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Electrophysiological monitoring

Dimitrios Poulikakos, Katerina Hnatkova, Sofia Skampardoni, Darren Green, Philip Kalra, Marek Malik
Sudden Cardiac Death (SCD) is the leading cause of cardiovascular death in dialysis patients. This review discusses potential underlying arrhythmic mechanisms of SCD in the dialysis population. It examines recent evidence from studies using implantable loop recorders and from electrophysiological studies in experimental animal models of chronic kidney disease. The review summarizes advances in the field of non-invasive electrophysiology for risk prediction in dialysis patients focusing on the predictive value of the QRS-T angle and of the assessments of autonomic imbalance by means of heart rate variability analysis...
2019: Frontiers in Physiology
Daichi Konno, Ryota Nakayama, Makoto Tsunoda, Takashi Funatsu, Yuji Ikegaya, Takuya Sasaki
Bridging accumulating insights from microscopic and macroscopic studies in neuroscience research requires monitoring of neuronal population dynamics and quantifying specific molecules or genes from the brain of identical animals. To this end, by minimizing the size and weight of an electrode array, we developed a method that records local field potential signals of multiple brain regions from one side of the hemisphere in a freely moving rodent. At the same time, extracellular cerebrospinal fluid for biochemical assays or a small part of brain tissue samples for gene expression assays are collected from the other side of the hemisphere...
February 27, 2019: Journal of Pharmacological Sciences
Erica Zeglio, Alexandra L Rutz, Thomas E Winkler, George G Malliaras, Anna Herland
The field of organic bioelectronics is advancing rapidly in the development of materials and devices to precisely monitor and control biological signals. Electronics and biology can interact on multiple levels: organs, complex tissues, cells, cell membranes, proteins, and even small molecules. Compared to traditional electronic materials such as metals and inorganic semiconductors, conjugated polymers (CPs) have several key advantages for biological interactions: tunable physiochemical properties, adjustable form factors, and mixed conductivity (ionic and electronic)...
March 12, 2019: Advanced Materials
Jinxin V Pei, Sabrina Heng, Michael L De Ieso, Georgina M Sylvia, Mohamad Kourghi, Saeed Nourmohammadi, Andrew D Abell, Andrea J Yool
Work here is the first to use a newly designed Li+ -selective photoswitchable probe ('SHL') in living colon cancer cells to non-invasively monitor cation channel activity in real time by the appearance of lithium hot spots, detected by confocal microscopy. Punctate Li+ hot spots are clustered in the lamellipodial leading edges of HT29 human colon cancer cells, co-localized with aquaporin-1 (AQP1) channels. AQP1 is a dual water and cyclic-nucleotide-gated cation channel, located in lamellipodia and essential for rapid cell migration in a subset of aggressive cancers...
March 11, 2019: Molecular Pharmacology
Jie Huang, Yuan-Quan Li, Cui-Hong Wu, Yun-Long Zhang, Shen-Ting Zhao, Yong-Jun Chen, Yu-Hong Deng, Aiguo Xuan, Xiang-Dong Sun
INTRODUCTION: Beyond its application as an epilepsy therapy, the ketogenic diet (KD) has been considered a potential treatment for a variety of other neurological and metabolic disorders. However, whether KD promotes functional restoration by reducing the pathological processes underlying individual diseases or through some independent mechanisms is not clear. METHODS: In this study, we evaluated the effect of KD on a series of behaviors and synaptic functions of young adult naive mice...
March 7, 2019: Brain and Behavior
Elizabeth Smith, Joshua E Porterfield, Rangaramanujam M Kannan
Nanotechnology has the potential to open many novel diagnostic and treatment avenues for disorders of the central nervous system (CNS). In this review, we discuss recent developments in the applications of nanotechnology in CNS therapies, diagnosis and biology. Novel approaches for the diagnosis and treatment of neuroinflammation, brain dysfunction, psychiatric conditions, brain cancer, and nerve injury provide insights into the potential of nanomedicine. We also highlight nanotechnology-enabled neuroscience techniques such as electrophysiology and intracellular sampling to improve our understanding of the brain and its components...
March 4, 2019: Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews
Liwen Jiang, Dongqing Ma, Blair D Grubb, Minyan Wang
OBJECTIVES: The transient receptor potential ankyrin A 1 (TRPA1) channel and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) are targets for migraine prophylaxis. This study aimed to understand their mechanisms in migraine by investigating the role of TRPA1 in cortical spreading depression (CSD) in vivo and exploring how reactive oxygen species (ROS)/TRPA1/CGRP interplay in regulating cortical susceptibility to CSD. METHODS: Immunohistochemistry was used for detecting TRPA1 expression...
