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urine osmolarity

Bart J Kramers, Maatje D A van Gastel, Wendy E Boertien, Esther Meijer, Ron T Gansevoort
RATIONALE & OBJECTIVE: The vasopressin V2 receptor antagonist (V2RA) tolvaptan is the first drug that has been shown to slow the rate of kidney function decline in patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD). However, V2RAs also cause polyuria, with urine output that averages 6L/d. We assessed determinants of urine volume in patients with ADPKD using V2RAs because such information may help develop strategies to improve V2RA tolerability. STUDY DESIGN: Clinical trial of patients with ADPKD studied at baseline, after 3 weeks of V2RA treatment (tolvaptan, 90/30mg, in the last week), and after a 3-week washout period...
December 19, 2018: American Journal of Kidney Diseases: the Official Journal of the National Kidney Foundation
José de Jesús Vidal-Mayo, Antonio Olivas-Martínez, Iván Pérez-Díaz, Juan M López-Navarro, Elizabet Sánchez-Landa, Eduardo Carrillo-Maravilla, Martha Portillo-González, Reynerio Fagundo-Sierra, Mario Andrés de Jesús Leal-Villareal
Background: Urine osmolarity (OsmU) is the gold standard for the evaluation of the kidney's urine concentration capacity; nevertheless, urinary density (UD) is often used as a surrogate for its estimation. Objective: The objective of this study was to analyze the accuracy of UD in estimating OsmU. Materials and Methods: A transversal study including patients with simultaneous determination of UD measured with refractometry and OsmU measured by osmometer (OsmUm)...
2018: Revista de Investigación Clínica; Organo del Hospital de Enfermedades de la Nutrición
Kia Nikoomanesh, Julian Choi, Sarkis Arabian
BACKGROUND: Small cell lung carcinoma (SCLC) is one of the deadliest forms of lung cancer due to its poor prognosis upon diagnosis, rapid doubling time, and affinity for metastasis. As 60-70% of patients with SCLC have disseminated disease upon presentation, it is imperative to determine the extent of disease burden for treatment. As a neuroendocrine carcinoma, clinicians must pay close attention to abnormal findings in a smoker that could lead to earlier diagnosis and better prognostication...
November 14, 2018: BMC Pulmonary Medicine
Charlotte Rud, Anne Kathrine Nissen Pedersen, Trine Levring Wilkens, Mette Borre, Jens Rikardt Andersen, Hanne B Moeller, Jens Frederik Dahlerup, Christian Lodberg Hvas
BACKGROUND: Patients with an ileostomy often experience fluid and electrolyte depletion because of gastrointestinal loss. This study aimed to compare how an iso-osmolar and a hyperosmolar oral supplement affect ileostomy output, urine production, and natriuresis as proxy measurements of water-electrolyte balance. METHODS: In a randomised, double-blinded, active comparator, crossover intervention study, we included eight adult ileostomy patients who were independent of parenteral support...
October 24, 2018: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
Soghra Parhizgar, Sara Hosseinian, Mohammad Soukhtanloo, Alireza Ebrahimzadeh Bideskan, Mousa-Al-Reza Hadjzadeh, Samira Shahraki, Zahra Samadi Noshahr, Nazanin Entezari Heravi, Milad Haghshenas, Abolfazl Khajavi Rad
The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of Plantago major (P. major) on cisplatin-induced kidney injury in the rat. Cisplatin was injected on the 6th day of the experiment. Animals were treated with P. major extract (300, 600, and 1200 mg/kg) and Vitamin E for five days before and two weeks after cisplatin administration. Cisplatin caused a significant decrease in glomerular filtration rate (GFR), urine osmolarity, and urinary excretion rate of potassium, but significant increase in the kidney index and histological damage compared with the control group...
September 2018: Saudi Journal of Kidney Diseases and Transplantation
A F Dawood, M M Sabry, S A Estaphan, E A Mohamed, S F Younes, L A Rashed, A W Elzainy
Apelin, a peptide hormone that has been linked to insulin resistance, obesity and glucose metabolism, coexists with arginine vasopressin (AVP) in hypothalamic magnocellular neurons that control body fluid homeostasis. The significant correlation between serum glucose and serum osmolarity in uncontrolled DM indicates the need for adequate compensation, but how apelin and AVP contribute to this is still unsettled. This study aims to investigate the interaction between apelin and AVP in osmotic regulation in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), and to explore the underlying mechanism...
September 2018: Journal of Biological Regulators and Homeostatic Agents
Bruno Moulin, Thierry Ponchon
Background and study aims  Colonoscopy is a widely used diagnostic procedure which requires prior cleansing of the bowel. Many different bowel cleansing preparations have been developed, all of which have specific advantages and disadvantages. This review compares two low-volume high-osmolarity bowel cleansing preparations, oral phosphate salts and oral sulphate salts, with a particular focus on risk of nephrotoxicity. Patients and methods  An electronic search of the Medline database was performed using the search terms "(phosphates OR sulfates) AND cathartics [MeSH Term] AND kidney" restricted to humans with a cut-off date of December 31, 2016...
