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Antibiotic time

Abrar F Alhameed, Sara Al Khansa, Hani Hasan, Sherine Ismail, Mohammed Aseeri
Many hospitals face barriers in the implementation of TDM services, this study aimed to evaluate a pharmacist-led TDM service to optimize patients' outcomes. Adult patients who were administered vancomycin, gentamicin, or amikacin were included. The pre-phase included a retrospective assessment of patients and the intervention phase consisted of an educational program. The post-phase assessed patients based on TDM services provided by inpatient pharmacists on a 24-h, 7-day basis for 3 months. The primary outcome was to assess the mean difference in proportion of correct initial doses of prescribing orders...
February 18, 2019: Pharmacy (Basel, Switzerland)
Paweł Krzyżek, Roman Franiczek, Barbara Krzyżanowska, Łukasz Łaczmański, Paweł Migdał, Grażyna Gościniak
Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is a bacterium capable of inducing chronic active gastritis, which in some people, develops into gastric cancers. One of the substances that may be useful in the eradication of this microorganism is 3-Bromopyruvate (3-BP), an anticancer compound with antimicrobial properties. The aim of this article was to determine the activity of 3-BP against antibiotic-susceptible and antibiotic-resistant H. pylori strains. The antimicrobial activity was determined using a disk-diffusion method, broth microdilution method, time-killing assay, and checkerboard assay...
February 15, 2019: Cancers
Inga Fröding, John Karlsson Valik, Ludvig Bolinder, Pontus Nauclér, Christian G Giske
BACKGROUND: In severe infections, time to appropriate therapy is decisive for survival. Patients with bloodstream infection with extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Enterobacterales (EPE BSI) often receive inadequate empiric treatment. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to identify risk factors, evaluate a previously suggested risk score, and suggest a new score for facilitating empiric treatment choice. METHODS: We assessed predictors for EPE BSI through a retrospective case-control design, and evaluated diagnostic performance of the two scores...
February 16, 2019: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
Ithan D Peltan, Samuel M Brown, Joseph R Bledsoe, Jeffrey Sorensen, Matthew H Samore, Todd L Allen, Catherine L Hough
BACKGROUND: The impact of antibiotic timing on sepsis outcomes remains controversial due to conflicting results in prior studies. This study investigated the association of door-to-antibiotic time with long-term mortality in emergency department (ED) patients with sepsis. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study included non-trauma adult ED patients with clinical sepsis admitted to four hospitals from 2013 to 2017. Only patients' first eligible encounter was included...
February 16, 2019: Chest
Alaa Elkordy, Sherif Rashad, Heba Shehabeldeen, Eikan Mishima, Kuniyasu Niizuma, Takaaki Abe, Teiji Tominaga
The disruption of appropriate cellular stress responses is implicated in the pathogenesis of different neurological disorders including ischemic injury. Early diagnosis and treatment are often associated with better prognosis in ischemic stroke patients. Thus, there is an urgent need to improve the speed and accuracy of stroke diagnosis by developing highly sensitive stroke biomarkers. We recently reported that transfer RNA (tRNA) was involved in cell stress response pathways. Under cell stress conditions, mature tRNA is cleaved by a specific ribonuclease, angiogenin, generating tRNA-derived stress-induced RNA (tiRNA)...
February 16, 2019: Brain Research
Daniel P O'Brien, Adrian Murrie, Peter Meggyesy, Jonathan Priestley, Avinash Rajcoomar, Eugene Athan
BACKGROUND: Mycobacterium ulcerans causes necrotising infections of skin and soft tissue mediated by the polyketide exotoxin mycolactone that causes cell apoptosis and immune suppression. It has been postulated that infection can be eradicated before the development of clinical lesions but spontaneous resolution of clinical lesions has been rarely described. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We report a case series of five Australian patients who achieved healing of small M...
February 19, 2019: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Kristina Laugesen, Irene Petersen, Henrik Toft Sørensen, Jens Otto Lunde Jørgensen
BACKGROUND: Biochemical adrenal insufficiency induced by glucocorticoid treatment is prevalent, but data on the clinical implications are sparse. We investigated clinical consequences of glucocorticoid-induced adrenal insufficiency after oral glucocorticoid cessation. METHODS: We conducted a Danish population-based self-controlled case series utilizing medical registries. In this design each individual serves as their own control allowing event rates to be compared as a function of time and treatment...
