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Microbiota And Chronic Kidney Disease

Nima H Jazani, Javad Savoj, Michael Lustgarten, Wei Ling Lau, Nosratola D Vaziri
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a worldwide major health problem. Traditional risk factors for CKD are hypertension, obesity, and diabetes mellitus. Recent studies have identified gut dysbiosis as a novel risk factor for the progression CKD and its complications. Dysbiosis can worsen systemic inflammation, which plays an important role in the progression of CKD and its complications such as cardiovascular diseases. In this review, we discuss the beneficial effects of the normal gut microbiota, and then elaborate on how alterations in the biochemical environment of the gastrointestinal tract in CKD can affect gut microbiota...
February 13, 2019: Diseases (Basel)
Julie Ann Kemp, Marta Esgalhado, Renata Azevedo Macedo, Bruna Regis, Nágila Raquel Teixeira Damasceno, Elizabeth Aparecida Ferraz da Silva Torres, Gustavo Henrique Ferreira Gonçalinho, Natália Alvarenga Borges, Lia Sumie Nakao, Denis Fouque, Denise Mafra
INTRODUCTION: Indoxyl sulfate (IS) and p-cresyl sulfate (p-CS) are albumin-bound uremic toxins that are difficult to remove by hemodialysis (HD). Human serum albumin (HSA) carries several compounds, including fatty acids that can bind to site II of HSA and represent competing ligands for uremic toxins. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between fatty acids and uremic toxin plasma levels in patients undergoing HD. METHODS: Thirty-three HD patients (51...
February 19, 2019: Hemodialysis International
V V Dutov, S Yu Buymistr, E V Rusanova
INTRODUCTION: Since the results of treatment of chronic pyelonephritis (CP) depend on timely and rationally selected targeted antibiotic therapy, when choosing a treatment regimen, it is necessary to rely on the local data obtained by monitoring the state of microflora in a particular hospital. AIM: to monitor the changes in urine microflora in patients with urinary stone disease. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 598 isolated bacteria and yeast-like fungi from patients with urinary stone disease who were treated in the Department of Urology during different time periods (1997-1999, 2010-2014 and 2015-2017 yy) were analyzed...
December 2018: Urologii︠a︡
Boris L Zybailov, Galina V Glazko, Yasir Rahmatallah, Dmitri S Andreyev, Taylor McElroy, Oleg Karaduta, Stephanie D Byrum, Lisa Orr, Alan J Tackett, Samuel G Mackintosh, Ricky D Edmondson, Dorothy A Kieffer, R J Martin, Sean H Adams, Nosratola D Vaziri, John M Arthur
BACKGROUND: Resistant starch is a prebiotic metabolized by the gut bacteria. It has been shown to attenuate chronic kidney disease (CKD) progression in rats. Previous studies employed taxonomic analysis using 16S rRNA sequencing and untargeted metabolomics profiling. Here we expand these studies by metaproteomics, gaining new insight into the host-microbiome interaction. METHODS: Differences between cecum contents in CKD rats fed a diet containing resistant starch with those fed a diet containing digestible starch were examined by comparative metaproteomics analysis...
2019: PloS One
Alessandra F Perna, Griet Glorieux, Miriam Zacchia, Francesco Trepiccione, Giovanna Capolongo, Carmela Vigorito, Evgeniya Anishchenko, Diego Ingrosso
The gut microbiota is considered to be a novel important factor to take into account in the pathogenesis of chronic kidney disease and uremia. Much attention has been paid to specific uremic retention solutes of microbial origin, such as indoxyl sulfate, p-cresyl sulfate, and trimethylamine-N-oxide. However, other novel less well studied compounds, such as hydrogen sulfide and related sulfur metabolites (sulfane sulfur, lanthionine, etc.), should be included in a more comprehensive appraisal of this topic, in light of the potential therapeutic opportunities for the future...
January 23, 2019: Journal of Nephrology
Hsiu-Chuan Lee, Shao-Chuan Yu, Yun-Chun Lo, I-Hsuan Lin, Te-Hsuan Tung, Shih-Yi Huang
Dietary polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) levels may affect inflammatory responses and lipid metabolism. Gut microbiota diversity is strongly associated with chronic inflammatory disease, diabetes mellitus (DM), and obesity through abnormal energy homeostasis. In this study, the association between metabolic responses and gut microbiota diversity at different dietary n-6/n-3 PUFA ratios was evaluated in DM rats. Obesity and DM were induced in rats by using a high-fat diet and streptozotocin (STZ), respectively...