October 2018: Endoscopy International Open
Sinead Mary O'Connell, Richard John Woodman, Ian Lewis Brown, David Julian Vincent, Henry Joseph Binder, Balakrishnan Siddartha Ramakrishna, Graeme Paul Young
BACKGROUND: Fluid deficits exceeding 1.6% can lead to physical and cognitive impairment in athletes. Sport drinks used by athletes are often hyper-osmolar but this is known to be suboptimal for rehydration in medical settings and does not utilize colonic absorptive capacity. Colonic absorption can be enhanced by fermentative production of short chain fatty acids (SCFA) from substrates such as high amylose maize starch (HAMS). This study therefore compared, in elite Australian Football League (AFL) players at the height of outdoor summer training, a novel dual-action sports oral rehydration strategy that contained HAMS as well as glucose, to their usual rehydration practices (Control)...
September 21, 2018: Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition
C R Muller, A L V Américo, P Fiorino, F S Evangelista
AIM: The objective of this study was to investigate the potential of aerobic exercise training (AET) to prevent kidney lipid accumulation and the contribution of renal metabolism to mediate this response. MAIN METHODS: Male C57BL/6J mice were assigned into groups CHOW-SED (chow diet, sedentary; n = 13), CHOW-TR (chow diet, trained; n = 13), CAF-SED (cafeteria diet, sedentary; n = 13) and CAF-TR (cafeteria diet, trained; n = 13). AET consisted in running sessions of 60 min at 60% of maximal speed conducted five days per week for eight weeks...
October 15, 2018: Life Sciences
Guangzhe Yu, Qian Liu, Xuening Dong, Kaihong Tang, Bohui Li, Chunmei Liu, Wenzheng Zhang, Yiduo Wang, Yingyu Jin
Background: Inflammation is an important pathogenic component of endotoxemia-induced acute kidney injury (AKI), finally resulting in renal failure. Diacerein is an interleukin-1β (IL-1β) inhibitor used for osteoarthritis treatment by exerting anti-inflammatory effects. This study aims to investigate the effects of diacerein on endotoxemia-induced AKI. Methods: Male C57BL/6 mice were intraperitoneally injected with lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 10 mg/kg) for 24 h prior to diacerein treatment (15 mg/kg/day) for another 48 h...
2018: Cellular & Molecular Biology Letters
Naoto Tominaga, Keisuke Kida, Takayuki Inomata, Naoki Sato, Tohru Izumi, Yoshihiro J Akashi, Yugo Shibagaki
BACKGROUND: Tolvaptan (TLV) is known to increase electrolyte-free water clearance. However, TLV actions on renal electrolytes including urine sodium (uNa) excretion and its consequences are less well understood. This subanalysis investigated the effect of add-on TLV compared to increased furosemide (FUR) on both electrolyte-free water and electrolyte clearance in patients with congestive heart failure (CHF) complicated by advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD). METHODS: The Kanagawa Aquaresis Investigators Trial of TLV on HF Patients with Renal Impairment (K-STAR) was a multicenter, open-labeled, randomized, and controlled prospective clinical study...
June 22, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Nephrology
Sujuan Xu, Shizheng Huang, Zhilin Luan, Tingyue Chen, Yuanyi Wei, Miaomiao Xing, Yaqing Li, Chunxiu Du, Bing Wang, Feng Zheng, Nanping Wang, Youfei Guan, Jan-Åke Gustafsson, Xiaoyan Zhang
Hypertonicity in renal medulla is critical for the kidney to produce concentrated urine. Renal medullary cells have to survive high medullary osmolarity during antidiuresis. Previous study reported that farnesoid X receptor (FXR), a nuclear receptor transcription factor activated by endogenous bile acids, increases urine concentrating ability by up-regulating aquaporin 2 expression in medullary collecting duct cells (MCDs). However, whether FXR is also involved in the maintenance of cell survival of MCDs under dehydration condition and hypertonic stress remains largely unknown...
May 22, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Lise Bankir, Antonio Barbato, Ornella Russo, Gilles Crambert, Roberto Iacone, Nadine Bouby, Ludovica Perna, Pasquale Strazzullo
Plasma potassium concentration (PK ) is tightly regulated. Insulin is known to favor potassium entry into cells. But how potassium leaves the cells later on is not often considered. Previous studies in rats showed that glucagon infusion increased urinary potassium excretion dose-dependently and reversibly. This prompted us to investigate the possible influence of glucagon on potassium handling in humans. We took advantage of the Gly40Ser mutation of the glucagon receptor (GR) that results in a partial loss of function of the GR...
