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duration of the antibiotic period

Claudio Andaloro, Maria Santagati, Stefania Stefani, Ignazio La Mantia
PURPOSE: Group A beta-hemolytic Streptococcus (GABHS) causes a recurrent acute pharyngotonsillitis (RAPT) in children. Moreover, the repeated use of antibiotics contributes to its resistance. However, S. Salivarius 24SMB and S. oralis 89a were effective probiotics in other infections. Thus, we decided to evaluate this combination efficacy compared to placebo in RAPT. METHODS: Patients with microbiologically confirmed GABHS were enrolled in this randomized, placebo-controlled trial...
February 15, 2019: European Archives of Oto-rhino-laryngology
Radoslaw Jaworski, Andrzej Kansy, Katarzyna Dzierzanowska-Fangrat, Bohdan Maruszewski
BACKGROUND: Prophylactic antibiotic therapy is given routinely in the peri-operative period to prevent surgical site infection. However, in pediatric cardiac surgery, an optimal schedule has not been defined. Pediatric recommendations follow the guidelines for adults, which might be improper because of the inherent challenges in pediatric research and the heterogeneity of the population. Implementation of an effective prophylaxis protocol is needed for children undergoing cardiac surgery, especially in view of worldwide antibiotic overuse and the development of drug resistance...
February 14, 2019: Surgical Infections
Omar H Ahmed, Dylan F Roden, Yasmina C Ahmed, Binhuan Wang, Cherie-Ann O Nathan, David Myssiorek
OBJECTIVES: Standards of care for total laryngectomy (TL) patients in the postoperative period have not been established. Perioperative care remains highly variable and perhaps primarily anecdotally based. The aim of this study was to survey members of the American Head and Neck Society to capture management practices in the perioperative care of TL patients. METHODS: In this survey study, an electronic survey was distributed to the international attending physician body of the American Head and Neck Society...
February 13, 2019: Annals of Otology, Rhinology, and Laryngology
David W Jang, Cecily Abraham, Derek D Cyr, Kristine Schulz, Ralph Abi Hachem, David L Witsell
BACKGROUND: In-office balloon sinus dilation (BSD) has recently gained popularity as a surgical treatment option for chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS). However, utilization, indications, and practice patterns surrounding in-office BSD remain unclear. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to use a large national administrative database to assess preoperative management of CRS prior to in-office BSD. METHODS: Patients undergoing standalone in-office BSD from 2011 to 2014 were identified on MarketScan and compared to a control group undergoing functional endoscopic sinus surgery (FESS)...
February 7, 2019: American Journal of Rhinology & Allergy
Steven L Shein, Michele Kong, Bryan McKee, MaryAnn O'Riordan, Philip Toltzis, Adrienne G Randolph
OBJECTIVES: To describe antibiotic prescribing practices during the first 2 days of mechanical ventilation among previously healthy young children with respiratory syncytial virus-associated lower respiratory tract infection and evaluate associations between the prescription of antibiotics at onset of mechanical ventilation with clinical outcomes. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING: Forty-six children's hospitals in the United States...
February 2019: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
S N Avdeev, N V Truschenko, V V Gaynitdinova, A K Soe, G S Nuralieva
AIM: To assess the quality of medical care provided in large Russian hospitals to patients with COPD exacerbation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study included patients with acute exacerbations of COPD hospitalized into three large clinical hospitals in Moscow. The diagnosis of "COPD exacerbation" was established in accordance with current clinical recommendations. We collected the data about patients' demography, clinical signs and symptoms, blood gas analysis, chest radiography, drug therapy, oxygen therapy and respiratory support...
December 30, 2018: Terapevticheskiĭ Arkhiv
Aliakbar Rahbarimanesh, Sayed Yousef Mojtahedi, Payman Sadeghi, Maryam Ghodsi, Sara Kianfar, Leila Khedmat, Saeedreza Jamali Moghadam Siyahkali, Mohammad Kaji Yazdi, Anahita Izadi
BACKGROUND: Antimicrobial stewardship program (ASP) is a distinguished method to improve the prescription and efficacy of antibiotics. AIM: The efficacy of ASP and conventional methods was compared to measure the effectiveness of meropenem (MPM) and vancomycin (VMN) antibiotics in pediatric patients. DESIGN: In an interventional quasi-experimental study, 135 children admitted in Children's Hospital affiliated to University of Medical Sciences in time periods of 2014-2015 and 2015-2016 were assessed...
