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Stem rust wheat

Erpei Wang, Chongmei Dong, Robert F Park, Thomas H Roberts
Rust fungi, which are responsible for some of the world's most destructive plant diseases, are named for the distinctive rusty colour of one or more of their spore forms. Rust spore pigments are thought to provide protection against UV radiation and oxidative stress, and may act as virulence factors. However, with the exception of daisy rust spores, the identity and relative abundance of the carotenoids in the rust spore cytoplasm have not been investigated using modern analytical methods, and little is known about the dependence of the carotenoid complement on species, pathotype, spore-colour mutations and season...
March 2, 2019: Phytochemistry
Tehmina Kiani, Shahzad Abid Khan, Nighat Noureen, Tayyaba Yasmin, Muhammad Zakria, Haroon Ahmed, Farrakh Mehboob, Sumaira Farrakh
In this study, endophytic bacteria isolated from root, stem, and leaf tissues of stripe rust-susceptible (Inqilab 91, Galaxy 2013, and 15BT023) and stripe rust-resistant (NARC 2011, Ujala 2015, TW1410) cultivars were identified and characterized. Abundance of endophytes was found in roots as compared with stems and leaves. Resistant and susceptible cultivars significantly differed in abundance of endophytic bacteria. Restriction analysis of 16S rRNA genes amplified from 100 bacterial isolates produced 17 unique patterns...
November 6, 2018: International Microbiology: the Official Journal of the Spanish Society for Microbiology
Sanu Arora, Burkhard Steuernagel, Kumar Gaurav, Sutha Chandramohan, Yunming Long, Oadi Matny, Ryan Johnson, Jacob Enk, Sambasivam Periyannan, Narinder Singh, M Asyraf Md Hatta, Naveenkumar Athiyannan, Jitender Cheema, Guotai Yu, Ngonidzashe Kangara, Sreya Ghosh, Les J Szabo, Jesse Poland, Harbans Bariana, Jonathan D G Jones, Alison R Bentley, Mick Ayliffe, Eric Olson, Steven S Xu, Brian J Steffenson, Evans Lagudah, Brande B H Wulff
Disease resistance (R) genes from wild relatives could be used to engineer broad-spectrum resistance in domesticated crops. We combined association genetics with R gene enrichment sequencing (AgRenSeq) to exploit pan-genome variation in wild diploid wheat and rapidly clone four stem rust resistance genes. AgRenSeq enables R gene cloning in any crop that has a diverse germplasm panel.
February 2019: Nature Biotechnology
Francisco J Hernandez, Brian Joel Steffenson, Tanya P Filichkin, Scott P Fisk, Laura J Helgerson, Brigid Meints, Kelly J Vining, David Marshall, Isabel Del Blanco, Xianmeng Chen, Patrick Hayes
Stem rust (incited by Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici, Pgt) is a devastating disease of wheat and barley in many production areas. The widely virulent African Pgt race TTKSK is of particular concern because most cultivars are susceptible. In order to prepare for the possible arrival of race TTKSK in North America, we crossed a range of barley germplasm - representing different growth habits and end-uses- with donors of stem rust resistance genes Rpg1 and rpg4/Rpg5. The former confers resistance to prevalent races of Pgt in North America, and the latter confers resistance to TTKSK and other closely related races from Africa...
February 4, 2019: Phytopathology
Shuyi Huang, Brian J Steffenson, Hanan Sela, Kathryn Stinebaugh
Stem rust (caused by Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici), leaf rust (P. triticina), and stripe rust (P. striiformis f. sp. tritici) rank among the most important diseases of wheat worldwide. The development of resistant cultivars is the preferred method of controlling rust diseases because it is environmentally benign and also cost effective. However, new virulence types often arise in pathogen populations, rendering such cultivars vulnerable to losses. The identification of new sources of resistance is key to providing long-lasting disease control against the rapidly evolving rust pathogens...
June 2018: Plant Disease
Chuntao Yin, Sowmya R Ramachandran, Ying Zhai, Chunya Bu, Hanu R Pappu, Scot H Hulbert
Fungal plant pathogens like rust-causing biotrophic fungi secrete hundreds of effectors into plant cells to subvert host immunity and promote pathogenicity on their host plants by manipulating specific physiological processes or signal pathways, but the actual function has been demonstrated for very few of these proteins. Here, we show that the PgtSR1 effector proteins, encoded by two allelic genes (PgtSR1-a and PgtSR1-b), from the wheat stem rust pathogen Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici (Pgt), suppress RNA silencing in plants and impede plant defenses by altering the abundance of small RNAs that serve as defense regulators...
