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Neurocognitive impairment

Andreas Ap Solias, Agisilaos Ef Chaldogeridis, Areti V Batzikosta, Magda Tsolaki
INTRODUCTION: While attempting to test the population for Mild and Major Neurocognitive Disorders (M. - M. N.D.) there are tests in conventional and electronic form which are applied. However, a large proportion of elderly avoids being tested as the process itself causes stress and fatigue. The structure of the tests is often irrelevant to the experiences and life of the elderly as it focuses on the standard arraying of the diagnostic criteria. OBJECTIVES: A) the introduction of a culturally oriented screening test based on folk tradition...
January 2019: Hellenic Journal of Nuclear Medicine
Aikaterini Giazkoulidou, Lampros Messinis, Grigorios Nasios
Cognitive decline has been widely reported in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) despite its clinical heterogeneity, at all stages and in all subtypes of the disease. Deficits are most commonly present in attention, processing speed, working memory, verbal fluency and executive function. However, MS patients also show decreased performance in tasks related to social cognition, i.e. mental operations thatdrive interpersonal skills such as social perception, empathy and theory of mind. Social cognitive deficits are an underestimated but important aspect of impairment in MS, reflecting how people process, store, and apply information in social interactions...
January 2019: Hellenic Journal of Nuclear Medicine
Sol Fittipaldi, Agustín Ibáñez, Sandra Báez, Facundo Manes, Lucas Sedeño, Adolfo M García
Although primary progressive aphasia (PPA) is clinically typified by linguistic impairments, emerging evidence highlights the presence of early deficits in social cognition. This review systematically describes the latter patterns, specifying their relation to the characteristic linguistic dysfunctions and atrophy patterns of non-fluent, semantic, and logopenic variants of the disease (nfvPPA, svPPA, and lvPPA, respectively), relative to closely related dementia types. Whereas the evidence on lvPPA proves scant, studies on nfvPPA and svPPA patients show consistent deficits in emotion recognition, theory of mind, and empathy...
March 12, 2019: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
Danielle Ruiz Lima, Priscila Dib Gonçalves, Mariella Ometto, Andre Malbergier, Ricardo Abrantes Amaral, Bernardo Dos Santos, Mikael Cavallet, Tiffany Chaim-Avancini, Mauricio Henriques Serpa, Luiz Roberto Kobuti Ferreira, Fabio Luis de Souza Duran, Marcus Vinicius Zanetti, Sergio Nicastri, Geraldo Filho Busatto, Arthur Guerra Andrade, Paulo Jannuzzi Cunha
BACKGROUND: The severity of substance use disorder (SUD) is currently defined by the sum of DSM-5 criteria. However, little is known about the validity of this framework or the role of additional severity indicators in relapse prediction. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between DSM-5 criteria, neurocognitive functioning, substance use variables and cocaine relapse among inpatients with cocaine use disorder (CUD). METHODS: 128 adults aged between 18 and 45 years were evaluated; 68 (59 males, 9 females) had CUD and 60 (52 males, 8 females) were healthy controls...
February 16, 2019: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Jacqueline C Duperrouzel, Samuel W Hawes, Catalina Lopez-Quintero, Ileana Pacheco-Colón, Stefany Coxe, Timothy Hayes, Raul Gonzalez
OBJECTIVE: Impairments in neurocognitive functioning, including memory and executive functions, have been identified among adult cannabis users; however, less is known about the effects of cannabis use (CU) among adolescent users. Delineating the directionality of associations between CU and neurocognition has been restricted due to the relatively few longitudinal studies examining this question. As such, we examined whether decision-making prospectively predicted CU, and whether increases in CU were associated with changes in decision-making and episodic memory among a sample consisting predominantly of adolescent cannabis users...
March 14, 2019: Neuropsychology
Jacqueline Rosenthal, William Tyor
HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) continue to affect a large proportion of persons living with HIV despite effective viral suppression with combined antiretroviral therapy (cART). Importantly, milder versions of HAND have become more prevalent. The pathogenesis of HAND in the era of cART appears to be multifactorial with contributions from central nervous system (CNS) damage that occur prior to starting cART, chronic immune activation, cART neurotoxicity, and various age-related comorbidities (i...
March 13, 2019: Journal of Neurovirology
Ned Sacktor, Deanna Saylor, Gertrude Nakigozi, Noeline Nakasujja, Kevin Robertson, M Kate Grabowski, Alice Kisakye, James Batte, Richard Mayanja, Aggrey Anok, Ronald H Gray, Maria J Wawer
BACKGROUND: Combination antiretroviral therapy (ART) improves HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND) stage in the US where subtype B predominates, but the effect of ART and subtype on HAND stage in individuals in Uganda with subtypes D and A is largely unknown. SETTING: A community-based cohort of participants residing in Rakai, Uganda. METHODS: 399 initially ART-naive HIV-seropositive (HIV+) individuals were followed over two years...
