halophilic gram-negative bacillus, 12 of which are pathogenic in humans. It is usually known as a foodborn infectious bacterium related to gastrointestinal tract. Vibrio vulnificus develops muscle tissue necrosis of limb and septic shock in 1 to 3 days when infected in patients with liver injury or immune function deterioration and many die from multiple organ dysfunction. Since V. vulnificus is suitable for inhabitation and proliferation in the warm brackish water area, many infection of V...
December 25, 2018: JARMAM: Journal of the Association for Rapid Method and Automation in Microbiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30625627/a-highly-sensitive-and-responsive-fluorescent-probe-based-on-6-azide-chroman-dye-for-detection-and-imaging-of-hydrogen-sulfide-in-cells
#12
Zhen Qiao, Hongyi Zhang, KeWei Wang, Yanru Zhang
Hydrogen sulfide or H2 S is known as an important gasotransmitter involved in regulation of many physiological and pathological processes. Since a small amount of H2 S is produced by endogenous cells in the body and microorganisms in the gastrointestinal tract (GI tract), the current detection probes are limited for their use in measurement of unpretentious change of H2 S level both in vitro and in vivo. Therefore, development of a highly sensitive and responsive fluorescent probe for measurement of H2 S in vivo is of great significance for investigation of H2 S function and toxicity...
April 1, 2019: Talanta
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30614944/practical-perspectives-in-the-treatment-of-nausea-and-vomiting
#13
David J Cangemi, Braden Kuo
Nausea and vomiting result from complex interactions between afferent and efferent pathways of the gastrointestinal tract, central nervous system, and autonomic nervous system. Afferent pathways from the vagus nerve, vestibular system, and chemoreceptor trigger zone project to nucleus tractus solitarius, which in turn relays signals to the central pattern generator to initiate multiple downstream pathways resulting in symptoms of nausea and vomiting. There is increasing evidence that the central pathway of chronic nausea is different from that of acute nausea and vomiting-and closely resembles that of neuropathic pain...
January 4, 2019: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30598019/the-role-of-the-microbiome-in-asthma-the-gut%C3%A2-lung-axis
#14
REVIEW
Franco Frati, Cristina Salvatori, Cristoforo Incorvaia, Alessandro Bellucci, Giuseppe Di Cara, Francesco Marcucci, Susanna Esposito
Asthma is one of the most common chronic respiratory diseases worldwide. It affects all ages but frequently begins in childhood. Initiation and exacerbations may depend on individual susceptibility, viral infections, allergen exposure, tobacco smoke exposure, and outdoor air pollution. The aim of this review was to analyze the role of the gut⁻lung axis in asthma development, considering all asthma phenotypes, and to evaluate whether microbe-based therapies may be used for asthma prevention. Several studies have confirmed the role of microbiota in the regulation of immune function and the development of atopy and asthma...
December 30, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30586591/development-of-mutlifunctional-nanoparticles-self-assembled-from-trimethyl-chitosan-and-fucoidan-for-enhanced-oral-delivery-of-insulin
#15
Li-Chu Tsai, Chien-Ho Chen, Cheng-Wei Lin, Yi-Cheng Ho, Fwu-Long Mi
Oral administration is a highly attractive approach for the delivery of protein drugs. However, oral protein therapeutics typically exhibit extremely poor bioavailability due to the harsh gastrointestinal (GI) environments and low permeability of protein across the intestinal barrier. Trimethyl chitosan (TMC) shows excellent mucoadhesive and absorption-enhancing properties while fucoidan (FD) has hypoglycemic effects and can prevent diabetes-related complications. Here we report, for the first time, that TMC combined with FD can be developed to a mutlifunctional nanoplatform for enhancing the transepithelial permeation of insulin through the intestinal epithelial cell barrier and inhibiting the α-glucosidase activity...