April 2018: Physiological Reports
N L Totou, S S Moura, D B Coelho, E C Oliveira, L K Becker, W G Lima
Experimental studies in animal models have described the benefits of physical exercise (PE) to kidney diseases associated with hypertension. Land- and water-based exercises induce different responses in renal function. Our aim was to evaluate the renal alterations induced by different environments of PE in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs). The SHRs were divided into sedentary (S), swimming exercise (SE), and running exercise (RE) groups, and were trained for 8 weeks under similar intensities (60 min/day)...
March 1, 2018: Physiology International
W Weinrebe, S Käbe-Frisch, I Füsgen, M Karaman, E Johannsdottir, S Rupp
OBJECTIVE: To compare the efficacy of desmopressin and placebo in independent geriatric outpatients with nocturnal polyuria (NP). METHODS: A prospective, randomized, single-center, national, double blind, placebo-controlled, fixed-dose, parallel group comparative trial was carried out. The study included 110 geriatric outpatients, 55 patients per treatment group using desmopressin acetate nasal spray (strength: 0.1 mg/ml) once daily of 10 μg/spray blast or placebo...
March 14, 2018: Zeitschrift Für Gerontologie und Geriatrie
C Willshire, A J Bron, E A Gaffney, E Ian Pearce
The osmolarities of various bodily fluids, including tears, saliva and urine, have been used as indices of plasma osmolality, a measure of body hydration, while tear osmolarity is used routinely in dry eye diagnosis, the degree of tear hyperosmolarity providing an index of disease severity. Systemic dehydration, due to inadequate water intake or excessive water loss is common in the elderly population, has a high morbidity and may cause loss of life. Its diagnosis is often overlooked and there is a need to develop a simple, bedside test to detect dehydration in this population...
May 2018: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research
Shin Han Song, Gyeong Ah Sim, Seon Ha Baek, Jang Won Seo, Jung Weon Shim, Ja Ryong Koo
Syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH) is the most common cause of euvolemic hypo-osmotic hyponatremia. There are several etiologies of SIADH including neuroendocrine tumor, pulmonary disease, infection, trauma, and medications. Here, we report a case of SIADH associated with a schwannoma involving the mediastinum in a 75-year-old woman who presented with nausea, vomiting, and general weakness. Laboratory testing showed hypo-osmolar hyponatremia, with a serum sodium level of 102mmol/L, serum osmolality of 221mOsm/kg, urine osmolality of 382mOsm/kg, urine sodium of 55 mmol/L, and plasma antidiuretic hormone (ADH) of 4...
December 2017: Electrolyte & Blood Pressure: E & BP
Juana Carretero-Gómez, Jose Carlos Arévalo Lorido, Ricardo Gómez Huelgas, Begoña De Escalante Yangüela, Borja Gracia Tello, Luis Pérez Belmonte, Javier Ena Muñoz
Recent evidence suggests that obese people are hypohydrated and that water consumption may be a useful indicator for the prevention and treatment of obesity. Nevertheless, there is no agreement regarding the best hydration status indicators and there are few data about the relationship between hydration and body weight. In the present study, we aim to analyze the correlation among hydration status with obesity measured by three different methods (plasma osmolarity, urinary specific gravity (USG) and urinary osmolarity) in a hospital-based outpatient population...
January 23, 2018: Journal of Investigative Medicine: the Official Publication of the American Federation for Clinical Research
Saeed Hajihashemi, Tahereh Jafarian, Mahboubeh Ahmadi, Ali Rahbari, Fatemeh Ghanbari
BACKGROUND: Nephrotoxicity is the major side effects of aminoglycoside antibiotics such as gentamicin. The aim of this study was to investigate the therapeutic effects of Z.multiflora (ZM) hydroalcoholic extract on gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity. METHODS: Twenty-eight male Wistar rats categorized into four groups: 1) the control group without injection, 2) the gentamicin treated group (100 mg/kg, i.p) 3) the gentamicin and Z. Multiflora treated group; Z. Multiflora extract(0...
July 2018: Drug Research
Regina Tschannen, Rita Gobet, Josef Wisser
OBJECTIVE:  To assess prenatal prognostic criteria for fetuses with megacystis in order to counsel parents. METHODS:  In a retrospective observational study at a single tertiary referral center, we assessed the clinical course of 53 fetuses with megacystis cared for at the Department of Obstetrics of the University Hospital Zurich between 1995 and 2008 and followed them up for 2 to 12 years. We determined fetal karyotype, amniotic fluid volume and fetal urinary biochemistry as prenatal prognostic factors...
August 2018: Ultraschall in der Medizin
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