February 15, 2019: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
Nicola J Gates, Robin Wm Vernooij, Marcello Di Nisio, Salman Karim, Evrim March, Gabriel Martínez, Anne Ws Rutjes
BACKGROUND: The number of people living with dementia is increasing rapidly. Clinical dementia does not develop suddenly, but rather is preceded by a period of cognitive decline beyond normal age-related change. People at this intermediate stage between normal cognitive function and clinical dementia are often described as having mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Considerable research and clinical efforts have been directed toward finding disease-modifying interventions that may prevent or delay progression from MCI to clinical dementia...
March 13, 2019: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Nicola J Gates, Anne Ws Rutjes, Marcello Di Nisio, Salman Karim, Lee-Yee Chong, Evrim March, Gabriel Martínez, Robin Wm Vernooij
BACKGROUND: Normal aging is associated with changes in cognitive function that are non-pathological and are not necessarily indicative of future neurocognitive disease. Low cognitive and brain reserve and limited cognitive stimulation are associated with increased risk of dementia. Emerging evidence now suggests that subtle cognitive changes, detectable years before criteria for mild cognitive impairment are met, may be predictive of future dementia. Important for intervention and reduction in disease risk, research also suggests that engaging in stimulating mental activity throughout adulthood builds cognitive and brain reserve and reduces dementia risk...
March 13, 2019: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Cherie Strikwerda-Brown, Siddharth Ramanan, Muireann Irish
Much of human interaction is predicated upon our innate capacity to infer the thoughts, beliefs, emotions, and perspectives of others, in short, to possess a "theory of mind" (ToM). While the term has evolved considerably since its inception, ToM encompasses our unique ability to apprehend the mental states of others, enabling us to anticipate and predict subsequent behavior. From a developmental perspective, ToM has been a topic of keen research interest, with numerous studies seeking to explicate the origins of this fundamental capacity and its disruption in developmental disorders such as autism...
2019: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
Kate Haining, Claire Matrunola, Lucy Mitchell, Ruchika Gajwani, Joachim Gross, Andrew I Gumley, Stephen M Lawrie, Matthias Schwannauer, Frauke Schultze-Lutter, Peter J Uhlhaas
BACKGROUND: The current study examined the pattern of neurocognitive impairments in a community-recruited sample of clinical high-risk (CHR) participants and established relationships with psychosocial functioning. METHODS: CHR-participants (n = 108), participants who did not fulfil CHR-criteria (CHR-negatives) (n = 42) as well as a group of healthy controls (HCs) (n = 55) were recruited. CHR-status was assessed using the Comprehensive Assessment of At-Risk Mental States (CAARMS) and the Schizophrenia Proneness Instrument, Adult Version (SPI-A)...
March 13, 2019: Psychological Medicine
Kensuke Komatsu, Ei Kinai, Maiko Sakamoto, Toshibumi Taniguchi, Aya Nakao, Tatsuro Sakata, Akiko Iizuka, Teppei Koyama, Toki Ogata, Akihiro Inui, Shinichi Oka
Detailed information of the effects of age and long-term HIV infection on various neurocognitive function have not been fully evaluated yet. In a prospective Japanese nationwide multicenter study of 17 facilities (J-HAND study), 728 HIV-infected individuals completed 14 neuropsychological (NP) tests; Verbal Fluency (VF; category and letter), Digit Span (DS; forward and backward), Trail Making Test (TMT) A-B, Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure Test (ROCFT; copy, immediate and delayed recall), Story Memory Test (SMT; immediate and delayed recall), Digit Symbol Subset (DSS), and the Grooved Pegboard (GP; dominant and non-dominant)...
March 11, 2019: Journal of Neurovirology
Thomas Vlasak, Galateja Jordakieva, Timo Gnambs, Christoph Augner, Richard Crevenna, Robert Winker, Alfred Barth
OBJECTIVE: The neurotoxicity of lead is well-known and even low exposure levels potentially impact neurocognitive abilities. This metaanalysis aimed to investigate associations between neurocognitive performance and lead exposure in adults and further assess potential effect thresholds. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Articles indexed in Medline published until January 2017 reporting associations between lead exposure, blood lead, cognitive abilities and sensomotoric performance were included...