January 29, 2019: Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials
Konstantina Kontopoulou, Elias Iosifidis, Eleni Antoniadou, Polychronis Tasioudis, Efthymia Petinaki, Ergina Malli, Symeon Metallidis, Alkiviadis Vatopoulos, Nicolaos Malisiovas
PURPOSE: To highlight the clinical significance of carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (CRKP) rectal colonization by examining the risk factors for CRKP rectal colonization and subsequent bloodstream infection (BSI) in critically ill patients. METHODOLOGY: Prospective study of CRKP rectal colonization in an intensive care unit (ICU) during a 39-month period. CRKP strains isolated from both the blood cultures and corresponding rectal specimens (n=96) of patients were screened by PCR for the presence of antibiotic resistance-associated genes...
January 28, 2019: Journal of Medical Microbiology
Jay Menaker, Samuel Galvagno, Ronald Rabinowitz, Vesselin Penchev, Allison Hollis, Zachary Kon, Kristopher Deatrick, Anthony Amoroso, Daniel Herr, Michael Mazzeffi
PURPOSE: The purpose of our study was to characterize the epidemiology of blood stream infection (BSI) in adult extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) patients at a single tertiary care academic medical center with standardized post-cannulation antibiotic prophylaxis practices. METHODS: A single-center retrospective cohort study was performed over a five-year period. BSI incidence was characterized and patients who developed BSI during ECMO were compared with those who did not...
January 24, 2019: Heart & Lung: the Journal of Critical Care
Salih Çağrı Çakır, Solmaz Çelebi, Hilal Özkan, Nilgün Köksal, Bayram Ali Dorum, Edanur Yeşil, Mustafa Hacımustafaoğlu
Invasive candidiasis is a common and serious infection in premature newborns. Preventing and treating fungal infections is very important to improve the prognosis of premature infants. Fluconazole and amphotericin B are used as the first choice in the treatment of invasive fungal infections of the newborns. In some cases, fluconazole and amphotericin B cannot be used due to nephrotoxicity, hepatotoxicity or resistant strains. Micafungin, which is among recently developed echinocandins, is the drug of choice in these cases...
January 2019: Mikrobiyoloji Bülteni
Kengo Ohashi, Tomoko Matsuoka, Yasutaka Shinoda, Takayuki Mori, Shinya Yoshida, Tomoaki Yoshimura, Tadashi Sugiyama
Prospective audit with intervention and feedback (PAF) and preauthorisation of antimicrobials are core strategies for antimicrobial stewardship (AS). PAF participants were expanded from patients using specific antibiotics to those using whole injectable antibiotics to evaluate clinical outcome. From January 2016 to December 2016, PAF was performed in patients using specific antibiotics (period 1) and from January 2017 to December 2017, PAF was performed in patients using whole injectable antibiotics (period 2)...
January 24, 2019: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
Daniele Donà, Dora Luise, Enrico La Pergola, Genni Montemezzo, Annachiara Frigo, Rebecca Lundin, Theoklis Zaoutis, Piergiorgio Gamba, Carlo Giaquinto
Purpose: This study aims to determine the effectiveness of an Antimicrobial Stewardship Program based on a Clinical Pathway (CP) to improve appropriateness in perioperative antibiotic prophylaxis (PAP). Materials and methods: This pre-post quasi-experimental study was conducted in a 12 month period (six months before and six months after CP implementation), in a tertiary Pediatric Surgical Centre. All patients from 1 month to 15 years of age receiving one or more surgical procedures were eligible for inclusion...
2019: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
Manijeh Kahbazi, Mojtaba Sharafkhah, Parsa Yousefichaijan, Hassan Taherahmadi, Mohammad Rafiei, Parisa Kaviani, Sahand Abaszadeh, Ali Massoudifar, Abolfazl Mohammadbeigi
INTRODUCTION: It is believed that tubulointerstitial inflammation plays a role in the formation of renal scarring secondary to acute pyelonephritis (APN). Vitamin A is an anti-inflammatory agent that is involved in the re-epithelialization of damaged mucosal surfaces. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of vitamin A supplementation in combination with antibiotics for improving urinary tract infections (UTIs) symptoms and preventing renal scarring in girls with APN...
