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Interictal epileptiform discharges

Katsuyuki Ukai, Masumi Ito, Masako Watanabe
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 18, 2019: Psychogeriatrics: the Official Journal of the Japanese Psychogeriatric Society
Tracy Butler, Patrick Harvey, Lila Cardozo, Yuan-Shan Zhu, Adam Mosa, Emily Tanzi, Fahad Pervez
Depression affects a large proportion of patients with epilepsy, and is likely due in part to biological mechanism. Hormonal dysregulation due to the disruptive effects of seizures and interictal epileptiform discharges on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis likely contributes to high rates of depression in epilepsy. This paper reviews the largely unexplored role of neuroendocrine factors in epilepsy-related depression, focusing on Growth Hormone (GH). While GH deficiency is traditionally considered a childhood disorder manifested by impaired skeletal growth, GH deficiency in adulthood is now recognized as a serious disorder characterized by impairments in multiple domains including mood and quality of life...
February 14, 2019: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
Eleonora Tamilia, Michel AlHilani, Naoaki Tanaka, Melissa Tsuboyama, Jurriaan M Peters, P Ellen Grant, Joseph R Madsen, Steven M Stufflebeam, Phillip L Pearl, Christos Papadelis
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the accuracy and clinical utility of conventional 21-channel EEG (conv-EEG), 72-channel high-density EEG (HD-EEG) and 306-channel MEG in localizing interictal epileptiform discharges (IEDs). METHODS: Twenty-four children who underwent epilepsy surgery were studied. IEDs on conv-EEG, HD-EEG, MEG and intracranial EEG (iEEG) were localized using equivalent current dipoles and dynamical statistical parametric mapping (dSPM). We compared the localization error (ELoc ) with respect to the ground-truth Irritative Zone (IZ), defined by iEEG sources, between non-invasive modalities and the distance from resection (Dres ) between good- (Engel 1) and poor-outcomes...
January 31, 2019: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
Lihua Sun, Xiangyu Zheng, Chang Liu, Mingchao Shi, Yudan Lv
Evidence from a neuropsychological test revealed that interictal epileptiform discharges (IEDs) may have significant impact on cognitive performance. Sometimes, neuropsychological tests may not be sensitive to detection of mild cognitive changes. We applied P300 and mismatch negativity (MMN) to detect mild cognitive changes caused by small amount of IEDs. Sixty-seven adult epilepsy patients and participants were divided into six groups according to different IEDs index. The patients with IED index greater than 7...
February 8, 2019: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
Liset Menendez de la Prida, Gilles Huberfeld
Oscillations represent basic operational modes of the human brain. They reflect local field potential activity generated by the laminar arrangement of cell-type specific microcircuits interacting brain-wide under the influence of neuromodulators, endogenous processes and cognitive demands. Under neuropathological conditions, the spatiotemporal structure of physiological brain oscillations is disrupted as recorded by electroencephalography and event-relate potentials. Such rhythmopathies can be used to track microcircuit alterations leading not only to transient pathological activities such as interictal discharges and seizures but also to a range of cognitive co-morbidities...
February 8, 2019: Neurobiology of Disease
Ruggero Serafini
OBJECTIVE: This study looks for differences in the waveforms of interictal epileptiform discharges (IEDs) between cortices expressing only isolated discharges (green-spikes zones) vs those manifesting seizures (red-spikes zones): these can help to understand ictogenesis mechanisms and improve clinical decision in surgical epilepsy. Typical IEDs are triphasic, exhibiting in sequence: a negative-sharp-wave, a positive-baseline-shift and a negative-slow-wave. Negative-slow-waves are thought to reflect neurophysiological inhibition: their features at a focus' edge may reflect peripheral inhibition, a mechanism characterized in experimental models, curbing seizures' spread...
January 19, 2019: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
Amir Omidvarnia, Magdalena A Kowalczyk, Mangor Pedersen, Graeme D Jackson
OBJECTIVE: The process of manually marking up epileptic spikes for simultaneous electroencephalogram (EEG) and resting state functional MRI (rsfMRI) analysis in epilepsy studies is a tedious and subjective task for a human expert. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether automatic EEG spike detection can facilitate EEG-rsfMRI analysis, and to assess its potential as a clinical tool in epilepsy. METHODS: We implemented a fast algorithm for detection of uniform interictal epileptiform discharges (IEDs) in one-hour scalp EEG recordings of 19 refractory focal epilepsy datasets (from 16 patients) who underwent a simultaneous EEG-rsfMRI recording...