March 5, 2019: Science of the Total Environment
Lynn H Gerber
INTRODUCTION: Understanding the impact of disease on function and improving functional outcomes is an important goal of rehabilitation. This scoping review provides analyzes 25 years of published traumatic brain injury (TBI) clinical rehabilitation research (CRR) to determine the frequency with which function is a research goal. METHODS: The review protocol was prepared by experienced clinical researchers in the field. We used these search terms: "moderate traumatic brain injury" and "severe traumatic brain injury" and "functional outcomes"; and "rehabilitation" and "educational outcomes" or "cognition" or "community roles" or "community integration" "behavior" or "neuropsychology" or "quality of life", or "vocational outcomes" or "work" or "return to work"...
March 7, 2019: NeuroRehabilitation
Yong Zhang, Xiaojuan Ma, Sixiang Liang, Wenwen Yu, Qianqian He, Jian Zhang, Yanhui Bian
Bipolar disorder (BD) is associated with functional impairment. Social Cognition and Interaction Training (SCIT) has been shown to be feasible and effective at improving social functioning in patients with schizophrenia. We aimed to explore the association between SCIT and improvements in the clinical symptoms and functioning of partially remitted patients with BD in China. Seventy-four BD patients were randomly assigned to the SCIT and psychoeducation (Control) groups. All subjects participated in group interventions weekly for 8 weeks...
March 4, 2019: Psychiatry Research
Oleg A Levada, Alexandra S Troyan
BACKGROUND: Major depressive disorder (MDD) is one of the most prevalent mental illnesses associated with impairments in different spheres of functioning. Cognitive deficits are currently investigated as a possible factor of functional decline. We aimed: 1) to assess the influence of cognitive domains among other MDD symptoms on functional impairment; 2) to compare effects of eight weeks` vortioxetine versus escitalopram treatments on cognitions and consequent influence on various domains of functioning...
March 5, 2019: Journal of Affective Disorders
Erin D Wenzel, Valeria Avdoshina, Italo Mocchetti
Human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV) infection of the central nervous system damages synapses and promotes axonal injury, ultimately resulting in HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). The mechanisms through which HIV causes damage to neurons are still under investigation. The cytoskeleton and associated proteins are fundamental for axonal and dendritic integrity. In this article, we review evidence that HIV proteins, such as the envelope protein gp120 and transactivator of transcription (Tat), impair the structure and function of the neuronal cytoskeleton...
March 8, 2019: Journal of Neurovirology
Gregory P Strauss, Hannah C Chapman, William R Keller, James I Koenig, James M Gold, William T Carpenter, Robert W Buchanan
Intranasal administration of the neuropeptide oxytocin (OT) has yielded inconsistent effects on social cognition and general cognition in individuals with schizophrenia (SZ). Few studies have examined whether endogenous peripheral OT levels are also associated with social and general cognition in SZ. The current study examined whether plasma OT levels are associated with performance on a higher-order social cognition measure (i.e., a task that requires inferential processes and knowledge not directly presented in social stimuli), as well as domains of general cognition...
February 25, 2019: Journal of Psychiatric Research
Ying Liu, An Qi Li, Wan Ma, Yu Bo Gao, Li Qin Deng, Chun Zhang, Jin Hai Meng
Prolonged or repeated exposure to ketamine, a common anesthetic in pediatrics, has been shown to induce neurotoxicity and long-term neurocognitive deficits in the developing brain. Therefore, identification of potential therapeutic targets for preventing or alleviating such neurodegeneration and neuroapoptosis induced by ketamine is urgently needed. Remote ischemic preconditioning of the limb provides neuroprotection in different models of cerebral injury. Thus, the present study aimed to assess whether remote ischemic preconditioning could have a neuroprotective effect against neurotoxicity induced by ketamine...
March 7, 2019: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
Arunachalam Muthuraman, Kamus Nafisa, Mysore Srinivasmurthy Sowmya, Bachahalli Madappa Arpitha, Nagdol Choedon, Crasta Denis Sandy, Narahari Rishitha, Islam Johurul
BACKGROUND: Cigarette smoke is exogenous modifiable factors to changes the neurovascular complication. The chronic exposure of cigarette smoke enhances neurocognitive dysfunction. AIMS: The present study is focused on evaluating the role of ambrisentan (selective endothelin-A receptor antagonist) on cigarette smoke-induced cognitive impairment in Danio rerio. MAIN METHODS: The cognitive dysfunction was developed by cigarette smoke exposure (CSE; 10 min in 25 ml of CSE per day) for five days...
March 4, 2019: Life Sciences
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