January 9, 2019: New Phytologist
Jia Zhao, Xu Zhang, Wentao Wan, Heng Zhang, Jia Liu, Mengli Li, Haiyan Wang, Jin Xiao, Xiue Wang
The EXO70 gene family is involved in different biological processes in plants, ranging from plant polar growth to plant immunity. To date, analysis of the EXO70 gene family has been limited in Triticeae species, e.g., hexaploidy Triticum aestivum and its ancestral/related species. By in silico analysis of multiple Triticeae sequence databases, a total of 200 EXO70 members were identified. By homologue cloning approaches, 15 full-length cDNA of EXO70s were cloned from diploid Haynaldia villosa . Phylogenetic relationship analysis of 215 EXO70 members classified them into three groups ( EXO70...
December 24, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Roshan Sharma Poudel, Abdullah F Al-Hashel, Thomas Gross, Patrick Gross, Robert Brueggeman
Stem rust, caused by Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici ( Pgt ) is an economically important disease of wheat and barley. Rpg1 is the only resistance gene deployed in Midwestern US barley varieties and provides remarkable resistance to most North American races, except Pgt race QCCJB. Rpg1 is also ineffective against Pgt race TTKSK and its lineage that originated in Africa. The barley rpg4 -mediated resistance locus (RMRL) conferring resistance to Pgt races QCCJB and TTKSK was isolated from line Q21861, which is resistant to all known Pgt races due to Rpg1 and RMRL...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Antonietta Saccomanno, Oadi Matny, Daniela Marone, Giovanni Laidò, Giuseppe Petruzzino, Elisabetta Mazzucotelli, Francesca Desiderio, Antonio Blanco, Agata Gadaleta, Nicola Pecchioni, Pasquale De Vita, Brian Steffenson, Anna Maria Mastrangelo
Stem rust, caused by Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici ( Pgt ), is a major biotic constraint to wheat production worldwide. Disease resistant cultivars are a sustainable means for the efficient control of this disease. To identify quantitative trait loci (QTLs) conferring resistance to stem rust at the seedling stage, an association mapping panel consisting of 230 tetraploid wheat accessions were evaluated for reaction to five Pgt races under greenhouse conditions. A high level of phenotypic variation was observed in the panel in response to all of the races, allowing for genome-wide association mapping of resistance QTLs in wild, landrace, and cultivated tetraploid wheats...
December 6, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Mandeep S Randhawa, Ravi P Singh, Susanne Dreisigacker, Sridhar Bhavani, Julio Huerta-Espino, Matthew N Rouse, Jayaveeramuthu Nirmala, Maricarmen Sandoval-Sanchez
Races belonging to Ug99 lineage of stem rust fungus Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici ( Pgt ) continue to pose a threat to wheat ( Triticum aestivum L.) production in various African countries. Growing resistant varieties is the most economical and environmentally friendly control measure. Recombinant inbred line (RIL) populations from the crosses of susceptible parent 'Cacuke' with the resistant parents 'Huhwa' and 'Yaye' were phenotyped for resistance at the seedling stage to Pgt race TTKSK (Ug99) and in adult plants in field trials at Njoro, Kenya for two seasons in 2016...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Pablo D Olivera, Matthew N Rouse, Yue Jin
Recent stem rust epidemics in eastern Africa and elsewhere demonstrated that wheat stem rust is a re-emerging disease posing a threat to wheat production worldwide. The cultivated wheat gene pool has a narrow genetic base for resistance to virulent races, such as races in the Ug99 race group. Wild relatives of wheat are a tractable source of stem rust resistance genes. Aegilops species in the tertiary genepool have not been exploited to any great extent as a source of stem rust resistance. We evaluated 1,422 accessions of Aegilops spp...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Zhixia Niu, Shiaoman Chao, Xiwen Cai, Rebecca B Whetten, Matthew Breiland, Christina Cowger, Xianming Chen, Bernd Friebe, Bikram S Gill, Jack B Rasmussen, Daryl L Klindworth, Steven S Xu
Aegilops markgrafii (Greuter) Hammer is an important source of genes for resistance to abiotic stresses and diseases in wheat ( Triticum aestivum L.). A series of six wheat 'Alcedo'- Ae. markgrafii chromosome disomic addition lines, designated as AI(B), AII(C), AIII(D), AV(E), AIV(F), and AVIII(G) carrying the Ae . markgrafii chromosomes B, C, D, E, F, and G, respectively, were tested with SSR markers to establish homoeologous relationships to wheat and identify markers useful in chromosome engineering. The addition lines were evaluated for resistance to rust and powdery mildew diseases...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Tegwe Soko, Cornelia M Bender, Renée Prins, Zacharias A Pretorius
Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici race Ug99 (syn. TTKSK) has been identified as a major threat to wheat production based on its broad virulence. Despite its importance, the effect of Ug99 on different types of resistance in wheat has not been thoroughly researched. In field trials conducted with P. graminis f. sp. tritici race PTKST (Ug99 race group) over 2 years, AUDPC differentiated the moderately susceptible variety SC Stallion (515) and susceptible entries SC Nduna (995) and Line 37-07 (1634) from those with adult plant resistance (APR)...