March 6, 2019: Journal of Headache and Pain
Ulisse Bocchero, Beatrice M Tam, Colette N Chiu, Vincent Torre, Orson L Moritz
Purpose: The rhodopsin mutation P23H is responsible for a significant portion of autosomal-dominant retinitis pigmentosa, a disorder characterized by rod photoreceptor death. The mechanisms of toxicity remain unclear; previous studies implicate destabilization of P23H rhodopsin during light exposure, causing decreased endoplasmic reticulum (ER) exit and ER stress responses. Here, we probed phototransduction in Xenopus laevis rods expressing bovine P23H rhodopsin, in which retinal degeneration is inducible by light exposure, in order to examine early physiological changes that occur during retinal degeneration...
March 1, 2019: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Yana Yunusova, Emily K Plowman, Jordan R Green, Carolina Barnett, Peter Bede
Bulbar impairment represents a hallmark feature of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) that significantly impacts survival and quality of life. Speech and swallowing dysfunction are key contributors to the clinical heterogeneity of ALS and require well-timed and carefully coordinated interventions. The accurate clinical, radiological and electrophysiological assessment of bulbar dysfunction in ALS is one of the most multidisciplinary aspects of ALS care, requiring expert input from speech-language pathologists (SLPs), neurologists, otolaryngologists, augmentative alternative communication (AAC) specialists, dieticians, and electrophysiologists-each with their own evaluation strategies and assessment tools...
2019: Frontiers in Neurology
Dario A Dornbierer, Michael Kometer, Robin Von Rotz, Erich Studerus, Jürg Gertsch, M Salomé Gachet, Franz X Vollenweider, Erich Seifritz, Oliver G Bosch, Boris B Quednow
Performance and conflict monitoring (PM and CM) represent two essential cognitive abilities, required to respond appropriately to demanding tasks. PM and CM can be investigated using event-related brain potentials (ERP) and associated neural oscillations. Namely, the error-related negativity (ERN) represents a correlate of PM, whereas the N2 component reflects the process of CM. Both ERPs originate in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and PM specifically has been shown to be susceptible to gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) A receptor activation...
February 26, 2019: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
Sebastián Gacio
Seizures in the newborn are associated with high morbidity and mortality, making their detection and treatment critical. Seizure activity in neonates is often clinically obscured, such that detection of seizures is particularly challenging. Amplitude-integrated EEG is a technique for simplified EEG monitoring that has found an increasing clinical application in neonatal intensive care. Its main value lies in the relative simplicity of interpretation, allowing nonspecialist members of the care team to engage in real-time detection of electrographic seizures...
February 2019: Arquivos de Neuro-psiquiatria
Jongmin Hwang, Jun Kim, Kee Joon Choi, Min Soo Cho, Gi Byoung Nam, You Ho Kim
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Wrist-worn wearable devices provide heart rate (HR) monitoring function via photoplethysmography technology. Recently, these devices have been used by patients to measure the HR when palpitation occurs, but few validation studies of these instruments have been conducted. We assessed the accuracy of these devices for measuring a HR. METHODS: This study enrolled 51 consecutive patients with a history of paroxysmal supraventricular tachyarrhythmia (SVT) or paroxysmal palpitations who were scheduled to undergo an electrophysiological study (EPS)...
February 11, 2019: Korean Circulation Journal
Raman Bhakhri, William H Ridder, Sean Adrean
SIGNIFICANCE: Although rare, vitamin A retinopathy should be considered by the clinicians in their differentials for conditions that can lead to nyctalopia, especially in those patients who have undergone bariatric surgery. Patients must be educated on this potential delayed adverse effect of the surgery and possible lifelong vitamin A supplementation. PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to report a rare case of delayed vitamin A retinopathy that occurred because of vitamin A malabsorption secondary to bariatric surgery...
February 20, 2019: Optometry and Vision Science: Official Publication of the American Academy of Optometry
Che-Wei Wu, Tzu-Yen Huang, Hui-Chun Chen, Hsiu-Ya Chen, Tsung-Yi Tsai, Pi-Ying Chang, Yi-Chu Lin, Hsin-Yi Tseng, Pao-Chu Hun, Xiaoli Liu, Hui Sun, Gregory W Randolph, Gianlorenzo Dionigi, Feng-Yu Chiang, I-Cheng Lu
Intraoperative injury to the recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN) can cause vocal cord paralysis, which interferes with speech and can potentially interfere with breathing. In recent years, intraoperative neural monitoring (IONM) has been widely adapted as an adjunct technique to localize the RLN, detect RLN injury, and predict vocal cord function during the operations. Many studies have also used animal models to investigate new applications of IONM technology and to develop reliable strategies for preventing intraoperative RLN injury...
