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Systematic Review and Neurology

Marina Dorigatti Borges, Dulcineia Martins de Albuquerque, Carolina Lanaro, Fernando Ferreira Costa, Kleber Yotsumoto Fertrin
Aceruloplasminemia is a rare form of brain iron overload of autosomal recessive inheritance that results from mutations in the CP gene, encoding the iron oxidase ceruloplasmin. Homozygous aceruloplasminemia causes progressive neurodegenerative disease, anemia, and diabetes, and is usually diagnosed late in life upon investigation of anemia, high ferritin, or movement disorders, but its heterozygous state is less characterized and believed to be silent. Here we report two heterozygotes for new mutations causing aceruloplasminemia from whom peripheral blood samples were collected for complete blood counts, iron studies, and genotyping by automated sequencing...
March 22, 2019: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part B, Neuropsychiatric Genetics
Katherine Holste, Alvin Y Chan, John D Rolston, Dario J Englot
BACKGROUND: Microvascular decompression (MVD) is a potentially curative surgery for drug-resistant trigeminal neuralgia (TN). Predictors of pain freedom after MVD are not fully understood. OBJECTIVE: To describe rates and predictors for pain freedom following MVD. METHODS: Using preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses (PRISMA) guidelines, PubMed, Cochrane Library, and Scopus were queried for primary studies examining pain outcomes after MVD for TN published between 1988 and March 2018...
March 20, 2019: Neurosurgery
Ping Xu, Jing-Shen Zhuang, Yu-Sheng Huang, Jian-Ting Chen, Zhao-Ming Zhong
CONTEXT: Considerable controversy exists over surgical procedures for ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL). OBJECTIVE: The purpose of the meta-analysis was to compare the clinical outcome of anterior decompression and fusion (ADF) with laminoplasty (LAMP) in treatment of cervical myelopathy due to OPLL. METHODS: PubMed, EMBASE and the Cochrane Register of Controlled Trials database were searched to identify potential clinical studies compared ADF with LAMP for cervical myelopathy owing to OPLL...
March 19, 2019: Journal of Spinal Cord Medicine
Paul Enck, Sibylle Klosterhalfen
Sex has been speculated to be a predictor of the placebo and nocebo effect for many years, but whether this holds true or not has rarely been investigated. We utilized a placebo literature database on various aspects of the genuine placebo/nocebo response. In 2015, we had extracted 75 systematic reviews, meta-analyses, and meta-regressions performed in major medical areas (neurology, psychiatry, internal medicine). These meta-analyses were screened for whether sex/gender differences had been noted to contribute to the placebo/nocebo effect: in only 3 such analyses female sex was associated with a higher placebo effect, indicating poor evidence for a contribution of sex to it in RCTs...
2019: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Sun Hwa Lee, Seong Jong Yun
AIMS: We evaluated the diagnostic performance of optic nerve sheath diameter (ONSD) for prediction of neurologic outcome in post-cardiac arrest patients and relative prediction performance according to ONSD measurement modality. DATA SOURCES: PubMed and EMBASE databases were searched for diagnostic accuracy studies that used ocular ultrasound or brain computed tomography (CT) for prediction of neurologic outcome. Bivariate modelling and hierarchical-summary and receiver-operating-characteristic modelling were performed to evaluate diagnostic performance...
March 13, 2019: Resuscitation
Ji Hoon Na, Young Mock Lee
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: There is an increasing rate of presentations by transient and adult patients (TAPs) to pediatric emergency departments (PED-EDs). TAPs with neurologic diseases (N-TAPs) comprise most of these patients. We investigated this trend and compared the characteristics of N-TAPs with those of pediatric patients with neurologic diseases (N-PEDs) who presented to the PED-ED of a tertiary-care hospital in Korea. METHODS: We reviewed the medical records of neurologic patients who presented to the PED-ED of a single tertiary-care hospital from 2013 to 2017...
March 11, 2019: Journal of Clinical Neurology
Alexandra G Robinson, Amy M Dennett, David A Snowdon
BACKGROUND: Task-specific training is an effective form of rehabilitation for improving mobility in neurological conditions. However, it remains unclear if task-specific training is effective in people with progressive disease. OBJECTIVE: To establish the efficacy of task-specific training on the mobility of individuals with progressive neurological conditions. DATA SOURCES: Electronic databases MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews...
