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maternal to zygote transition

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https://read.qxmd.com/read/30759824/endogenous-retroviruses-function-as-gene-expression-regulatory-elements-during-mammalian-pre-implantation-embryo-development
#1
REVIEW
Bo Fu, Hong Ma, Di Liu
Pre-implantation embryo development encompasses several key developmental events, especially the activation of zygotic genome activation (ZGA)-related genes. Endogenous retroviruses (ERVs), which are regarded as "deleterious genomic parasites", were previously considered to be "junk DNA". However, it is now known that ERVs, with limited conservatism across species, mediate conserved developmental processes (e.g., ZGA). Transcriptional activation of ERVs occurs during the transition from maternal control to zygotic genome control, signifying ZGA...
February 12, 2019: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30715134/a-story-of-birth-and-death-mrna-translation-and-clearance-at-the-onset-of-maternal-to-zygotic-transition-in-mammals
#2
Qian-Qian Sha, Jue Zhang, Heng-Yu Fan
In mammals, maternal-to-zygotic transition (MZT), or oocyte-to-embryo transition, begins with oocyte meiotic resumption due to the sequential translational activation and destabilization of dormant maternal transcripts stored in the ooplasm. It then continues with the elimination of maternal transcripts during oocyte maturation and fertilization and ends with the full transcriptional activation of the zygotic genome during embryonic development. A hallmark of MZT in mammals is its reliance on translation and the utilization of stored RNAs and proteins, rather than de novo transcription of genes, to sustain meiotic maturation and early development...
January 31, 2019: Biology of Reproduction
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30583723/pure-early-zygotic-genes-in-the-asian-malaria-mosquito-anopheles-stephensi
#3
Yang Wu, Wanqi Hu, James K Biedler, Xiao-Guang Chen, Zhijian Jake Tu
BACKGROUND: The Asian malaria mosquito, Anopheles stephensi, is a major urban malaria vector in the Middle East and on the Indian subcontinent. Early zygotic transcription, which marks the maternal-to-zygotic transition, has not been systematically studied in An. stephensi or any other Anopheles mosquitoes. Improved understanding of early embryonic gene expression in An. stephensi will facilitate genetic and evolutionary studies and help with the development of novel control strategies for this important disease vector...
December 24, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30578761/leukemia-inhibitory-factor-signaling-in-xenopus-embryo-insights-from-gain-of-function-analysis-and-dominant-negative-mutant-of-the-receptor
#4
Sandra Jalvy, Philippe Veschambre, Sandrine Fédou, Hamid Reza Rezvani, Nadine Thézé, Pierre Thiébaud
Leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) is a cytokine member of the interleukin 6 family (IL6) of cytokines. It signals through a heterodimer receptor complex that consists of the LIF receptor (or LIFR formerly known as gp190) and the Interleukin 6 signal transducer (or IL6ST formerly known as gp130). LIF signaling is mediated mainly by signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) and has a wide variety of biological activities with pleiotropic effects on many cell types and organs among which are stem cell renewal and implantation process in mammalian embryo...
December 19, 2018: Developmental Biology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30578596/function-of-berberine-on-porcine-ivf-embryo-development-and-differential-expression-analysis-of-micrornas
#5
J-L Wang, C Zhang, B Liu, X-M Huang, J-G Dai, J-H Tian, J-M Gao
The effect of berberine (Ber) on in vitro fertilization (IVF) embryo development in pigs and the associated differential expression of microRNAs (miRNAs) in the embryo were investigated. NCSU-23 embryonic culture medium was used for a control group, while NCSU-23 embryonic culture medium added with Ber was used for a Ber group. The embryo development rates in these groups were determined, and the zygotes, 4- and 8-cell embryos, and blastocysts were collected for cDNA microarray analysis. The development rates of 2-, 4-, 8-cell embryos and blastocysts were significantly higher in the Ber group than those in the control group (P < 0...
