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Philipp Dresch, Johannes Falbesoner, Chiara Ennemoser, Michaela Hittorf, Regina Kuhnert, Ursula Peintner
We used amplicon sequencing and isolation of fungi from in-growth mesh bags to identify active fungi in three earliest stages of soil development (SSD) at a glacier forefield (0-3, 9-14, 18-25 years after retreat of glacial ice). Soil organic matter and nutrient concentrations were extremely low, but the fungal diversity was high (220 OTUs / 138 cultivated OTUs). A clear successional trend was observed along SSDs, and species richness increased with time. Distinct changes in fungal community composition occurred with the advent of vascular plants...
March 19, 2019: Environmental Microbiology
Wei-Long Shan, Yue-Jian Lin, F Ekkehardt Hahn, Guo-Xin Jin
A series of molecular metalla[2]catenanes featuring Cp*Ir vertices have been prepared by the template-free, coordination-driven self-assembly of dinuclear iridium acceptors and 1,5-bis[2-(4-pyridyl)ethynyl]anthracene donors. The metalla[2]catenanes were formed by using a strategically selected linker type that is capable of participating in sandwich-type π-π stacking interactions. In the solid state, the [2]catenanes adopt two different configurations depending on the halogen atoms at the dinuclear metal complex bridge...
March 19, 2019: Angewandte Chemie
Kun Li, Weiwei Wen, Saleh Alseekh, Xiaohong Yang, Huan Guo, Wenqiang Li, Luxi Wang, Qingchun Pan, Wei Zhan, Jie Liu, Yanhua Li, Xiao Wu, Yariv Brotman, Lothar Willmitzer, Jiansheng Li, Alisdair R Fernie, Jianbing Yan
It is generally recognized that many favorable genes, including both nutritional value-related and stress-resistance genes, which were lost during domestication remain hidden in wild relatives. To uncover such genes in teosinte, an ancestor of maize, we conducted metabolite profiling in a BC2 F7 population generated from a cross between the maize wild relative (Zea mays ssp. mexicana) and maize inbred Mo17. In total, 65 primary metabolites were quantified in four tissues (seedling-stage leaf, grouting-stage leaf, young kernel, and mature kernel) with clear tissue-specific patterns emerging...
March 19, 2019: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
Anna Wintersand, Klara Asplund, Jonas Binnmyr, Erik Holmgren, Ola B Nilsson, Guro Gafvelin, Hans Grönlund
BACKGROUND: Five to ten percent of the population in affluent countries are allergic to dog. Diagnosis and treatment is based on allergen extracts from natural sources where composition and concentration are poorly defined. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to quantify six dog allergens (Can f 1-6) in commercial skin prick test (SPT) solutions and to determine individual allergen profiles in dogs. METHOD: The allergen content of SPT solutions from five vendors and allergen source material from three anatomical sites were analyzed...
March 19, 2019: Allergy
Ju Liu, Yutong Liu, Xuechen Hao, Yang Wang, Jingchao Ji, Yajing Liu, Shi Ding, Ye Chen
A series of novel 4-phenoxypyridine derivatives containing the 4-oxo-1,4-dihydropyridazine-3-carboxamide moiety were synthesized and evaluated for their in vitro cytotoxic activity against the A549 cancer cell line, and some compounds were further examined for their cytotoxic activity against the H460, BGC823, MKN45, and HT-29 cancer cell lines. Most of the compounds exhibited moderate to significant cytotoxicity. The most promising compound 15b (with VEGFR2 inhibitory concentration [IC50 ] value of 0.23 μM) showed remarkable cytotoxicity against A549, BGC-823, MKN45, H460, and HT-29 cells, with IC50 values of 0...
March 19, 2019: Archiv der Pharmazie
Monica C Serra, Joe R Nocera, Jessica L Kelleher, Odessa Addison
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This literature review summarizes the evidence for and against the impact of prebiotics on brain function and behavior in older adults. RECENT FINDINGS: Current evidence generally supports the intake of prebiotics to increase beneficial gut bacteria concentrations. These bacteria appear to impact endocrine, immunologic, and neuronal communication along the gut-brain axis to alter brain function and behavior. Preliminary evidence in human studies consistently support prebiotics doses of ~ 5-10 g/d as safe to improve brain function (i...