January 23, 2019: Food & Function
Matthew Snelson, Nicole J Kellow, Melinda T Coughlan
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) has been associated with changes in gut microbial ecology, or "dysbiosis," which may contribute to disease progression. Recent studies have focused on dietary approaches to favorably alter the composition of the gut microbial communities as a treatment method in CKD. Resistant starch (RS), a prebiotic that promotes proliferation of gut bacteria such as Bifidobacteria and Lactobacilli, increases the production of metabolites including short-chain fatty acids, which confer a number of health-promoting benefits...
January 21, 2019: Advances in Nutrition
Ivana Milosevic, Ankica Vujovic, Aleksandra Barac, Marina Djelic, Milos Korac, Aleksandra Radovanovic Spurnic, Ivana Gmizic, Olja Stevanovic, Vladimir Djordjevic, Nebojsa Lekic, Edda Russo, Amedeo Amedei
The rapid scientific interest in gut microbiota (GM) has coincided with a global increase in the prevalence of infectious and non-infectivous liver diseases. GM, which is also called "the new virtual metabolic organ", makes axis with a number of extraintestinal organs, such as kidneys, brain, cardiovascular, and the bone system. The gut-liver axis has attracted greater attention in recent years. GM communication is bi-directional and involves endocrine and immunological mechanisms. In this way, gut-dysbiosis and composition of "ancient" microbiota could be linked to pathogenesis of numerous chronic liver diseases such as chronic hepatitis B (CHB), chronic hepatitis C (CHC), alcoholic liver disease (ALD), non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), development of liver cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)...
January 17, 2019: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Takayuki Matsumoto, Keisuke Takayanagi, Mihoka Kojima, Kumiko Taguchi, Tsuneo Kobayashi
Gut microbiota are emerging as potential contributors to the regulation of host homeostasis. Dysbiosis of the gut microbiota associated with increased intestinal permeability facilitates the passage of endotoxins and other microbial products, including indoxyl sulfate in the circulation. Although an emerging body of evidence has suggested that indoxyl sulfate is a key substance for the development of chronic kidney disease, few studies have investigated the direct association of indoxyl sulfate with vascular function...
January 15, 2019: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Raphael José Ferreira Felizardo, Ingrid Kazue Mizuno Watanabe, Patrizia Dardi, Luciana Venturini Rossoni, Niels Olsen Saraiva Câmara
The bacteria community living in the gut maintains a symbiotic relationship with the host and its unbalance has been associated with progression of a wide range of intestinal and extra intestinal conditions. Hypertension and chronic kidney disease (CKD) are closely associated diseases with high incidence rates all over the world. Increasing data have supported the involvement of gut microbiome in the blood pressure regulation and the impairment of CKD prognosis. In hypertension, the reduced number of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) producing bacteria is associated with modifications in gut environment, involving reduction of the hypoxic gut profile and worsening of the microbial balance, leading to a loss of epithelial barrier integrity, development of gut inflammation and the reduction of SCFAs plasma levels...
January 10, 2019: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
Y E Guirong, Zhou Minjie, Y U Lixin, Y E Junsheng, Yao Lin, Shi Lisha
OBJECTIVE: Recent studies have shown that gut microbiota is associated with immunomodulation in transplant recipients, but the composition and function of gut microbiota in renal transplant recipients have not been understood. METHODS: We analyzed the composition and function of gut microbiota in the fecal samples from 16 renal transplant (RT) recipients by deep sequencing of the 16S rRNA V3 variable region. The gut microbiota of RT recipients was compared to that of 84 patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and 53 healthy subjects...
December 30, 2018: Nan Fang Yi Ke da Xue Xue Bao, Journal of Southern Medical University
Chiao-Yin Sun, Cheng-Jui Lin, Heng-Chih Pan, Chin-Chan Lee, Shang-Chieh Lu, Yu-Ting Hsieh, Shih-Yi Huang, Hui-Yu Huang
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Emerging evidence indicates that gut microbiota serves an important role in the development and progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Changes to the gut microbial flora can cause the generation of uremic toxins, which contribute to chronic kidney injury. The aim of the current study was to explore the clinical association between metabolites and CKD. METHODS: Between August 2013 and January 2015, a two-phase case-control study was conducted to analyze the clinical association between metabolites and CKD in a community health program...
December 27, 2018: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
Emine M Onal, Baris Afsar, Adrian Covic, Nosratola D Vaziri, Mehmet Kanbay
The health and proper functioning of the cardiovascular and renal systems largely depend on crosstalk in the gut-kidney-heart/vessel triangle. Recent evidence suggests that the gut microbiota has an integral function in this crosstalk. Mounting evidence indicates that the development of chronic kidney and cardiovascular diseases follows chronic inflammatory processes that are affected by the gut microbiota via various immune, metabolic, endocrine, and neurologic pathways. Additionally, deterioration of the function of the cardiovascular and renal systems has been reported to disrupt the original gut microbiota composition, further contributing to the advancement of chronic cardiovascular and renal diseases...
