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pediatrics sensitivity and specificity study

Tian Liang, Eric Roseman, Melanie Gao, Richard Sinert
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the utility of the Point of Care Ultrasound (POCUS) Focused Assessment with Sonography for Trauma (FAST) examination for diagnosis of intra-abdominal injury (IAI) in children presenting with blunt abdominal trauma. METHODS: We searched medical literature from January 1966 to March 2018 in PubMed, EMBASE, and Web of Science. Prospective studies of POCUS FAST examinations in diagnosing IAI in pediatric trauma were included. Sensitivity, specificity, and likelihood ratios (LR) were calculated using a random-effects model (95% confidence interval)...
March 12, 2019: Pediatric Emergency Care
Nick E Radandt, Tara Corbridge, Donna B Johnson, Amy S Kim, JoAnna M Scott, Susan E Coldwell
Purpose: The United States is typically viewed as a wealthy country, yet not all households have access to enough food for an active, healthy life. The purpose of this study was to validate a two-item written food security screen that health providers may use to identify food insecurity in their patient populations. Methods: Data were obtained from 150 parents or guardians who brought a child to a dental appointment at The Center for Pediatric Dentistry, University of Washington, Seattle, Wash., USA. The sensitivity and specificity of two written questions were determined by comparing with the United States Department of Agriculture Six-item Short Form of the Food Security Survey Module...
September 15, 2018: Journal of Dentistry for Children
Martijn V Verhagen, Tom A Watson, Melissa Hickson, Naima Smeulders, Paul D Humphries
BACKGROUND: The usefulness of acoustic shadowing as a feature of pediatric kidney stone ultrasound (US) may be underestimated. OBJECTIVE: The hypothesis was that the majority of stones in children have acoustic shadowing and that its specificity is high (>90%) in pediatric kidney stones. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Our retrospective observational study included children who had undergone abdominal non-enhanced computed tomography (CT) for kidney stones in a pediatric renal stone referral centre between 2015 and 2016...
March 14, 2019: Pediatric Radiology
Panagiotis Kiekkas, Diamanto Aretha, Eleni Almpani, Nikolaos Stefanopoulos
PROBLEM: Non-invasive thermometry methods have been used as substitutes for intra-corporeal ones in order to decrease patient discomfort and risk for complications, yet the evaluation of their performance is necessary. Our aim was to synthesize the evidence on the accuracy and precision of temporal artery (TA) thermometry, as well as on its sensitivity and specificity for fever detection. ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA: This systematic review and meta-analysis included method-comparison studies, which compared TA temperature measurements with invasive thermometry ones, were published between 2000 and 2018, and were conducted on patients aged <18 years...
March 10, 2019: Journal of Pediatric Nursing
Moises Rodriguez-Gonzalez, Maria Isabel Sanchez-Codez, Manuel Lubian-Gutierrez, Ana Castellano-Martinez
BACKGROUND: Myocarditis is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in children, leading to long-term sequelae including chronic congestive heart failure, dilated cardiomyopathy, heart transplantation, and death. The initial diagnosis of myocarditis is usually based on clinical presentation, but this widely ranges from the severe sudden onset of a cardiogenic shock to asymptomatic patients. Early recognition is essential in order to monitor and start supportive treatment prior to the development of severe adverse events...
March 6, 2019: World Journal of Clinical Cases
L Roth, S Moerdler, D Weiser, L Douglas, J Gill, M Roth
OBJECTIVE: To determine how otolaryngologists and pediatric oncologists differ in their initial approach to diagnosing head and neck masses in children and adolescents. METHODS: We designed an electronic 28-question survey consisting of 4 clinical cases and one referral case varying by patient age, history, and physical exam findings. The survey was sent anonymously to pediatric oncologists and otolaryngologists at institutions in the United States and Canada. RESULTS: Two hundred and thirty one pediatric oncologists (29...
March 7, 2019: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
Robert Slinger, Kelly Amrud, Nadia Sant, Karam Ramotar, Marc Desjardins
BACKGROUND: Molecular methods enable more rapid and sensitive detection of herpes simplex virus (HSV) than viral culture. OBJECTIVE: Three commercial molecular methods, all of which detect both HSV-1 and HSV-2, were compared to viral culture for the detection of HSV from swab specimens. STUDY DESIGN: Pediatric and adult patient viral swab specimens were cultured for HSV. Residual swab fluid was frozen at -80 °C until tested with the 3 molecular methods: the Quidel Solana HSV 1 + 2/VZV Assay, the Focus Diagnostics Simplexa HSV 1 & 2 Direct Assay and the Luminex Aries HSV 1&2 Assay...