March 19, 2019: Current Nutrition Reports
Justin M Cheung, Juan Putra
Congenital granular cell epulis (CGCE) is an uncommon lesion of unclear pathogenesis. It occurs predominantly in female newborns with a predilection site of the maxillary alveolar ridge. The mass enlarges prenatally but the growth arrests after birth. Histologically, CGCE is characterized by a proliferation of polygonal cells with eosinophilic, granular cytoplasm and eccentric, bland-appearing nuclei. It closely resembles adult granular cell tumor (GCT) microscopically and S-100 immunostain is often helpful in distinguishing the two (S-100-positive in GCT and S-100-negative in CGCE)...
March 19, 2019: Head and Neck Pathology
Krzysztof Cybulski, Ludwika Tomaszewska-Hetman, Magdalena Rakicka, Piotr Juszczyk, Anita Rywińska
The aim of the study was to screen Yarrowia lipolytica strains for keto acid production and determine optimal conditions for pyruvic acid biosynthesis from glycerol by the best producer. The analyzed parameters were thiamine concentration, medium pH, stirring speed, and substrate concentration. The screening was performed in flask cultures, whereas pyruvic acid production was carried out in 5-L stirred-tank reactor with 2 L of working volume. In total, 24 Y. lipolytica strains were compared for their abilities to produce pyruvic and α-ketoglutaric acids...
March 19, 2019: Folia Microbiologica
Lei Sun, David McDonnell, Miao Yu, Vipul Kumar, Lisa von Moltke
BACKGROUND: A combination of the atypical antipsychotic olanzapine and opioid receptor antagonist samidorphan (OLZ/SAM) is in development for the treatment of schizophrenia. The goal of OLZ/SAM is to provide the antipsychotic efficacy of olanzapine while mitigating olanzapine-induced weight gain and many associated long-term metabolic consequences. The primary metabolic pathways for olanzapine are direct glucuronidation via uridine 5'-diphospho-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT)1A4 and cytochrome P450 (CYP)-mediated oxidation, mainly by CYP1A2...
March 19, 2019: Clinical Drug Investigation
Zhicheng Han, Qingbo Yu, Zhaolong Teng, Bin Wu, Zhijia Xue, Qin Qin
The effects of manganese content, carrier calcination temperature, and catalyst calcination temperature of manganese-based zirconium pillared intercalated montmorillonite (Mn/Zr-PILM) catalysts were investigated for low-temperature selective catalytic reduction of NOx by NH3 (NH3 -SCR) in the metallurgical sintering flue gas. The physicochemical properties of these catalysts can be characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), N2 adsorption-desorption isotherm, and temperature-programmed desorption of ammonia (NH3 -TPD)...
March 19, 2019: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Kiron Bhakat, Arindam Chakraborty, Ekramul Islam
Arsenic (As) is often found naturally as the co-contaminant in the uranium (U)-contaminated area, obstructing the bioremediation process. Although the U-contaminated environment harbors microorganisms capable of interacting with U which could be exploited in bioremediation. However, they might be unable to perform with their full potential due to As toxicity. Therefore, potential in arsenic resistance and oxidation is greatly desired among the microorganisms for a continued bioremediation process. In this study, arsenic-resistant bacteria were isolated from U ore collected from Bundugurang U mine, characterized and their As oxidation and U removal potentials were determined...
March 19, 2019: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Giuseppe Michele Masanotti, Elia Abbafati, Elena Petrella, Simone Vinciguerra, Fabrizio Stracci
The cultivation of tobacco has serious consequences for the environment: it impoverishes the soil by assimilating its nutrients, it involves an intensive use of highly polluting pesticides, it perturbs the ecosystem through deforestation, and it releases nicotine into the environment, which is toxic for humans. Italy is the first producer of raw tobacco in Europe and the Valtiberina area is among the most profitable. The first cultivations can be reconducted to the period around 1400. The objective of this experimental work is to verify the sustainability of tobacco cultivation near other crops using nicotine as an indicator...
March 19, 2019: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Behrooz Yahyaei, Mahnaz Nouri, Sahar Bakherad, Maryam Hassani, Parastoo Pourali
Gold nanoparticles (GNPs) have different usage in the medical field. The plan of the present research was to evaluate the influence of the biologically produced GNPs on some rat organs. GNPs were produced using Fusarium oxysporum and their presence was confirmed using spectrophotometer, transmission electron microscope (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses. The non-toxic and toxic doses of GNPs were determined using MTT assay and were injected intraperitoneally into rats in 3 continuous days and their effects on the kidney, liver and testis were analyzed using microscopic technique...