December 17, 2018: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
Xin Tong, Dongmei An, Fenglai Xiao, Du Lei, Running Niu, Wei Li, Jiechuan Ren, Wenyu Liu, Yingying Tang, Le Zhang, Baiwan Zhou, Qiyong Gong, Dong Zhou
OBJECTIVE: To explore the real-time effects of interictal epileptiform discharges (IEDs) on hippocampus and amygdala functional connectivity (FC) in unilateral temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). METHODS: Patients with unilateral TLE were recruited and underwent simultaneous electroencephalography-functional magnetic resonance imaging (EEG-fMRI) scanning. Simultaneous EEG was used to define the prespike (10 s before spike) and postspike (10 s after spike) periods. Dynamic FC analysis was applied using the left/right hippocampus and amygdala separately as a seed region to map the network alterations after IED occurrence...
January 17, 2019: Epilepsia
Jaysingh Singh, Jeffrey Britton, Abdulrahman Alwaki, Priti Singh
OBJECTIVE: After-hours EEG is increasingly used in hospital patients. Although the detection of seizures and interictal epileptiform discharges has been shown to be higher with prolonged EEG (pEEG) than routine-duration EEG, the relative value for particular indications can inform utilization. METHOD: The Mayo EEG Report System was queried for after-hours emergent routine EEG (ErEEG) and pEEG performed between January 2015 and June 2015. Total 296 after-hours ErEEG were identified, of which 140 converted into pEEG were included in the study for direct comparison of two modalities...
January 2019: Journal of Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Publication of the American Electroencephalographic Society
Péter Halász, Anna Kelemen, Bea Rosdy, György Rásonyi, Béla Clemens, Anna Szűcs
We overview here the new data about the epileptic spectrum disorders within the frame of perisylvian epileptic network since our first trial to synthetize knowledge about this system epilepsy (Halász et al., 2005). We found evidences for a continual features relating together syndromes constituting this spectrum disorder in several fields: in sharing genetic origin, in common perisylvian human communication circuitry, in NREM sleep related potentiation of interictal epileptiform discharges of the centro-temporal spike phenomenon and in the discharge related cognitive impairment, reflecting functional deficits in human communication abilities...
December 21, 2018: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
Reza Basiri, Aidin Shariatzadeh, Samuel Wiebe, Yahya Aghakhani
OBJECTIVE: Interictal epileptiform discharges (IEDs) are important to identify the epileptogenic zone and to define epileptic syndromes. However, not all patients show IEDs on scalp EEG. We evaluate the likelihood of not findings spikes on prolonged Video-EEG Monitoring (VEM) in patients with focal epilepsy, and explore clinical correlates. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the VEM reports for all the patients admitted to the seizure monitoring unit in the Calgary Epilepsy Program between July'10 and August'17...
December 24, 2018: Epilepsy Research
John Faro, Patrick J Coppler, Cameron Dezfulian, Maria Baldwin, Bradley Molyneaux, Alexandra Urban, Jon C Rittenberger, Clifton W Callaway, Jonathan Elmer
BACKGROUND: Epileptiform activity is common after cardiac arrest, although intensity of electroencephalographic (EEG) monitoring may affect detection rates. Prior work has grouped these patterns together as "malignant," without considering discrete subtypes. We describe the incidence of distinct patterns in the ictal-interictal spectrum at two centers and their association with outcomes. METHODS: We analyzed a retrospective cohort of comatose post-arrest patients admitted at two academic centers from January 2011 to October 2014...
December 23, 2018: Resuscitation
Li-Rong Shao, Jong M Rho, Carl E Stafstrom
Conventional antiseizure medications reduce neuronal excitability through effects on ion channels or synaptic function. In recent years, it has become clear that metabolic factors also play a crucial role in the modulation of neuronal excitability. Indeed, metabolic regulation of neuronal excitability is pivotal in seizure pathogenesis and control. The clinical effectiveness of a variety of metabolism-based diets, especially for children with medication-refractory epilepsy, underscores the applicability of metabolic approaches to the control of seizures and epilepsy...
December 2018: Epilepsia Open
Hiroki Nariai, Joyce Y Wu, Danilo Bernardo, Aria Fallah, Raman Sankar, Shaun A Hussain
High-frequency oscillations (HFOs), including ripples (Rs) and fast ripples (FRs), are promising biomarkers of epileptogenesis, but their clinical utility is limited by the lack of a standardized approach to identification. We set out to determine whether electroencephalographers experienced in HFO analysis can reliably identify and quantify interictal HFOs. Two blinded raters independently reviewed 10 intraoperative electrocorticography (ECoG) samples from epilepsy surgery cases, and 10 scalp EEG samples from epilepsy monitoring unit evaluations...