December 22, 2018: Reproduction in Domestic Animals, Zuchthygiene
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30573849/mechanisms-regulating-zygotic-genome-activation
#6
REVIEW
Katharine N Schulz, Melissa M Harrison
Following fertilization, the two specified gametes must unite to create an entirely new organism. The genome is initially transcriptionally quiescent, allowing the zygote to be reprogrammed into a totipotent state. Gradually, the genome is activated through a process known as the maternal-to-zygotic transition, which enables zygotic gene products to replace the maternal supply that initiated development. This essential transition has been broadly characterized through decades of research in several model organisms...
December 20, 2018: Nature Reviews. Genetics
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30557299/evolution-of-maternal-and-zygotic-mrna-complements-in-the-early-drosophila-embryo
#7
Joel Atallah, Susan E Lott
The earliest stage of animal development is controlled by maternally deposited mRNA transcripts and proteins. Once the zygote is able to transcribe its own genome, maternal transcripts are degraded, in a tightly regulated process known as the maternal to zygotic transition (MZT). While this process has been well-studied within model species, we have little knowledge of how the pools of maternal and zygotic transcripts evolve. To characterize the evolutionary dynamics and functional constraints on early embryonic expression, we created a transcriptomic dataset for 14 Drosophila species spanning over 50 million years of evolution, at developmental stages before and after the MZT, and compared our results with a previously published Aedes aegypti developmental time course...
December 17, 2018: PLoS Genetics
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30503393/expression-pattern-of-nanos-piwil-dnd-vasa-and-pum-genes-during-ontogenic-development-in-nile-tilapia-oreochromis-niloticus
#8
Y H Jin, A Davie, H Migaud
Primordial germ cells (PGCs) are specified by maternally provided determinants in fish. PGCs migrate then into prospective gonadal sites during early development and give rise to germ cell lineage. PGC disrupted animals do not sexually mature which has a range of commercial as well as environmental benefits. To find potential target genes for sterilisation of Nile tilapia, relative mRNA abundance patterns and tissue distribution of four nanos, two piwil, dnd1, vasa and three pum genes were investigated during ontogenic development from unfertilised eggs to newly hatched larvae and in adult tissues, respectively...
November 30, 2018: Gene
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30478191/cnot6l-couples-the-selective-degradation-of-maternal-transcripts-to-meiotic-cell-cycle-progression-in-mouse-oocyte
#9
Qian-Qian Sha, Jia-Li Yu, Jing-Xin Guo, Xing-Xing Dai, Jun-Chao Jiang, Yin-Li Zhang, Chao Yu, Shu-Yan Ji, Yu Jiang, Song-Ying Zhang, Li Shen, Xiang-Hong Ou, Heng-Yu Fan
Meiotic resumption-coupled degradation of maternal transcripts occurs during oocyte maturation in the absence of mRNA transcription. The CCR4-NOT complex has been identified as the main eukaryotic mRNA deadenylase. In vivo functional and mechanistic information regarding its multiple subunits remains insufficient. Cnot6l , one of four genes encoding CCR4-NOT catalytic subunits, is preferentially expressed in mouse oocytes. Genetic deletion of Cnot6l impaired deadenylation and degradation of a subset of maternal mRNAs during oocyte maturation...
December 14, 2018: EMBO Journal
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30456367/role-of-cnot6l-in-maternal-mrna-turnover
#10
Filip Horvat, Helena Fulka, Radek Jankele, Radek Malik, Ma Jun, Katerina Solcova, Radislav Sedlacek, Kristian Vlahovicek, Richard M Schultz, Petr Svoboda
Removal of poly(A) tail is an important mechanism controlling eukaryotic mRNA turnover. The major eukaryotic deadenylase complex CCR4-NOT contains two deadenylase components, CCR4 and CAF1, for which mammalian CCR4 is encoded by Cnot6 or Cnot6l paralogs. We show that Cnot6l apparently supplies the majority of CCR4 in the maternal CCR4-NOT in mouse, hamster, and bovine oocytes. Deletion of Cnot6l yielded viable mice, but Cnot6l -/- females exhibited ∼40% smaller litter size. The main onset of the phenotype was post-zygotic: fertilized Cnot6l -/- eggs developed slower and arrested more frequently than Cnot6l +/- eggs, suggesting that maternal CNOT6L is necessary for accurate oocyte-to-embryo transition...