February 11, 2019: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Mayur J Patil, Sonya Meeker, Diana Bautista, Xinzhong Dong, Bradley J Undem
KEY POINTS: Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) strongly activates mouse vagal C-fibres in the airways. Airway-specific nodose and jugular C-fibre neurons express mRNA coding for the S1P receptor S1PR3. S1P activation of nodose C-fibres is inhibited by a S1PR3 antagonist. S1P activation of nodose C-fibres does not occur in S1PR3 knockout mice. ABSTRACT: We evaluated the effect of sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P), a lipid that is elevated during airway inflammatory conditions like asthma, for its ability to stimulate vagal afferent C-fibres in mouse lungs...
February 21, 2019: Journal of Physiology
David R Howell, Gregory D Myer, Anna Brilliant, Kim Barber Foss, William P Meehan
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate recovery trajectories among youth athletes with a concussion and healthy controls across different domains using a quantitative and multifaceted protocol. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective repeated measures. PARTICIPANTS: Youth athletes diagnosed with a concussion between the ages of 8 and 18 years were evaluated (1) within 10 days after injury, (2) approximately 3 weeks after injury, and (3) after return-to-play clearance. Control participants completed the same protocol...
February 11, 2019: Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine: Official Journal of the Canadian Academy of Sport Medicine
Christian Schneider, Alina Sprenger, Kilian Weiss, Karin Slebocki, David Maintz, Gereon R Fink, Tobias D Henning, Helmar C Lehmann, Thorsten Lichtenstein
BACKGROUND: Diagnosis and disease monitoring of non-systemic vasculitic neuropathy (NSVN) are based on electrophysiological and clinical measures. However, these methods are insensitive to detect subtle differences of axonal injury. We here assessed the utility of a multiparametric MRI protocol to quantify axonal injury and neurogenic muscle damage in NSVN. METHODS: Ten NSVN patients and ten age-matched controls were investigated in this single-center prospective study...
February 14, 2019: Journal of Neurology
Niranchan Paskaranandavadivel, Timothy R Angeli, Tabitha Manson, Abigail Stocker, Lindsay McElmurray, Greg O'Grady, Thomas Abell, Leo K Cheng
Bioelectrial signals known as slow waves play a key role in coordinating gastric motility. Slow wave dysrhythmias have been associated with a number of functional motility disorders. However, there have been limited human recordings obtained in the consious state or over an extended period of time. This study aimed to evaluate a robust ambulatory recording platform.
 Approach: A commercially available multi-sensor recording system (Shimmer 3, ShimmerSensing) was applied to acquire slow wave information from the stomach of six humans and four pigs...
February 12, 2019: Physiological Measurement
Khalid I W Kane, Edinson Lucumi Moreno, Siham Hachi, Moriz Walter, Javier Jarazo, Miguel A P Oliveira, Thomas Hankemeier, Paul Vulto, Jens C Schwamborn, Martin Thoma, Ronan M T Fleming
Parkinson's disease is a slowly progressive neurodegenerative disease characterised by dysfunction and death of selectively vulnerable midbrain dopaminergic neurons and the development of human in vitro cellular models of the disease is a major challenge in Parkinson's disease research. We constructed an automated cell culture platform optimised for long-term maintenance and monitoring of different cells in three dimensional microfluidic cell culture devices. The system can be flexibly adapted to various experimental protocols and features time-lapse imaging microscopy for quality control and electrophysiology monitoring to assess cellular activity...
February 11, 2019: Scientific Reports
Yusra Mansour, Kaitlyn Blackburn, Luis Oscar González-González, Lilian Calderón-Garcidueñas, Randy J Kulesza
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a biological construct defined by abnormal deposits of hyperphosphorylated tau and amyloid-β. The 2050 projection for AD in the USA is 14 million. There is a strong association between AD, air pollution, and traffic. Early diagnosis is imperative for intervention in the initial disease stages. Hearing and, specifically, the ability to encode complex sounds are impaired in AD. Nuclei in the auditory brainstem appear to be sensitive to neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative disorders...
2019: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
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