November 15, 2018: Physiotherapy
Evaristo Villalba-Alemán, Mariáurea Matias Sarandy, Mônica Morais-Santos, Rômulo Dias Novaes, Reggiani Vilela Gonçalves
Currently, the types and distribution of the lesions induced in the central nervous system (CNS) by Trypanosoma cruzi remain unclear as the available evidence is based on fragmented data. Therefore, we developed a systematic review to analyse the main characteristics of the CNS lesions in non-human hosts infected. From a structured search on the PubMed/Medline and Scopus platforms, 32 studies were retrieved, subjected to data extraction and methodological bias analysis. Our results show that the most frequent alterations in the CNS are the presence of different forms of T...
March 15, 2019: Parasitology
P Castronovo, M Baccarin, A Ricciardello, C Picinelli, P Tomaiuolo, F Cucinotta, M Frittoli, C Lintas, R Sacco, A M Persico
Neurexins are presynaptic cell adhesion molecules critically involved in synaptogenesis and vesicular neurotransmitter release. They are encoded by three genes (NRXN1-3), each yielding a longer alpha (α) and a shorter beta (β) transcript. Deletions spanning the promoter and the initial exons of the NRXN1 gene, located in chromosome 2p16.3, are associated with a variety of neurodevelopmental, psychiatric, neurological and neuropsychological phenotypes. We have performed a systematic review to define (a) the clinical phenotypes most associated with mono-allelic exonic NRXN1 deletions, and (b) the phenotypic features of NRXN1 bi-allelic deficiency due to compound heterozygous deletions/mutations...
March 14, 2019: Clinical Genetics
Hyungoo Shin, Jae Guk Kim, Wonhee Kim, Tae Ho Lim, Bo-Hyoung Jang, Youngsuk Cho, Kyu-Sun Choi, Chiwon Ahn, Juncheol Lee, Min Kyun Na
AIM: This study aimed to seek evidence for the usefulness of the procalcitonin as a prognostic blood biomarker for outcomes in post-cardiac arrest patients. METHODS: We systematically searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library (search date: 8 Jan, 2019). Studies on patients who experienced return of spontaneous circulation, who had out of hospital cardiac arrest and had their level of procalcitonin measured and outcomes assessed at and after hospital discharge, were included...
March 11, 2019: Resuscitation
Chantel L Rabusin, Hylton B Menz, Jodie A McClelland, Jade M Tan, Glen A Whittaker, Angela M Evans, Shannon E Munteanu
BACKGROUND: Heel lifts, placed inside footwear are recommended for the management of numerous musculoskeletal conditions. Despite the potential therapeutic benefit of heel lifts, the mechanism(s) by which they exert their effects is unclear. The aim of this systematic review was to synthesise reported findings and summarise the effects of heel lifts on lower limb biomechanics and muscle function. RESEARCH QUESTION: Do heel lifts affect lower limb biomechanics and muscle function during walking and running? METHODS: Electronic databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, SPORTDiscus, AMED) were searched from inception to April 2018...
January 15, 2019: Gait & Posture
Li-Na Sun, Xiao-Li Liu
Convergent lines of evidence indicate the critical roles of adiponectin in regulating neural functions on different levels. Because of the importance in maintaining neural plasticity including adult neurogenesis and synaptic plasticity, adiponectin has the potential to serve as the treatment targets in therapies of neurological and psychiatric disorders. Hence, systematic review is needed to summarize how adiponectin works in the brain, and how the adiponectin pathway is employed as the treatment method needs to be determined...
January 8, 2019: Reviews in the Neurosciences
Zi-Xian Chen, Qing-Qing Xu, Chun-Shuo Shan, Yi-Hua Shi, Yong Wang, Raymond Chuen-Chung Chang, Guo-Qing Zheng
Borneol, a natural product in the Asteraceae family, is widely used as an upper ushering drug for various brain diseases in many Chinese herbal formulae. The blood-brain barrier (BBB) plays an essential role in maintaining a stable homeostatic environment, while BBB destruction and the increasing BBB permeability are common pathological processes in many serious central nervous system (CNS) diseases, which is especially an essential pathological basis of cerebral ischemic injury. Here, we aimed to conduct a systematic review to assess preclinical evidence of borneol for experimental ischemic stroke as well as investigate in the possible neuroprotective mechanisms, which mainly focused on regulating the permeability of BBB...
2019: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
Ebrahim M Yimer, Awol Surur, Dawit Zewdu Wondafrash, Abadi Kahsu Gebre
Background: Epilepsy is one of the common neurological illnesses which affects millions of individuals globally. Although the majority of epileptic patients have a good response for the currently available antiepileptic drugs (AEDs), about 30-40% of epileptic patients are developing resistance. In addition to low safety profiles of most of existing AEDs, there is no AED available for curative or disease-modifying actions for epilepsy so far. Objectives: This systematic review is intended to evaluate the effect of metformin in acute and chronic animal models of an epileptic seizure...