August 2018: Life science alliance
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30444999/widespread-enhancer-dememorization-and-promoter-priming-during-parental-to-zygotic-transition
#11
Bingjie Zhang, Xiaotong Wu, Wenhao Zhang, Weimin Shen, Qingrui Sun, Kaili Liu, Yu Zhang, Qiujun Wang, Yuanyuan Li, Anming Meng, Wei Xie
The epigenome plays critical roles in controlling gene expression and development. However, how the parental epigenomes transit to the zygotic epigenome in early development remains elusive. Here we show that parental-to-zygotic transition in zebrafish involves extensive erasure of parental epigenetic memory, starting with methylating gametic enhancers. Surprisingly, this occurs even prior to fertilization for sperm. Both parental enhancers lose histone marks by the 4-cell stage, and zygotic enhancers are not activated until around zygotic genome activation (ZGA)...
November 15, 2018: Molecular Cell
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30367845/complexities-in-bombyx-germ-cell-formation-process-revealed-by-bm-noso-a-bombyx-homolog-of-nanos-knockout
#12
Hajime Nakao, Yoko Takasu
Inheritance (sequestration of a localized determinant: germplasm) and zygotic induction are two modes of metazoan primordial germ cell (PGC) specification. vasa and nanos homologs are evolutionarily conserved germline marker genes that have been used to examine the ontogeny of germ cells in various animals. In the lepidopteran insect Bombyx mori, although the lack of vasa homolog (BmVLG) protein localization as well as microscopic observation suggested the lack of germplasm, classical embryo manipulation studies and the localization pattern of Bm-nosO (one of the four nanos genes in Bombyx) maternal mRNA in the egg raised the possibility that an inheritance mode is operating in Bombyx...
October 24, 2018: Developmental Biology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30364263/a-role-of-pumilio-1-in-mammalian-oocyte-maturation-and-maternal-phase-of-embryogenesis
#13
Winifred Mak, Jing Xia, Ee-Chun Cheng, Katie Lowther, Haifan Lin
Background: RNA binding proteins play a pivotal role during the oocyte-to-embryo transition and maternal phase of embryogenesis in invertebrates, but their function in these processes in mammalian systems remain largely understudied. Results: Here we report that a member of the Pumilio/FBF family of RNA binding proteins in mice, Pumilio 1 ( Pum 1), is a maternal effect gene. The absence of maternal PUM1 in the oocyte does not affect meiotic maturation but leads to abnormal preimplantation development...
2018: Cell & Bioscience
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30321661/comparative-transcriptome-analysis-explores-maternal-to-zygotic-transition-during-eriocheir-sinensis-early-embryogenesis
#14
Junhao Ning, Chengwen Song, Danli Luo, Yuan Liu, Hourong Liu, Zhaoxia Cui
The maternal genome directs almost all aspects of early animal development. As development proceeds, the elimination of maternal gene products and zygotic genome activation (ZGA) occur during the maternal to zygotic transition (MZT). To study the molecular mechanisms regulating this developmental event in Eriocheir sinensis, RNA-Seq technology was applied to generate comprehensive information on transcriptome dynamics during early embryonic stages. In total, 32,088 annotated unigenes were obtained from the transcriptomes of fertilized eggs and embryos at the cleavage (2-4 cell) and blastula stage...
October 12, 2018: Gene
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30240738/comparative-transcriptomics-in-two-extreme-neopterans-reveals-general-trends-in-the-evolution-of-modern-insects
#15
Guillem Ylla, Maria-Dolors Piulachs, Xavier Belles
The success of neopteran insects, with 1 million species described, is associated with developmental innovations such as holometaboly and the evolution from short to long germband embryogenesis. To unveil the mechanisms underlining these innovations, we compared gene expression during the ontogeny of two extreme neopterans, the cockroach Blattella germanica (polyneopteran, hemimetabolan, and short germband species) and the fly Drosophila melanogaster (endopterygote, holometabolan, and long germband species)...