2019: PloS One
Luis-Amando García Gonzalez, Federico Arrutia
INTRODUCTION: Recurrent tonsillitis in adults is a common ENT disease. The current standard treatment is tonsillectomy. However, continuous prophylaxis with antibiotics has been prescribed in order to avoid tonsillectomy. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to evaluate if the bacterial immunotherapy (Bactek MV130) together with the prophylactic antibiotic therapy can produce clinical improvement and to avoid the tonsillectomy Material and methods: The medical records of 88 patients with recurrent tonsillitis were reviewed...
February 19, 2019: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
Frederic D Schramm, Kristen Schroeder, Jonatan Alvelid, Ilaria Testa, Kristina Jonas
All living cells must cope with protein aggregation, which occurs as a result of experiencing stress. In previously studied bacteria, aggregated protein collects at the cell poles and is retained throughout consecutive cell divisions only in old pole-inheriting daughter cells, resulting in aggregation-free progeny within a few generations. In this study we describe the in vivo kinetics of aggregate formation and elimination following heat and antibiotic stress in the asymmetrically dividing bacterium Caulobacter crescentus...
February 19, 2019: Molecular Microbiology
Ruben Scholten, Wout Füssenich, Matthijs P Somford, Job L C van Susante
INTRODUCTION: Hardware removal preceding total hip arthroplasty may increase the risk of prosthetic joint infection (PJI). Whether hardware removal and total hip arthroplasty (THA) should be performed in a single- or two-stage procedure remains controversial. In this comparative retrospective study, the incidence of PJI following either single- or two-stage THA with hardware removal was assessed in a consecutive series. PATIENTS AND METHODS: All patients that underwent THA preceded by hardware removal from January 2006 until March 2018 were retrospectively reviewed and checked for the occurrence of early PJI...
February 18, 2019: Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery
Qingqing Liu, Jin Yang, Jun Zhang, Fanfan Zhao, Xiaojie Feng, Xue Wang, Jun Lyu
Background: Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is a common and serious nosocomial infection of intensive-care units (ICUs). Accurate, timely diagnosis enables early VAP patients to receive appropriate therapies and reduce the occurrence of complication. However, so far clinical datas regarding the epidemiology and mortality of VAP are still limited. Medical Information Mart for Intensive Care (MIMIC) database is a free, open and public resource about ICU research database. MIMIC database is a free, open, public database that collects information on more than 40,000 ICU patients who are predominantly white people...
2019: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Christoph F Dietrich, Paolo Giorgio Arcidiacono, Barbara Braden, Sean Burmeister, Silvia Carrara, Xinwu Cui, Milena Di Leo, Yi Dong, Pietro Fusaroli, Odd Helge Gilja, Andrew J Healey, Michael Hocke, Stephan Hollerbach, Julio Iglesias Garcia, André Ignee, Christian Jürgensen, Michel Kahaleh, Masayuki Kitano, Rastislav Kunda, Alberto Larghi, Kathleen Möller, Bertrand Napoleon, Kofi W Oppong, Maria Chiara Petrone, Adrian Saftoiu, Rajesh Puri, Anand V Sahai, Erwin Santo, Malay Sharma, Assaad Soweid, Siyu Sun, Anthony Yuen Bun Teoh, Peter Vilmann, Christian Jenssen
Direct referral of patients for EUS - instead of preprocedural consultation with the endosonographer - has become standard practice (like for other endoscopic procedures) as it is time- and cost-effective. To ensure appropriate indications and safe examinations, the endosonographer should carefully consider what information is needed before accepting the referral. This includes important clinical data regarding relevant comorbidities, the fitness of the patient to consent and undergo the procedure, and the anticoagulation status...
January 2019: Endoscopic Ultrasound
Vincent J Cascone, Rose S Cohen, Nicholas P Dodson, Chad M Cannon
BACKGROUND: Previous research has illustrated the importance of collection of microbiologic cultures prior to first antimicrobial dose (FAD) in septic patients to avoid sterilization of pathogens and thus allowing confirmation of infection, identification of pathogen(s), and de-escalation of antimicrobial therapy. There is currently a lack of literature characterizing the implications and clinical courses of patients who have cultures collected after FAD. METHODS: In this single-center, retrospective chart review of 163 sepsis cases in the emergency department, the primary outcome was positive-cultures from appropriate sources...