March 2, 2019: Journal of Clinical Virology: the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
Mehmet Sedat Durmaz, Nesibe Akyürek, Turgay Kara, Fatih Ateş, Bora Özbakir, Funda Gökgöz Durmaz, Seda Soğukpinar Karaağaç, Mehmet Öztürk
The study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of the vascularization index (VI) obtained using superb microvascular imaging (SMI) technique in the diagnosis of Hashimoto thyroiditis (HT). The thyroid glands of 80 patients with HT and 107 healthy, asymptomatic participants were examined using SMI. The thyroid parenchyma echogenicity was evaluated, and the thyroid gland volume was measured. Vascularization index measurements were performed by manually drawing the contours of the thyroid parenchyma using the free region of interest with color 2-dimensional SMI VI mode...
March 6, 2019: Ultrasound Quarterly
Waseem A Mirza, Mujtaba Z Naveed, Kumail Khandwala
Introduction Making an accurate diagnosis of acute appendicitis (AA) is vital to prevent the morbid complications associated with untreated AA. This is challenging in up to 30% of pediatric patients which is a significantly high number. Ultrasound (US) has been generally used as the initial mode of imaging in pediatric patients due to the lack of ionizing radiation. Given its variable accuracy, adjuvants such as secondary signs can be used to aid the radiologist in making an accurate diagnosis. Materials and methods Patients between the ages of two and sixteen years with acute abdominal pain suspicious for AA, who underwent right lower quadrant US between 2003 and 2016, were retrospectively identified...
December 27, 2018: Curēus
Rishi Pabary, Christophe Goubau, Kylie Russo, Aidan Laverty, François Abel, Martin Samuels
The Pediatric Sleep Questionnaire described by Chervin et al. (Sleep Medicine, 2000, 1, 21-32) was originally validated for children with obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome but without other disorders. The aim of our study was to check the applicability of this questionnaire in children with underlying chronic medical conditions. Children aged 2-18 years who underwent a diagnostic sleep study at Great Ormond Street Hospital were recruited over a 10-month period. The Pediatric Sleep Questionnaire completed by their parents and cardiorespiratory polygraphy were scored...
March 7, 2019: Journal of Sleep Research
Xiong Xie, Ming Li, Tian-Tian Xiong, Rui Wang, Liang Xiao
BACKGROUND: Currently, it is difficult to predict the complications of children at the early stage of sepsis. Brighton pediatric early warning score (PEWS) is a disease risk assessment system that is simple and easy to operate, which has good sensitivity and specificity in disease recognition among children. Because detection indicators vary widely in children, a single indicator is difficult to assess the post-treatment status of children with sepsis. AIM: To investigate the relationship between serological markers, Brighton PEWS, and death in children with sepsis after treatment...
February 26, 2019: World Journal of Clinical Cases
Ravi S Samraj, Maria Kerrigan, Maria Mejia, Laura Wilson, James C Fudge, Himesh V Vyas, Dipankar Gupta
PURPOSE: Shock is associated with increased tissue oxygen extraction. Near-infrared spectroscopy-derived thenar muscle tissue oxygenation (StO2 ) levels can provide an estimate of the oxygen supply-demand balance at the tissue level. We hypothesized that thenar StO2 levels would correlate with central venous oxygen saturation (ScvO2 ) levels, the gold standard for global tissue oxygen extraction in the body. METHODS: We prospectively enrolled 60 pediatric subjects admitted to pediatric intensive care unit or who underwent cardiac catheterization from September 2015 to March 2018...
March 6, 2019: Clinical Pediatrics
Silvije Šegulja, Alen Ružić, Dora Dujmić, Ksenija Baždarić, Jelena Roganović
AIM: To identify the risk factors of a repeated episode of severe febrile neutropenia (FN) and to build an accurate and easy-to-use predictive model. METHODS: This single-center retrospective cohort study conducted at the Clinical Hospital Center Children's Hospital Rijeka from January 1, 2008 to December 31, 2016 included pediatric patients with malignant diseases who experienced at least one FN episode. The association of the second severe FN episode appearance with relevant clinical and laboratory data was analyzed by logistic regression...