2019: Behavioural Neurology
Eric J Lavonas, Shinichiro Ohshimo, Kevin Nation, Patrick Van de Voorde, Gabrielle Nuthall, Ian Maconochie, Nazi Torabi, Laurie Morrison
AIM: To assess the use of advanced airway interventions (tracheal intubation (TI) or supraglottic airway (SGA) placement), compared with bag mask ventilation (BMV) alone, for resuscitation of children in cardiac arrest. METHODS: We searched Medline, EMBASE, and Cochrane Controlled Register of Trials (CENTRAL) for human trials and observational studies published before September 24, 2018 for clinical trials and observational studies with a comparison group. Two investigators reviewed studies for relevance, extracted data, and assessed risk of bias using the GRADE and CLARITY frameworks...
March 9, 2019: Resuscitation
Ka Wang Cheung, Lee Na Tan, Mimi Tin Yan Seto, Shruti Moholkar, Geraldine Masson, Mark D Kilby
BACKGROUND: Fetal subdural haematoma (SDH) is associated with poor prognosis. OBJECTIVE: The conflicting evidence from the literature presents a challenge in prenatal counselling. We present a case study and systematic review of the literature for the management and outcome of fetal SDH. METHODS: Systematic search of electronic database. RESULTS: A total 45 cases were extracted from 39 papers. Prenatal ultrasonographic features were intracranial echogenicity (42%), lateral ventriculomegaly (38%), presence of an intracranial mass (31%), macrocephaly (24%), midline deviation of cerebral falx (20%), and intracranial fluid collection (11%)...
March 12, 2019: Fetal Diagnosis and Therapy
Lars Bendtsen, Joanna Maria Zakrzewska, Jillie Abbott, Mark Braschinsky, Giulia Di Stefano, Anne Donnet, Per Kristian Eide, Paulo Roberto Lacerda Leal, Stine Maarbjerg, Arne May, Turo Nurmikko, Mark Obermann, Troels Staehlin Jensen, Giorgio Cruccu
BACKGROUND: Trigeminal neuralgia (TN) is an extremely painful condition, which can be difficult to diagnose and treat. In Europe, TN-patients are managed by many different specialities. Therefore, there is a great need for comprehensive European guidelines for management of TN. The European Academy of Neurology asked an expert panel to develop recommendations for a series of questions that are essential for daily clinical management of patients with TN. METHODS: We performed a systematic review of the literature and developed recommendations based on GRADE, where feasible, if not a good practice statement was given...
March 12, 2019: European Journal of Neurology: the Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies
Mohammad Yawar Yakoob, Murad Qadir, Omm E Hany
Animal studies have shown that vitamin A plays a role in immunity and protection against infectious diseases. Its role reducing incidence of diarrhea and measles, and childhood mortality is known, but its role in relation to malaria is unclear. Thus, a comprehensive, systematic literature search was conducted on PubMed and Cochrane Library to identify randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on the role of vitamin A during pregnancy and childhood for prevention and treatment of malaria. A total of 107 titles/abstracts were identified, of which 15 articles (11 studies) were selected for final inclusion...
December 2018: Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health
Katelyn Donaldson, Xun Li, Kennith H Sartorelli, Peter Weimersheimer, Susan R Durham
OBJECTIVES: Isolated skull fractures (ISFs) in children are one of the most common emergency department injuries. Recent studies suggest these children may be safely discharged following ED evaluation with little risk of delayed neurological compromise. The aim of this study was to propose an evidence-based protocol for the management of ISF in children in an effort to reduce medically unnecessary hospital admissions. METHODS: Using PubMed and The Cochrane Library databases, a literature search using the search terms (pediatric OR child) AND skull fracture AND (isolated OR linear) was performed...
March 7, 2019: Pediatric Emergency Care
Konstantinos I Avgerinos, Athanasios Chatzisotiriou, Anna-Bettina Haidich, Apostolos Tsapas, Vasileios-Arsenios Lioutas
Background and Purpose- Acute stroke treatment is challenging, and stroke remains a major cause of death and disability. The purpose of this meta-analysis is to investigate the effects of postacute stroke intravenous administration of the neuroprotectant magnesium sulfate (MgSO4 ) on global outcome, functional outcome, and mortality 90 days poststroke (ischemic and nonischemic). Methods- We searched in Pubmed, Science Direct, CENTRAL, and, up to November 11, 2017, and we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials...
March 11, 2019: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
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