February 2019: Hypertension Research: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Hypertension
Chien-Ning Hsu, Pei-Chen Lu, Mao-Hung Lo, I-Chun Lin, Guo-Ping Chang-Chien, Sufan Lin, You-Lin Tain
Despite cardiovascular disease (CVD) being the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in chronic kidney disease (CKD), less attention has been paid to subclinical CVD in children and adolescents with early CKD stages. Gut microbiota and their metabolite, trimethylamine N -oxide (TMAO), have been linked to CVD. Ambulatory blood-pressure monitoring (ABPM) and arterial-stiffness assessment allow for early detection of subclinical CVD. We therefore investigated whether gut microbial composition and TMAO metabolic pathway are correlated with blood-pressure (BP) load and vascular abnormalities in children with early-stage CKD...
November 22, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Marta Esgalhado, Julie A Kemp, Renata Azevedo, Bruna R Paiva, Milena B Stockler-Pinto, Carla J Dolenga, Natália A Borges, Lia S Nakao, Denise Mafra
An imbalance of gut microbiota is considered a new cardiovascular risk factor for chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients, since it is directly associated with increased uremic toxin production, inflammation and oxidative stress. Strategies such as prebiotic supplementation have been suggested to mitigate these complications. We hypothesized that prebiotic-resistant starch could ameliorate uremic toxins levels, oxidative stress, and inflammatory states in hemodialysis (HD) patients. This pilot study evaluated 31 HD patients assigned to either resistant starch (16 g of resistant starch Hi-Maize® 260) or placebo (manioc flour) supplementation, which they received for 4 weeks on alternate days through cookies on dialysis days and powder in a sachet on non-dialysis days...
November 23, 2018: Food & Function
Michael Weis
The gut microbiome functions like an endocrine organ, generating enzymes and bioactive metabolites, which affect host physiology. In addition metabolism-independent processes like impaired intestinal barrier function may result in bacterial translocation and an increased inflammation. Specific microbe-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs) have been detected that induce immune activation via cognate pattern-recognition receptors on host immune cells, with subsequent consequences on inflammatory-induced endothelial dysfunction...
November 30, 2018: Clinical Science (1979-)
Luxiu Zang, Yan Ma, Wenhao Huang, Yuhang Ling, Limei Sun, Xuedong Wang, Aibing Zeng, Randy A Dahlgren, Caihong Wang, Huili Wang
The probiotics, Lactobacillus plantarum ST-III, plays an important role in modulating microbiota and alleviating intestinal metabolic disorders. Herein, we reported that Lactobacillus increases biodiversity of zebrafish gut flora, and attenuates toxic effects from chronic triclosan (TCS) exposure. Lactobacillus-feeding recovered the species and amount of microorganisms in the intestines of zebrafish, and inhibited toxin production by saprophytic bacterial growth. Abnormal physiological indexes and malonaldeyhde content resulting from TCS exposure were effectively alleviated...
November 10, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
W H Wilson Tang, Daniel Y Li, Stanley L Hazen
Advances in our understanding of how the gut microbiota contributes to human health and diseases have expanded our insight into how microbial composition and function affect the human host. Heart failure is associated with splanchnic circulation congestion, leading to bowel wall oedema and impaired intestinal barrier function. This situation is thought to heighten the overall inflammatory state via increased bacterial translocation and the presence of bacterial products in the systemic blood circulation. Several metabolites produced by gut microorganisms from dietary metabolism have been linked to pathologies such as atherosclerosis, hypertension, heart failure, chronic kidney disease, obesity, and type 2 diabetes mellitus...
November 8, 2018: Nature Reviews. Cardiology
Denise Mafra, Natália Alvarenga Borges, Bengt Lindholm, Peter Stenvinkel
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 5, 2018: Mitochondrion
Catherine McFarlane, Christiane I Ramos, David W Johnson, Katrina L Campbell
OBJECTIVE: Gut dysbiosis has been implicated in the pathogenesis of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Restoring gut microbiota with prebiotic, probiotic, and synbiotic supplementation has emerged as a potential therapeutic intervention but has not been systematically evaluated in the CKD population. DESIGN AND METHODS: This is a systematic review. A structured search of MEDLINE, CINAHL, EMBASE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and the International Clinical Trials Register Search Portal was conducted for articles published since inception until July 2017...
October 23, 2018: Journal of Renal Nutrition
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