February 2019: Complementary Therapies in Medicine
Yvonne Wang, Rohini Rao, Deborah S Jacobs, Hajirah N Saeed
PURPOSE: To report the outcomes of Prosthetic Replacement of the Ocular Surface Ecosystem (PROSE) treatment in pediatric patients with chronic ocular surface disease associated with Stevens-Johnson syndrome/toxic epidermal necrolysis (SJS/TEN). DESIGN: Retrospective, interventional case series METHODS: Patients ages 18 or younger seen in consultation for PROSE treatment at a single center between January 1992 and December 2016 with a history of SJS/TEN were reviewed...
January 18, 2019: American Journal of Ophthalmology
Dustin D Flannery, Rachael K Ross, Sagori Mukhopadhyay, Alison C Tribble, Karen M Puopolo, Jeffrey S Gerber
Importance: Premature infants are frequently administered empirical antibiotic therapy at birth. Early and prolonged antibiotic exposures among infants without culture-confirmed infection have been associated with increased risk of adverse outcomes. Objective: To examine early antibiotic use among premature infants over time and across hospitals in the United States. Design, Setting, and Participants: This retrospective cohort study used a comprehensive administrative database of inpatient encounters from 297 academic and community hospitals across the United States to examine data concerning very low-birth-weight (VLBW) infants (<1500 g), including extremely low-birth-weight (ELBW) infants (<1000 g), who were admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit and survived for at least 1 day...
May 18, 2018: JAMA network open
Chung-Yen Huang, Ronan W Hsieh, Hung-Teng Yen, Tzu-Chun Hsu, Chun-Yu Chen, Yee-Chun Chen, Chien-Chang Lee
Current practice of long-term antibiotic use in patients with osteomyelitis is controversial. Recent studies showed short-term antibiotic use to be non-inferior to long-term use, but the results of these studies have been inconsistent. In this review, the PubMed and Embase databases were searched from inception through to June 2018 for randomised controlled trials (RCTs), cohort studies or case-control studies comparing two different durations of antibiotic use. Short antibiotic courses were defined as antibiotics administered for a shorter period than the recommended 4-6 weeks...
January 10, 2019: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
Maddalena Giannella, Renato Pascale, Giuseppe Ferraro, Alice Toschi, Livia Pancaldi, Francesca Furii, Michele Bartoletti, Sara Tedeschi, Simone Ambretti, Russell Edward Lewis, Pierluigi Viale
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the risk factors for treatment failure in patients receiving in vitro active therapy with betalactam/betalactamase inhibitor (BL/BLI) for Enterobacteriaceae bloodstream infection (E-BSI). METHODS: Retrospective single-centre study of patients diagnosed with E-BSI at our centre over 4-year period. EXCLUSION CRITERIA: age <18 years, clinical data not available, polymicrobial BSI, failure to receive in vitro active therapy, death within 72 hours from drawing index blood cultures...
January 9, 2019: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
Frederic S Zimmerman, Marc V Assous, Shoshana Zevin, Yonit Wiener-Well
OBJECTIVES: False positive blood cultures result from contamination, consuming laboratory resources and causing unnecessary antibiotic treatment and prolonged hospital stay. Skin disinfection reduces contamination; however, bacteria colonizing human skin are also found in tissues deep into the skin surface. A diversion device diverts the initial 1-2 mL of blood to remove any potentially contaminated skin plug. This study investigates the effect of the device on culture contamination in hospitalized patients...
January 10, 2019: American Journal of Infection Control
Najoua El Helali, Fakher Habibi, Elie Azria, Yves Giovangrandi, Fanny Autret, Isabelle Durand-Zaleski, Alban Le Monnier
OBJECTIVE: To assess outcomes and costs associated with around-the-clock point-of-care intrapartum group B streptococcus (GBS) polymerase chain reaction (PCR) screening. METHODS: Intrapartum PCR screening was implemented in 2010. Intrapartum PCR was compared with antenatal culture screening in an uncontrolled, single institution, preintervention and postintervention study. The study periods included 4 years before and 6 years after the intervention, commencing in 2006 and concluding in 2015...
January 8, 2019: Obstetrics and Gynecology
Leltework Yismaw, Kassahun Alemu, Abebaw Addis, Muluneh Alene
BACKGROUND: Obstetric fistula is an abnormal connection between the vagina and rectum and/or bladder, which leads to continuous urinary or fecal incontinence. It is a serious problem in the world poorest countries, where most mothers give birth without any medical care. In most cases obstetric fistula is preventable and can be treated successfully, if it is carried out by a competent surgeon with a good follow-up of postoperative care. However, there remains to explore more on the duration of obstetric fistula recovery and determinant factors...
January 7, 2019: BMC Women's Health
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