December 2018: Plant Disease
Jianping Zhang, Peng Zhang, Timothy Hewitt, Jianbo Li, Ian Dundas, Wendelin Schnippenkoetter, Sami Hoxha, Chunhong Chen, Robert Park, Evans Lagudah
A set of molecular markers was developed for Sr26 from comparative genomic analysis. The comparative genomic approach also enabled the identification of a previously uncharacterised wheat chromosome that carried Sr26. Stem rust of wheat, a biotic stress caused by a fungal pathogen, continues to pose significant threats to wheat production. Considerable effort has been directed at surveillance and breeding approaches to minimize the impact of the widely virulent race of the stem rust pathogen (Puccinia graminis f...
October 16, 2018: TAG. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. Theoretische und Angewandte Genetik
Shisheng Chen, Yan Guo, Jordan Briggs, Felix Dubach, Shiaoman Chao, Wenjun Zhang, Matthew N Rouse, Jorge Dubcovsky
In the original publication, the IWGSC assembly is incorrectly referenced.
November 2018: TAG. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. Theoretische und Angewandte Genetik
Clare M Lewis, Antoine Persoons, Daniel P Bebber, Rose N Kigathi, Jens Maintz, Kim Findlay, Vanessa Bueno-Sancho, Pilar Corredor-Moreno, Sophie A Harrington, Ngonidzashe Kangara, Anna Berlin, Richard García, Silvia E Germán, Alena Hanzalová, David P Hodson, Mogens S Hovmøller, Julio Huerta-Espino, Muhammed Imtiaz, Javed Iqbal Mirza, Annemarie F Justesen, Rients E Niks, Ali Omrani, Mehran Patpour, Zacharias A Pretorius, Ramin Roohparvar, Hanan Sela, Ravi P Singh, Brian Steffenson, Botma Visser, Paul M Fenwick, Jane Thomas, Brande B H Wulff, Diane G O Saunders
Wheat stem rust, a devastating disease of wheat and barley caused by the fungal pathogen Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici , was largely eradicated in Western Europe during the mid-to-late twentieth century. However, isolated outbreaks have occurred in recent years. Here we investigate whether a lack of resistance in modern European varieties, increased presence of its alternate host barberry and changes in climatic conditions could be facilitating its resurgence. We report the first wheat stem rust occurrence in the United Kingdom in nearly 60 years, with only 20% of UK wheat varieties resistant to this strain...
2018: Communications Biology
Rafael Della Coletta, Candice N Hirsch, Matthew N Rouse, Aaron Lorenz, David F Garvin
The emergence of new races of Puccinia graminis f.sp. tritici (Pgt), the causal pathogen of wheat stem rust, has spurred interest in developing durable resistance to this disease in wheat. Nonhost resistance holds promise to help control this and other diseases because it is durable against non-adapted pathogens. However, the genetic and molecular basis of nonhost resistance to wheat stem rust is poorly understood. In this study, the model grass Brachypodium distachyon (Brachypodium), a nonhost of Pgt, was used to genetically dissect nonhost resistance to wheat stem rust...
September 27, 2018: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
Botma Visser, Marcel Meyer, Robert F Park, Christopher Gilligan, Laura Burgin, Matthew C Hort, David Hodson, Zacharias A Pretorius
The Australian wheat stem rust (Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici) population was shaped by the introduction of four exotic incursions into the country. It was previously hypothesized that at least two of these (races 326-1,2,3,5,6 and 194-1,2,3,5,6 first detected in 1969) had an African origin and moved across the Indian Ocean to Australia on high-altitude winds. We provide strong supportive evidence for this hypothesis by combining genetic analyses and complex atmospheric dispersion modelling. Genetic analysis of 29 Australian and South African P...
July 20, 2018: Phytopathology
Paul D Peterson
The Barberry Eradication Program was an unprecedented federal and state cooperative plant disease control campaign between 1918 and the late 1970s to remove common barberry ( Berberis vulgaris), the alternate host of Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici, from the major centers of wheat production in the United States. Eradication of barberry has been credited with helping to reduce stem rust of wheat to a minor problem in the United States by the end of the campaign. The Barberry Eradication Program has also been viewed as a model for successful eradication based on its robust leadership, effective publicity and public cooperation, forceful quarantine laws, and adaptive eradication methods and procedures employed in its field operations...
August 25, 2018: Annual Review of Phytopathology
Xiaofeng Xu, Depeng Yuan, Dandan Li, Yue Gao, Ziyuan Wang, Yang Liu, Siting Wang, Yuanhu Xuan, Hui Zhao, Tianya Li, Yuanhua Wu
Wheat stem rust caused by Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici Eriks. & E. Henn. ( Pgt ), is a major disease that has been effectively controlled using resistance genes. The appearance and spread of Pgt races such as Ug99, TKTTF, and TTTTF, which are virulent to most stem rust-resistant genes currently deployed in wheat breeding programs, renewed the interest in breeding cultivars resistant to wheat stem rust. It is therefore important to investigate the levels of resistance or vulnerability of wheat cultivars to Pgt races...
2018: PeerJ
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