June 29, 2018: iScience
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30198842/decoupled-maternal-and-zygotic-genetic-effects-shape-the-evolution-of-development
#16
Christina Zakas, Jennifer M Deutscher, Alex D Kay, Matthew V Rockman
Evolutionary transitions from indirect to direct development involve changes in both maternal and zygotic genetic factors, with distinctive population-genetic implications, but empirical data on the genetics of such transitions are lacking. The polychaete Streblospio benedicti provides an opportunity to dissect a major transition in developmental mode using forward genetics. Females in this species produce either small eggs that develop into planktonic larvae or large eggs that develop into benthic juveniles...
September 10, 2018: ELife
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30165700/niclosamide-induces-epiboly-delay-during-early-zebrafish-embryogenesis
#17
Sara M Vliet, Subham Dasgupta, David C Volz
Niclosamide is an antihelminthic drug used worldwide for the treatment of tapeworm infections. Recent drug repurposing screens have revealed that niclosamide exhibits diverse mechanisms of action and, as a result, demonstrates promise for a number of applications, including the treatment of cancer, bacterial infections, and Zika virus. As new applications of niclosamide will require non-oral delivery routes that may lead to exposure in utero, the objective of this study was to investigate the mechanism of niclosamide toxicity during early stages of embryonic development...
December 1, 2018: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30165428/the-maternal-to-zygotic-transition-in-bovine-in-vitro-fertilized-embryos-is-associated-with-marked-changes-in-small-non-coding-rnas
#18
Jocelyn M Cuthbert, Stewart J Russell, Kenneth L White, Abby D Benninghoff
In mammals, small non-coding RNAs (sncRNAs) have been reported to be important during early embryo development. However, a comprehensive assessment of the inventory of sncRNAs during the maternal-to-zygotic transition (MZT) has not been performed in an animal model that better represents the sncRNAs biogenesis pathway in human oocytes and embryos. The objective of this study was to examine dynamic changes in expression of sncRNAs during the MZT in bovine embryos produced by in vitro fertilization (IVF), which occurs at the 8-cell stage...
August 25, 2018: Biology of Reproduction
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30135188/maternal-ybx1-safeguards-zebrafish-oocyte-maturation-and-maternal-to-zygotic-transition-by-repressing-global-translation
#19
Jiawei Sun, Lu Yan, Weimin Shen, Anming Meng
Maternal mRNAs and proteins dictate early embryonic development before zygotic genome activation. In the absence of transcription, elaborate control of maternal mRNA translation is of particular importance for oocyte maturation and early embryogenesis. By analyzing zebrafish ybx1 mutants with a null allele, we demonstrate an essential role of maternal ybx1 in repressing global translation in oocytes and embryos. Loss of maternal Ybx1 leads to impaired oocyte maturation and egg activation. Maternal ybx1 (M ybx1 ) mutant embryos fail to undergo normal cleavage and the maternal-to-zygotic transition (MZT)...
October 2, 2018: Development
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30133594/the-dynamics-of-energy-metabolism-in-the-tick-embryo
#20
Renato Martins, Newton Ruiz, Rodrigo Nunes da Fonseca, Itabajara da Silva Vaz Junior, Carlos Logullo
The cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus is an ectoparasite capable of transmitting a large number of pathogens, causing considerable losses in the cattle industry, with substantial damage to livestock. Over the years, important stages of its life cycle, such as the embryo, have been largely ignored by researchers. Tick embryogenesis has been typically described as an energy-consuming process, sustaining cell proliferation, differentiation, and growth. During the embryonic stage of arthropods, there is mobilization of metabolites of maternal origin for the development of organs and tissues of the embryo...
July 2018: Revista Brasileira de Parasitologia Veterinária, Brazilian Journal of Veterinary Parasitology
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