December 2018: Epilepsia Open
Kelsey M Smith, Jeffrey W Britton, Gregory D Cascino
Background: We describe the clinical features and outcome in patients with late-onset Lennox-Gastaut syndrome (LGS). Methods: Adult patients evaluated between January 1, 2000, and March 1, 2017, who presented with onset of LGS ≥10 years were identified. Data abstracted included age at seizure onset, seizure types, etiology, treatments, EEG and neuroimaging results, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) findings, and autoimmune evaluation. Results: Ten patients (8 females) were identified...
October 2018: Neurology. Clinical Practice
Maher Arabi, Maya Dirani, Roula Hourani, Wassim Nasreddine, Jaafar Wazne, Samir Atweh, Heba Samara, Abdel Rahman Shatila, Ahmad Beydoun
Objective: To evaluate prospectively the frequency of epileptogenic lesions in a consecutive cohort of elderly patients presenting with new onset unprovoked seizures, and who underwent a complete evaluation including dedicated epilepsy protocol MRI. Methods and materials: We included all consecutive patients 60 years or older who participated in a prospective study on new onset epilepsy. The work-up included the acquisition of a dedicated epilepsy protocol MRI and a 3 h video/EEG recording. We evaluated the frequency and types of epileptogenic lesions in the whole cohort and stratified those variables by age, gender, types and number of seizures at presentation...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Chris G Dulla, Damir Janigro, Premysl Jiruska, Joseph V Raimondo, Akio Ikeda, Chou-Ching K Lin, Howard P Goodkin, Aristea S Galanopoulou, Christophe Bernard, Marco de Curtis
In vitro brain tissue preparations allow the convenient and affordable study of brain networks and have allowed us to garner molecular, cellular, and electrophysiologic insights into brain function with a detail not achievable in vivo. Preparations from both rodent and human postsurgical tissue have been utilized to generate in vitro electrical activity similar to electrographic activity seen in patients with epilepsy. A great deal of knowledge about how brain networks generate various forms of epileptiform activity has been gained, but due to the multiple in vitro models and manipulations used, there is a need for a standardization across studies...
December 2018: Epilepsia Open
Tetsu Hirosawa, Mitsuru Kikuchi, Mina Fukai, Shoryoku Hino, Tatsuru Kitamura, Kyung-Min An, Paul Sowman, Tetsuya Takahashi, Yuko Yoshimura, Yoshiaki Miyagishi, Yoshio Minabe
Electroencephalograms of individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) show higher rates of interictal epileptiform discharges (IEDs), which are known to have an inverse association with cognitive function in typically developed (TD) children. Nevertheless, that phenomenon has not been investigated adequately in children with ASD. From university and affiliated hospitals, 163 TD children (84 male, 79 female, aged 32-89 months) and 107 children (85 male, 22 female, aged 36-98 months) with ASD without clinical seizure were recruited...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Chang Cai, Jiajing Xu, Jayabal Velmurugan, Robert Knowlton, Kensuke Sekihara, Srikantan S Nagarajan, Heidi Kirsch
Magnetoencephalography (MEG) data is subject to many sources of environmental noise, and interference rejection is a necessary step in the processing of MEG data. Large amplitude interference caused by sources near the brain have been both common in clinical settings and difficult to reject. Artifacts from vagal nerve stimulators (VNS) are a common and difficult example. In this study, we describe a novel MEG interference rejection algorithm called dual signal subspace projection (DSSP) and evaluate its performance in clinical MEG data from people with epilepsy and implanted VNS...
November 28, 2018: NeuroImage
Wei-Chih Chang, Jan Kudlacek, Jaroslav Hlinka, Jan Chvojka, Michal Hadrava, Vojtech Kumpost, Andrew D Powell, Radek Janca, Matias I Maturana, Philippa J Karoly, Dean R Freestone, Mark J Cook, Milan Palus, Jakub Otahal, John G R Jefferys, Premysl Jiruska
The mechanism of seizure emergence and the role of brief interictal epileptiform discharges (IEDs) in seizure generation are two of the most important unresolved issues in modern epilepsy research. We found that the transition to seizure is not a sudden phenomenon, but is instead a slow process that is characterized by the progressive loss of neuronal network resilience. From a dynamical perspective, the slow transition is governed by the principles of critical slowing, a robust natural phenomenon that is observable in systems characterized by transitions between dynamical regimes...
December 2018: Nature Neuroscience
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