February 13, 2019: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
Lilly Cheng Immergluck, Traci Leong, Kevin Matthews, Khusdeep Malhotra, Trisha Chan Parker, Fatima Ali, Robert C Jerris, George S Rust
BACKGROUND: Community- associated methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) cause serious infections and rates continue to rise worldwide. Use of geocoded electronic health record (EHR) data to prevent spread of disease is limited in health service research. We demonstrate how geocoded EHR and spatial analyses can be used to identify risks for CA-MRSA in children, which are tied to place-based determinants and would not be uncovered using traditional EHR data analyses. METHODS: An epidemiology study was conducted on children from January 1, 2002 through December 31, 2010 who were treated for Staphylococcus aureus infections...
February 18, 2019: BMC Infectious Diseases
Se Jin Song, Douglas C Woodhams, Cameron Martino, Celeste Allaband, Andre Mu, Sandrine Javorschi-Miller-Montgomery, Jan S Suchodolski, Rob Knight
Considering the clear effects of microbiota on important aspects of animal biology and development (including in humans), this topic is timely and broadly appealing, as it compels us to consider the possibilities of altering the microbiome (without antibiotics) to positively affect animal health. In this review, we highlight three general approaches to manipulating the microbiome that have demonstrated success and promise for use in animal health. We also point out knowledge gaps where further inquiry would most benefit the field...
February 18, 2019: Experimental Biology and Medicine
Da Wei Thong, Jason Kim, Benjamin Dobson, Henry Cheung, Thomas Arthur
BACKGROUND: This study aims to establish compliance levels to prescription guidelines among Australian surgeons in the use of antibiotics in the surgical management of appendicitis. The secondary outcomes are predictors of post-operative infective complications; surgical site infection (SSI) and intra-abdominal abscess (IAA) at 30 days. METHODS: A multi-centre, prospective, observational study was conducted over a period of 2 months with a 30-day follow-up. Patients were eligible for recruitment if they underwent appendicectomy for suspected appendicitis...
February 18, 2019: ANZ Journal of Surgery
Jaewan Jung, Kyunghoon Lee, Jongwon Oh, Rihwa Choi, Hye In Woo, Hyung-Doo Park, Cheol-In Kang, Yae-Jean Kim, Soo-Youn Lee
Teicoplanin is a glycopeptide antibiotic used for treatment of severe Gram-positive bacterial infection. The aim of this study was to develop and validate a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method for therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) of teicoplanin and to review our clinical experience. We established an LC-MS/MS method to analyze serum concentration of teicoplanin using simple protein precipitation with a 5 min run time for each sample. The linearity, lower limit of quantitation, detection accuracy, precision, carryover, matrix effect, and extraction recovery were evaluated...
February 4, 2019: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
Katherine C Konvinse, Jason A Trubiano, Rebecca Pavlos, Ian James, Christian M Shaffer, Cosmin A Bejan, Ryan J Schutte, David A Ostrov, Mark A Pilkinton, Misha Rosenbach, Jeffrey P Zwerner, Kristina B Williams, Jack Bourke, Patricia Martinez, Francois Rwandamuriye, Abha Chopra, Mark Watson, Alec J Redwood, Katie D White, Simon A Mallal, Elizabeth J Phillips
BACKGROUND: Vancomycin is a prevalent cause of the severe hypersensitivity syndrome drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS) which leads to significant morbidity and mortality and commonly occurs in the setting of combination antibiotic therapy which impacts future treatment choices. Variations in human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I in particular have been associated with serious T-cell mediated adverse drug reactions which has led to preventive screening strategies for some drugs...
February 15, 2019: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Brittney N V Scott, Tina Sarkar, Rachel M Kratofil, Paul Kubes, Ajitha Thanabalasuriar
It has long been appreciated that understanding the interactions between the host and the pathogens that make us sick is critical for the prevention and treatment of disease. As antibiotics become increasingly ineffective, targeting the host and specific bacterial evasion mechanisms are becoming novel therapeutic approaches. The technology used to understand host-pathogen interactions has dramatically advanced over the last century. We have moved away from using simple in vitro assays focused on single-cell events to technologies that allow us to observe complex multicellular interactions in real time in live animals...
February 18, 2019: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
Leonardo Kurebayashi, Adauto Telino de Melo, Fernando Brandão Andrade-Silva, Kodi Edson Kojima, Jorge Dos Santos Silva
Objective: There is no consensus in the literature regarding the time taken to remove antibiotic spacers in the treatment of bone infections. The aim of this study is to evaluate the clinical results of patients with prolonged retention of the same. Methods: Patients selected were diagnosed with post-osteosynthesis infection and/or osteomyelitis and were submitted to treatment using an orthopedic cement spacer (polymethylmethacrylate) with vancomycin, retaining it for a period of more than 12 months...
January 2019: Acta Ortopedica Brasileira
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