March 19, 2019: AMB Express
Jelica Milošević, Brankica Janković, Radivoje Prodanović, Natalija Polović
Proteolytic enzymes are used for proteolysis and peptide synthesis which can be run in various conditions including low pH value and the presence of ethanol. The most common cysteine protease applied in acidic-alcoholic conditions is well-characterized papain. Ficin, which is closely related to papain in terms of proteolytic activity and substrate specificity, could potentially be applied in the alcoholic beverage industry and peptide synthesis. The aim of this study was to compare papain and ficin stability in process conditions...
March 19, 2019: Amino Acids
Robert Pillsbury, R Jan Stevenson, Mark D Munn, Ian Waite
We assessed how diatom metrics were related to different ranges of agricultural land use. Diatom assemblage composition, nutrients, and landscape characteristics were determined at 232 sites in eight agriculturally dominated study areas of the continental United States. Two regional groups based on differences in diatom relations to human disturbance were determined. Changes in diatom species composition were related to nutrients, pH, and conductivity in the eastern study areas (due to more wetlands) and more exclusively to nutrients in the west-central study areas...
March 19, 2019: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Shiqing Luo, Yanming Miao, Junping Guo, Xiaojie Sun, Guiqin Yan
Mesoporous molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) containing mangnanese-doped ZnS quantum dots (Mn-ZnS QDs) were prepared for specific recognition and detection of 4-nitrophenol (4-NP). The Mn-ZnS QDs display orange room-temperature phosphorescence with excitation/emission peaks at 295/590 nm and a decay time of 2.0 ms. In the presence of 4-NP, the orange phosphorescence is strongly reduced. Phosphorescence drops linearly in the 0.1-100 μM 4-NP concentration range, and the detection limit is 60 nM. The detection limit is far lower than the maximally allowed 4-NP concentrations in surface water and drinking water as specified by the U...
March 19, 2019: Mikrochimica Acta
Thibaut L Faller, Aurélien J Trotier, Sylvain Miraux, Emeline J Ribot
OBJECTIVES: The T1 longitudinal recovery time is regarded as a biomarker of cancer treatment efficiency. In this scope, the Magnetization Prepared 2 RApid Gradient Echo (MP2RAGE) sequence relevantly complies with fast 3D T1 mapping. Nevertheless, with its Cartesian encoding scheme, it is very sensitive to respiratory motion. Consequently, a radial encoding scheme was implemented for the detection and T1 measurement of hepatic metastases in mice at 7T. METHODS: A 3D radial encoding scheme was developed using a golden angle distribution for the k-space trajectories...
March 19, 2019: European Radiology
Chong-Fu Jia, Jie Zhong, Xin-Yi Meng, Xi-Xia Sun, Zhi-Qiang Yang, Yu-Jie Zou, Xiang-Yue Wang, Shuang Pan, Da Yin, Zhao-Qian Wang
OBJECTIVE: To explore the image quality (IQ) and diagnostic value of 70 kVp turbo high-pitch coronary CT angiography (THP-CCTA) using automated tube voltage selection (ATVS) and 30 mL of low-concentration contrast agent. METHODS: Patients who underwent 70 kVp THP-CCTA using ATVS with 30 mL of contrast agent (group A) were prospectively enrolled, and those who underwent conventional CCTA (100/120 kVp, prospective sequential mode with 65-75 mL of contrast agent) (group B) were retrospectively selected for study...
March 19, 2019: European Radiology
Samanthi Wickramasekara, Rahul Kaushal, Hongli Li, Dinesh Patwardhan
The Jatropha curcas plant (Jatropha) has been proposed as a source of biodiesel fuel, as it yields crude glycerol as an abundant by-product. Its by-products could serve as a starting material in making glycerol for FDA-regulated products. Jatropha is not regarded as a source of edible vegetable oil since it contains phorbol esters (PEs). PEs, even at very low exposure concentrations, demonstrate various toxicities in humans and animals, but may not be detected by routine impurity analyses. Here, we demonstrate the development of a rapid and simplified method for the detection and quantification of Jatropha-derived PE toxins using ambient ionization mass spectrometry...
March 19, 2019: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
Kai Liu, Shiyi Xu, Ping Guo, Lijuan Liu, Xuefang Shi, Bolin Zhu
A novel fluoro-chromogenic rhodamine spirolactam probe (RP) has been prepared through the condensation of rhodamine hydrazine and 2-acetylpyridine, which displayed the detection of Cu2+ with high selectivity over a large number of other common metal ions. It shows a "turn-on" response to paramagnetic Cu2+ with an about 12-fold enhancement, and a color change from colorless to red that is observable by the naked eye. These changes are ascribed to the ring-opening of the spirolactam in RP, and subsequent host-guest coordination...
March 19, 2019: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
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