February 28, 2019: Croatian Medical Journal
Claudio Maliziola, Simona Frigerio, Salvatore Lanzarone, Alessandra Barale, Maurizio Berardino, Marco Clari
BACKGROUND: The trauma team (TT) model could reduce mortality, morbidity, and duration of hospital stay, costs, and complications. To avoid over- or undertriage for trauma team activation, robust criteria have to be chosen. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of a TT activation protocol for major trauma patients to predict the need for emergency treatment. METHODS: A retrospective observational study was carried out in the Emergency Department (ED) of a major Italian trauma center...
February 26, 2019: International Emergency Nursing
Sebastiano Barco, Iedan Verly, Maria Valeria Corrias, Stefania Sorrentino, Massimo Conte, Gino Tripodi, Godelieve Tytgat, André van Kuilenburg, Maria van der Ham, Monique de Sain-van der Velden, Alberto Garaventa, Giuliana Cangemi
INTRODUCTION: A substantial number of patients with neuroblastoma (NB) have increased excretion of catecholamines and metanephrines. Here, we have investigated the diagnostic role of plasma free metanephrines (PFM), metanephrine (MN), normetanephrine (NMN) and 3-methoxytyramine (3MT) for NB, the most common extra-cranial solid tumour in children. METHODS: PFM were quantified by using a commercial IVD-CE LC-MS/MS method on a TSQ Quantiva coupled to an Ultimate 3000...
February 26, 2019: Clinical Biochemistry
Anuj Singh, Rakesh Lodha, Shivaram Shastri, G Sethuraman, K N Sreedevi, Madhulika Kabra, S K Kabra
OBJECTIVE: To study the utility of aquagenic wrinkling as screening test for children with cystic fibrosis. DESIGN: Evaluation of diagnostic test. SETTING: Pediatric Chest Clinic, and Pediatric Wards of a tertiary care hospital in New Delhi. PARTICIPANTS: Three groups (children with cystic fibrosis, carriers of cystic fibrosis, and controls). METHODS: Time taken to develop aquagenic wrinkling was measured...
February 15, 2019: Indian Pediatrics
K Sabri, B Easterbrook, N Khosla, C Davis, F Farrokhyar
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to test the sensitivity and specificity of eight undergraduate volunteer examiners conducting vision screening tests in a community setting, in order to determine if non-eye care professionals were able to be trained to an appropriate level of skill. METHODS: Eight undergraduate volunteer examiners were trained to conduct vision screening tests to address a gap in pediatric community eye care. Phase I of the study was implemented in the pediatric ophthalmology clinic, and phase II was conducted in nine local schools...
February 28, 2019: BMC Medical Education
Norman Ramírez, Gerardo Olivella, Pablo Valentín, José Feneque, Soniely Lugo, Iván Iriarte
INTRODUCTION: Previous studies have suggested that most cases of pediatric back pain do not have an identifiable cause. No reliable sign or indication differentiates between a benign or serious cause of the symptom. Constant pain, night pain, and abnormal neurological examination have been suggested as adequate predictors of an identifiable cause, when plain radiographs could not explain the symptoms. The purpose of this study is to determine the sensitivity, specificity, and likelihood ratios of constant pain, night pain, and abnormal neurological examination to predict the presence of an underlying positive finding as a cause of back pain...
February 25, 2019: Journal of Pediatric Orthopedics
Mohamed Abdelaziz El-Gamasy, Wageh S El-Naghy
Sickle cell disease (SCD) is a hereditary hemoglobinopathy characterized by abnormal hemoglobin production which leads to hemolytic anemia and intermittent occlusion of small blood vessels, which further leads to tissue ischemia, chronic organ damage, and organ dysfunction including urinary system. To measure the serum levels of cystatin-C and beta 2 microglobulin in pediatric patients with SCDand to investigate their significance as early biomarkers of glomerular and/or renal tubular dysfunction. This study was conducted among 70 children with SCD and 40 age and sex-matched children as a control group...
January 2019: Indian Journal of Nephrology
Jaishree Vasudevan, Alexander Mannu, G Ganavi
OBJECTIVE: To assess the validity of modified Centor Score in predicting streptococcal pharyngitis, and describe the antibiotic sensitivity of streptococcal strains. METHODS: A cross-sectional study of 120 children (age 1-18 y) with signs and symptoms of pharyngitis was undertaken in the pediatric department of a tertiary care teaching hospital in Chennai from July 2015 to April 2016. Modified Centor score was calculated for all children, and streptococcal sore throat was confirmed by throat swab culture...
January 15, 2019: Indian Pediatrics
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