December 23, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30584757/smart-metal-organic-frameworks-based-nanoplatforms-for-imaging-guided-precise-chemotherapy
#16
Hui Zhang, Yue Shang, Yu-Hao Li, Shao-Kai Sun, Xue-Bo Yin
Good biocompatibility, active tumor targeting, and stimulus-responsive release offer great opportunity for precise imaging-guided tumor treatment. However, the current strategies for the fabrication of smart theranostic platforms suffer from tedious synthesis processes. Here we propose a universal and facile strategy for the fabrication of smart nanoscale metal organic frameworks (NMOFs)-based nanoplatforms for imaging-guided precise chemotherapy. As a proof of concept, 5-boronobenzene-1, 3-dicarboxylic acid (BBDC), as a versatile ligand, was employed for the first time with Gd3+ as metal nodes to prepare a smart magnetic resonance (MR) imaging guided-drug delivery system...
December 25, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30580502/host-microbiota-interaction-and-intestinal-epithelial-functions-under-circadian-control-implications-in-colitis-and-metabolic-disorders
#17
REVIEW
Yen-Ju Huang, Yu-Chen Pai, Linda Chia-Hui Yu
Commensal microbes are involved in intestinal homeostasis, and the dysregulation of host-microbe interactions may lead to the development of local and systemic disorders. Recent evidence indicated that microbiota dysbiosis plays a key role in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease and metabolism-related disorders. The circadian clock system originally identified in the brain was later found in the gastrointestinal tract. Although the light-controlled central clock in the brain is responsible for the synchronization of peripheral clocks, the timing of meal consumption serves as another cue for the rhythmic setting of gastrointestinal digestion, absorption, and epithelial renewal and barrier functions...
December 24, 2018: Chinese Journal of Physiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30557630/kit-as-a-therapeutic-target-for-non-oncological-diseases
#18
REVIEW
Asuncion Martinez-Anton, Delphine Gras, Arnaud Bourdin, Patrice Dubreuil, Pascal Chanez
KIT is a receptor tyrosine kinase that after binding to its ligand stem cell factor activates signaling cascades linked to biological processes such as proliferation, differentiation, migration and cell survival. Based on studies performed on SCF and/or KIT mutant animals that presented anemia, sterility, and/or pigmentation disorders, KIT signaling was mainly considered to be involved in the regulation of hematopoiesis, gametogenesis, and melanogenesis. More recently, novel animal models and ameliorated cellular and molecular techniques have led to the discovery of a widen repertoire of tissue compartments and functions that are being modulated by KIT...
December 14, 2018: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30544486/microbiome-the-missing-link-in-the-gut-brain-axis-focus-on-its-role-in-gastrointestinal-and-mental-health
#19
REVIEW
Karolina Skonieczna-Żydecka, Wojciech Marlicz, Agata Misera, Anastasios Koulaouzidis, Igor Łoniewski
The central nervous system (CNS) and the human gastrointestinal (GI) tract communicate through the gut-brain axis (GBA). Such communication is bi-directional and involves neuronal, endocrine, and immunological mechanisms. There is mounting data that gut microbiota is the source of a number of neuroactive and immunocompetent substances, which shape the structure and function of brain regions involved in the control of emotions, cognition, and physical activity. Most GI diseases are associated with altered transmission within the GBA that are influenced by both genetic and environmental factors...
December 7, 2018: Journal of Clinical Medicine
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30538693/occurrence-and-dynamism-of-lactic-acid-bacteria-in-distinct-ecological-niches-a-multifaceted-functional-health-perspective
#20
REVIEW
Fanny George, Catherine Daniel, Muriel Thomas, Elisabeth Singer, Axel Guilbaud, Frédéric J Tessier, Anne-Marie Revol-Junelles, Frédéric Borges, Benoît Foligné
Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are representative members of multiple ecosystems on earth, displaying dynamic interactions within animal and plant kingdoms in respect with other microbes. This highly heterogeneous phylogenetic group has coevolved with plants, invertebrates, and vertebrates, establishing either mutualism, symbiosis, commensalism, or even parasitism-like behavior with their hosts. Depending on their location and environment conditions, LAB can be dominant or sometimes in minority within ecosystems...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
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